Birth

Publisher: Wiley

Journal description

Birth: Issues in Perinatal Care is a multidisciplinary, refereed journal devoted to issues and practices in the care of childbearing women, infants, and families. It is written by and for professionals in maternal and neonatal health, nurses, midwives, physicians, public health workers, childbirth educators, lactation counselors, and other perinatal caregivers and policy makers.The aims of Birth areÖ To publish well-designed research in pregnancy and childbirth, from sophisticated advances in medicine to the parents' physical and emotional needs; To provide a timely and lively forum for current issues in maternal and newborn care and education; To underline the importance of evidence-based medicine in making effective changes in clinical practices.

Current impact factor: 2.05

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.048
2012 Impact Factor 2.926
2011 Impact Factor 2.182
2010 Impact Factor 1.821
2009 Impact Factor 1.919
2008 Impact Factor 2.836
2007 Impact Factor 2.217
2006 Impact Factor 2.058
2005 Impact Factor 1.836
2004 Impact Factor 1.981
2003 Impact Factor 1.709
2002 Impact Factor 1.424
2001 Impact Factor 0.917
2000 Impact Factor 1.25
1999 Impact Factor 0.915
1998 Impact Factor 1.164
1997 Impact Factor 0.907
1996 Impact Factor 0.763
1995 Impact Factor 0.814
1994 Impact Factor 0.857
1993 Impact Factor 1.137
1992 Impact Factor 0.536

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 3.16
Cited half-life 8.10
Immediacy index 0.15
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.89
Website Birth: Issues in Perinatal Care website
Other titles Birth (Berkeley, Calif.: Online), Birth
ISSN 1523-536X
OCLC 40695569
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Wiley

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • On author's personal website, institutional repositories, arXiv, AgEcon, PhilPapers, PubMed Central, RePEc or Social Science Research Network
    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
    • Author's pre-print must acknowledge acceptance for publication
    • On a non-profit server
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher source must be acknowledged with citation
    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Media interest in cesarean delivery has grown in recent years driven both by rising cesarean delivery rates and the decision by the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) to permit elective cesarean (EC) delivery. A content analysis of United States newspaper and magazine articles from 2000 to 2013 (n = 131 articles) was completed to understand how the news media portrays ECs. The majority of articles (71.8%) emphasized reasons to support women having an EC, while 38.2 percent of the articles exhibited themes of physician support for ECs. Relatively few articles mentioned reasons against ECs either from the women's perspective (11.5%) or the practitioners' (3.8%). The most common themes given for women choosing ECs were convenience/scheduling (48.9%), avoidance of pain or fear of labor (29.8%), and physical harm to women from vaginal birth (17.6%). Doctors' perspectives were less prevalent in the media than women's perspectives, but when mentioned they were almost exclusively in support of ECs for reasons including avoiding malpractice (28.2%), avoiding physical harm to the woman or baby (16.8%), and timing/scheduling (14.5%). Media coverage suggests ECs are widely accepted by both women and doctors, with women choosing an EC mainly for convenience/scheduling and fear. However, 43 percent of doctors surveyed by ACOG said they were not willing to perform the procedure, and surveys report that mothers rarely request an EC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Birth 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/birt.12161
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    ABSTRACT: External cephalic version (ECV) reduces the chance of breech presentation at term birth and lowers the chance of a cesarean delivery. ECV services are now in place in many units in the United Kingdom but their effectiveness is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the reasons for breech presentation at term birth. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 394 consecutive babies who were in breech presentation at term birth in a large United Kingdom maternity unit that offers ECV. The cohort was analyzed over two time periods 10 years apart: 1998-1999 and 2008-2009. Only 33.8 percent of women had undergone a (failed) ECV attempt. This low proportion was mainly because breech presentation was not diagnosed antenatally (27.9%). Other contributing factors were: ECV not offered by clinicians (12.2%), ECV declined by women (14%), and contraindications to ECV (10.7%). Over the 10-year period, the proportion of breech presentations that were not diagnosed antenatally increased from 23.2 to 32.5 percent (p = 0.04), which constituted 52.8 percent of women who had not undergone an ECV attempt in 2008-2009. Failure of clinicians to offer ECV reduced from 21.6 to 3.0 percent (p = 0.0001) and the proportion of women declining ECV decreased from 19.1 to 9.0 percent (p = 0.005). Overall, ECV attempts increased from 28.9 to 38.5 percent (p = 0.05). Although ECV counseling, referral, and attempt rates have increased, failure to detect breech presentation antenatally is the principal barrier to successful ECV. Improved breech detection would have a greater impact than methods to increase ECV success rates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Birth 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/birt.12162
