Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Current impact factor: 2.94

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 2.937
2013 Impact Factor 2.57
2012 Impact Factor 2.543
2011 Impact Factor 2.8
2010 Impact Factor 2.093
2009 Impact Factor 2.024
2008 Impact Factor 2.283
2007 Impact Factor 2.56
2006 Impact Factor 2.769
2005 Impact Factor 1.577
2004 Impact Factor 1.974
2003 Impact Factor 1.879
2002 Impact Factor 1.953
2001 Impact Factor 1.488
2000 Impact Factor 1.094
1999 Impact Factor 0.622
1998 Impact Factor 0.882

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.74
Cited half-life 5.50
Immediacy index 0.64
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.75
Other titles Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics (Online), Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics, Pulmonary pharmacology and therapeutics
ISSN 1522-9629
OCLC 38867290
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors pre-print on any website, including arXiv and RePEC
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on open access repository after an embargo period of between 12 months and 48 months
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months
    • Author's post-print may be used to update arXiv and RepEC
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
    • Author's post-print must be released with a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License
    • Publisher last reviewed on 03/06/2015
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2015.09.006
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is responsible for the premature death mainly because of progressive and severe heart failure. This disease is characterized by increased pulmonary vascular tone, inflammatory cell infiltration, vascular remodeling and occlusion of vessels with thrombi, frequently leading to right heart failure. Aiming to better comprehend the complexity of PAH and find novel therapeutic strategies or improve the existing ones, a variety of preclinical models have emerged. Although there is no ideal preclinical model of PAH currently available, animal models have been used to assist in the identification of the molecular pathways underlying PAH development and progression, and in the identification of novel therapeutics. Among preclinical models of PAH, monocrotaline (MCT) animal model offers the advantage of mimic several key aspects of human PAH, including vascular remodeling, proliferation of smooth muscle cells, endothelial dysfunction, upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, and right ventricle failure, requiring a single drug injection. This review summarizes the advantages and limitations of MCT animal model to the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying PAH pathogenesis, envisioning to improve the diagnosis and management of this complex disease.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2015.09.007
  • Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2015.08.010
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    ABSTRACT: The concomitant presence of systemic arterial hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequent. Indeed, arterial hypertension is the most common comorbid disease in COPD patients. Since many antihypertensive drugs can act on airway function the treatment of arterial hypertension in COPD patients appears complex. Moreover, in these patients, a combined therapy is required for the adequate control of blood pressure. Currently, available data are inconsistent and not always comparable. Therefore the aim of this review is to analyse how antihypertensive drugs can affect airway function in order to improve the clinical management of hypertensive patients with COPD. Thiazide diuretics and calcium channel blockers appear the first-choice pharmacological treatment for these patients.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2015.09.004
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Cigarette smoking is considered to be one of major causes of acute worsening of asthma as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Macrolide antibiotics have been reported to reduce the risk of exacerbations of COPD, and possibly neutrophilic asthma. However, the effect of clarithromycin (CAM) on pulmonary inflammation caused by short term exposure to cigarette smoke still remains to be investigated. Methods: C57BL/6J female mice were daily exposed to tobacco smoke using a tobacco smoke exposure system, or clean air for 8 days, while simultaneously treated with either oral CAM or vehicles. Twenty four hours after the last exposure, mice were anaesthetized and sacrificed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids were collected. Cellular responses in BAL fluids were evaluated. Levels of cytokine mRNA in the lung tissues were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Paraffin-embedded lung tissues were evaluated