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    ABSTRACT: The principal objective of our study was to describe the frequency of severe secondary postpartum hemorrhages (PPH). Our secondary objectives were to describe the different causes of PPH and to assess if the PPH etiologies varied by parity. This is a historical cohort study covering the period from January 1, 2004, through February 13, 2013, in a level III maternity ward. Women were eligible if they were treated for severe secondary PPH during their postpartum hospitalization or were admitted for it after discharge but before the 42nd day postpartum, regardless of the type of delivery. Women were excluded if they gave birth before 22 weeks of gestation or if they had experienced only an immediate PPH (≤ 24 hours after delivery). Eligible patients were identified by the hospital's administrative software. Primiparas and multiparas were compared with Student's t test and a chi-squared or Fisher's exact test. The incidence of severe secondary PPH was 0.23 percent (n = 60/26,023). The mean time between delivery and PPH onset was 13.4 ± 10.8 days. The women's mean age was 30.4 ± 5.7 years and their mean body mass index was 23.4 ± 5.7 kg/m². Placental retention was the cause to which these hemorrhages were most frequently attributed (30.0%). Subinvolution of the placental bed was noted in 13.3 percent of the patients, endometritis in 10.0 percent, pseudoaneurysm of the uterine artery in 3.3 percent, and excessively strong resumption of menses in 3.3 percent; no cause could be determined for 16.7 percent of the cases. Neither clinical signs nor causes differed by parity. Secondary PPH is rare. Accurate diagnosis is based most often on histopathologic findings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Birth 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/birt.12164
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    ABSTRACT: Suturing of perineal trauma after childbirth can cause problems such as pain, discomfort because of tight sutures, the need for suture removal, and dyspareunia. It is unclear whether leaving the perineal skin unsutured or using skin adhesives might prevent these problems. CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and prospective trial registers until January 2013 were searched for (quasi-)randomized controlled trials comparing nonsuturing of the perineal skin or skin adhesives versus suturing of the skin when repairing a second-degree perineal tear or episiotomy. Primary outcome measure was short-term and long-term pain and need for analgesic medication. Four randomized and two quasi-randomized controlled trials (involving 2,922 women) with heterogeneity in contexts, designs, and methodological quality were included. Nonsuturing of the skin leads to less short-term and long-term pain compared to suturing and an increased rate of skin separation. Skin adhesives lead to less short-term pain without an increased rate of skin separation. Nonsuturing or skin adhesives lead to less complaints and there are no other adverse effects. Nonsuturing of the skin or the use of skin adhesives appears preferable in terms of pain. Nonsuturing could lead to more short-term skin separation when no adhesives are used, but there is no evidence for the clinical importance of skin separation. There is a need for studies with a follow-up of at least 6 months, in which pain is measured homogeneously and for studies comparing the use of skin adhesives with nonsuturing of the skin with the focus on long-term cosmetic results. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Birth 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/birt.12166
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    ABSTRACT: Immigrants have higher risks for some adverse obstetric outcomes, and 40 percent of women giving birth at the low-risk maternity ward in Baerum Hospital, Norway, are immigrants. This study compared obstetric outcomes between immigrants and ethnic Norwegians giving birth in a low-risk setting. This was a population-based study linking the Medical Birth Registry of Norway to Statistics Norway. The study included the first registered birth during the study period to immigrant and ethnic Norwegian women at Baerum Hospital from 2006 to 2010. The main outcome measures were onset of labor, operative vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery, episiotomy, postpartum bleeding > 500 mL, epidural analgesia, labor dystocia, gestational age, meconium-stained liquor, 5-minute Apgar score, birthweight, and transfer to a neonatal intensive care unit. A total of 11,540 women originating from 141 countries were divided into seven groups. Compared with Norwegians, women from East, Southeast, and Central Asia had increased risk for operative vaginal delivery, postpartum bleeding, and low Apgar score. The African women had increased risk for postterm birth, meconium-stained liquor, episiotomy, operative vaginal delivery, emergency cesarean delivery, postpartum bleeding, low Apgar score, and low birthweight. Women from South and Western Asia had increased risk for low birthweight. Obstetric outcomes of immigrants differ significantly from those of Norwegians, even in a low-risk maternity unit. Thus, immigrant women would benefit from more targeted care during pregnancy and childbirth, even in low-risk settings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Birth 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/birt.12165
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    ABSTRACT: In the Dutch maternity care system, primary care midwives provide care to low-risk women and refer to obstetricians if risks or complications occur. We examined reasons for referral, management of labor, and maternal and neonatal outcomes among women who were referred during labor. In a retrospective cohort study, descriptive analyses were performed on data obtained from patient records. Six purposively chosen hospitals in The Netherlands participated in the study from June 2011 to February 2012. The study population included 600 pregnant women who were referred during labor from primary to secondary care. Reasons for referral, interventions after referral, mode of delivery, and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Of women who were referred during labor, three out of four women were referred for moderate risk indications: request for pain relief (30.5%), meconium-stained liquor (25.3%), failure to progress during first stage of labor (14.0%), and prolonged ruptured membranes without contractions (12.5%). Of all women, 65.7 percent had a spontaneous vaginal delivery and 59.7 percent received some kind of pain relief. Acute referral, meaning fetal distress, occurred in 5.5 percent. Of the newborns, 2.7 percent had an Apgar score of 7 or less after 5 minutes and 1.2 percent had an umbilical cord pH < 7.05. Postpartum complications occurred among 11.0 percent of women. Women who are referred during labor have a high probability of spontaneous vaginal delivery. To improve continuity of care and satisfaction for this group of women, management of labor could be continued by trained primary care midwives. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Birth 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/birt.12160
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    ABSTRACT: Background The relationship between migration and pregnancy outcomes is complex, with little insight into whether women of refugee background have greater risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes than other migrant women. This study aimed to describe maternal health, pregnancy care, and pregnancy outcomes among migrant women from humanitarian and nonhumanitarian source countries.Methods Retrospective, observational study of singleton births, at a single maternity service in Australia 2002–2011, to migrant women born in humanitarian source countries (HSCs, n = 2,713) and non-HSCs (n = 10,606). Multivariable regression analysis assessed associations between maternal HSC-birth and pregnancy outcomes.ResultsCompared with women from non-HSCs, the following were more common in women from HSCs: age < 20 years (0.6 vs 2.9% p < 0.001), multiparity (51 vs 76% p < 0.001), body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 (38 vs 50% p < 0.001), anemia (3.2 vs 5.9% p < 0.001), tuberculosis (0.1 vs 0.4% p = 0.001), and syphilis (0.4 vs 2.5% p < 0.001). Maternal HSC-birth was independently associated with poor or no pregnancy care attendance (OR 2.5 [95% CI 1.8–3.6]), late first pregnancy care visit (OR 1.3 [95% CI 1.1–1.5]), and postterm birth (> 41 weeks gestation) (OR 2.5 [95% CI 1.9–3.4]). Stillbirth (0.8 vs 1.2% p = 0.04, OR 1.5 [95% CI 1.0–2.4]) and unplanned birth before arrival at the hospital (0.6 vs 1.2% p < 0.001, OR 1.3 [95% CI 0.8–2.1]) were more common in HSC-born women but not independently associated with maternal HSC-birth after adjusting for age, parity, BMI and relative socioeconomic disadvantage.Conclusions These findings suggest areas where women from HSCs may have additional needs in pregnancy compared with women from non-HSCs. Refugee-focused strategies to support engagement in pregnancy care and address maternal health needs would be expected to improve health outcomes in resettlement countries.
    Birth 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/birt.12159
  • Birth 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/birt.12169
  • Birth 03/2015; 42(1):1-4. DOI:10.1111/birt.12156
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the distribution of women with severe maternal morbidity according to Robson Ten Group Classification System (RTGCS). Secondary analysis of a multicenter cross-sectional study in 27 obstetric units in Brazil, using RTGCS. Cases were classified into potentially life-threatening condition or a maternal near miss or death, according to severity. Certain groups were subdivided for further analysis. Cesarean delivery (CD) rates were reported. Among 7,247 women with severe maternal morbidity, 73.2 percent underwent CD. Group 10 (single, cephalic, preterm) was the most prevalent (33.9%). Groups mostly associated with a severe maternal outcome were: 7 (multiparous, breech), 9 (all abnormal lies, single, term), 8 (all multiple), and 10. Groups 1 (nulliparous, single, cephalic, term, spontaneous) and 3 (multiparous, single, cephalic, term, spontaneous) were associated with better maternal outcome. Group 3 had one severe maternal morbidity to 29 cases of potentially life-threatening, but the ratio was 1:10 for women undergoing CD, indicating a worse outcome. Group 4a (multiparous, no previous CD, single, cephalic, term, induced labor) had a better maternal outcome than those delivered by CD before labor (group 4b). Hypertension was the most common condition of severity. The RTGCS was useful to consider severe maternal morbidity, showing groups with higher CD rates and worse maternal outcomes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Birth 03/2015; 42(1):38-47. DOI:10.1111/birt.12155
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined the mode of birth among women with fear of childbirth, and the results are conflicting. The objective of this study was to assess the association between fear of childbirth and cesarean delivery in North European women. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among 6,422 pregnant women from Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden. Fear of childbirth was measured by the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire during pregnancy and linked to obstetric information from hospital records. Among 3,189 primiparous women, those reporting severe fear of childbirth were more likely to give birth by elective cesarean, (OR, 1.66 [95% CI 1.05-2.61]). Among 3,233 multiparous women, severe fear of childbirth increased the risk of elective cesarean (OR 1.87 [95% CI 1.30-2.69]). Reporting lack of positive anticipation, one of six dimensions of fear of childbirth, was most strongly associated with elective cesarean (OR 2.02 [95% CI 1.52-2.68]). A dose-effect pattern was observed between level of fear and risk of emergency cesarean in both primiparous and multiparous women. Indications for cesarean were more likely to be reported as "nonmedical" among those with severe fear of childbirth; 16.7 versus 4.6 percent in primiparous women, and 31.7 versus 17.5 percent in multiparous women. Having severe fear of childbirth increases the risk of elective cesarean, especially among multiparous women. Lack of positive anticipation of the upcoming childbirth seems to be an important dimension of fear associated with cesarean delivery. Counseling for women who do not look forward to vaginal birth should be further evaluated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Birth 03/2015; 42(1):48-55. DOI:10.1111/birt.12147
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    ABSTRACT: Decreased fetal movement often precedes a stillbirth. The objective of this study was to describe women's experiences of fetal movement before the confirmation of fetal death. Data were collected through a Web-based questionnaire. Women with stillbirths after 28 gestational weeks were self-recruited. Content analysis was used to analyze the answers to one open question. The statements from mothers of a stillborn, born during gestational weeks 28 to 36 were compared with those of a stillborn at term. The women's 215 answers were divided into three categories: decreased, weak, and no fetal movement at all; 154 (72%) of the descriptions were divided into three subcategories: decreased and weak movement (106; 49%), no movement at all (35; 16%), and contraction interpreted as movement (13; 6%). The category fetal movement as normal includes 39 (18%) of the descriptions. The third category, extremely vigorous fetal activity followed by no movement at all, includes 22 (10%) of the descriptions. Eight (15%) of the women with stillbirths in gestational weeks 28 to 36 interpreted contractions as fetal movement as compared to 5 (5%) of the women with stillbirths at term. Uterine contractions can be interpreted as fetal movement. A single episode of extremely vigorous fetal activity can precede fetal death. The majority of the women experienced decreased, weaker, or no fetal movement at all 2 days before fetal death was diagnosed. Mothers should be educated to promptly report changes in fetal movement to their health care providers. Using fetal movement information to evaluate possible fetal distress may lead to reductions in stillbirths. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Birth 02/2015; DOI:10.1111/birt.12151
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    ABSTRACT: Vaginal infection in early pregnancy is associated with preterm birth. This study evaluates long-term results after integrating an antenatal screen-and-treat program for asymptomatic vaginal infections into routine pregnancy care. We retrospectively analyzed data of all women with singleton high-risk pregnancies delivering at our tertiary referral center between 2005 and 2014. The intervention group included women who presented for a prenatal visit for a planned birth between 10 + 0 and 16 + 0 gestational weeks. Women were routinely screened for asymptomatic infections using Gram stain. In cases of bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis or trichomoniasis, women were treated according to our clinical protocol. The control group included women who did not undergo the program. Prenatal care was equal in both groups. Preterm birth served as the primary outcome variable. Of the 20,052 women with singleton pregnancies, 8,490 (42.3%) participated in the antenatal prevention program. The mean gestational age at birth was 38.8 ± 2.6 weeks and 37.5 ± 4.3 weeks in the intervention and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001). The incidence of preterm birth was significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (9.7% vs 22.3%; p < 0.001). Low-birthweight neonates, stillbirths, and late miscarriages were less frequent in the intervention group (p < 0.001). Long-term results support the use of an antenatal infection screen-and-treat program to prevent preterm birth. If integrated into routine pregnancy care at a high-risk obstetrical setting, this simple public health intervention could lead to a significant reduction in preterm birth, low infant birthweight, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Birth 02/2015; DOI:10.1111/birt.12154
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    ABSTRACT: Background At 2.2 percent in 2012, the home birth rate in Iceland is the highest in the Nordic countries and has been rising rapidly in the new millennium. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of planned home births and planned hospital births in comparable low-risk groups in Iceland.Methods The study is a retrospective cohort study comparing the total population of 307 planned home births in Iceland in 2005–2009 to a matched 1:3 sample of 921 planned hospital births. Regression analysis, adjusted for confounding variables, was performed for the primary outcome variables.ResultsThe rate of oxytocin augmentation, epidural analgesia, and postpartum hemorrhage was significantly lower when labor started as a planned home birth. Differences in the rates of other primary outcome variables were not significant. The home birth group had lower rates of operative birth and obstetric anal sphincter injury. The rate of 5-minute Apgar score < 7 was the same in the home and hospital birth groups, but the home birth group had a higher rate of neonatal intensive care unit admission. Intervention and adverse outcome rates in both study groups, including transfer rates, were higher among primiparas than multiparas. Oxytocin augmentation, epidural analgesia, and postpartum hemorrhage rates were significantly interrelated.Conclusions This study adds to the growing body of evidence that suggests that planned home birth for low-risk women is as safe as planned hospital birth.
    Birth 01/2015; DOI:10.1111/birt.12150
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    ABSTRACT: Background In studies investigating predictors of breastfeeding behaviors, it is not uncommon for researchers to adjust for participants’ having been breastfed as an infant. This assumes an intergenerational effect of breastfeeding continuity. Our aim was to investigate the veracity of that assumption. Specifically, we sought to summarize and evaluate evidence of associations between breastfeeding in one generation and breastfeeding intentions and behaviors in the second generation.MethodsA systematic search of psychological, nursing, and medical databases was conducted for studies examining “having been breastfed” as a factor in breastfeeding intention, initiation, or duration. Quality indicators were assessed and limitations reported. Effects were explored according to outcomes of intention, initiation, and duration.ResultsFifteen papers were found to be eligible for the review. Having been breastfed as an infant was consistently correlated with breastfeeding intention, initiation, and duration. Effect sizes differed depending on methodology. Men's infant-feeding status was also related to later intentions to support or encourage a partner to breastfeed.Conclusions Robust evidence for intergenerational breastfeeding continuity is present; however, mechanisms that explain this association were not considered in the studies reviewed and would best be explored within longitudinal cohort studies.
    Birth 01/2015; DOI:10.1111/birt.12148
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    ABSTRACT: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families experience markedly worse maternal and child health outcomes than non-Aboriginal families. The objective of this study was to investigate the experiences of women attending Aboriginal Family Birthing Program services in South Australia compared with women attending mainstream public antenatal care. Population-based survey of mothers of Aboriginal babies giving birth in urban, regional, and remote areas of South Australia between July 2011 and June 2013. A total of 344 women took part in the study around 4-9 months after giving birth; 93 percent were Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islanders, and 7 percent were non-Aboriginal mothers of Aboriginal babies. Of these, 39 percent of women lived in a major city, 36 percent in inner or outer regional areas, and 25 percent in remote areas of South Australia. Compared with women attending mainstream public antenatal care, women attending metropolitan and regional Aboriginal Family Birthing Program services had a higher likelihood of reporting positive experiences of pregnancy care (adjOR 3.4 [95% CI 1.6-7.0] and adjOR 2.4 [95% CI 1.4-4.3], respectively). Women attending Aboriginal Health Services were also more likely to report positive experiences of care (adjOR 3.5 [95% CI 1.3-9.4]). In the urban, regional, and remote areas where the Aboriginal Family Birthing Program has been implemented, the program has expanded access to culturally responsive antenatal care for Aboriginal women and families. The positive experiences reported by many women using the program have the potential to translate into improved outcomes for Aboriginal families. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Birth 01/2015; 42(1). DOI:10.1111/birt.12143
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    ABSTRACT: Background High breastfeeding attrition rates have been attributed to a number of factors, but the effect of previous breastfeeding experience on subsequent breastfeeding duration has not been adequately investigated.Methods In this study, 559 multiparous mothers were recruited and followed prospectively for 12 months or until the infant was weaned.ResultsWhen compared with having previously breastfed for > 3 months, no previous breastfeeding experience (HR 3.24 [95% CI 2.37–4.42]) or a breastfeeding duration of ≤ 3 months (HR 2.56; 95% CI 2.05?3.20) substantially increased the risk of early weaning. Similarly, participants who had not exclusively breastfed (HR 1.82 [95% CI 1.46?2.26]) or who had exclusively breastfed for ≤ 2 months (HR 1.65 [95% CI 1.29?2.10]) were more likely to stop exclusive breastfeeding when compared with those who had exclusively breastfed for > 2 months. More than 40 percent of the participants who had previously breastfed for > 3 months had shorter current breastfeeding durations. The median decreases in any and exclusive breastfeeding for this group were 16.4 weeks and 13.1 weeks, respectively.Conclusions Multiparous women with no previous breastfeeding experience and those with a short duration of previous breastfeeding should be provided with greater support to promote a longer duration of breastfeeding. Multiparous women with a longer duration of breastfeeding should be strongly encouraged to meet or exceed this duration with their current infant.
    Birth 01/2015; DOI:10.1111/birt.12152
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    ABSTRACT: Background Recent data indicate that more than half of high-income industrialized countries have a cesarean delivery rate of > 25 percent, which is higher than the appropriate level considered by most health professionals worldwide.Methods Data for 31 high-income industrialized countries in 2010 (or the nearest year) obtained from the World Health Organization, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, World Bank, and individual countries were analyzed in this study. We examined the correlation between cesarean delivery rate and infant mortality rate with Pearson correlation coefficient analysis, and examined the independent effect of cesarean delivery on infant mortality with multiple linear regression analyses.ResultsThe cesarean delivery and infant mortality rates varied substantially among the included countries: from 15.6 to 50.0 percent and from 1.9 per to 6.8 per 1,000 live births, respectively. Cesarean delivery rates were positively correlated with infant mortality rates (Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.41, p < 0.05). The association remained after adjustment for maternal age, infant sex, per capita GDP, and the Gini index (p < 0.03), but disappeared after further adjustment for preterm birth (p = 0.07). In a sensitivity analysis, the results were not appreciably affected by excluding births at < 22 weeks of gestation, by weighting the data by the number of births in each country, or by excluding data from particular countries with possible measurement issues (USA, Greece).ConclusionsA higher cesarean delivery rate is associated with higher infant mortality rate among these high-income industrialized countries. One of the mechanisms by which cesarean delivery affects infant mortality is through iatrogenic prematurity.
    Birth 01/2015; DOI:10.1111/birt.12153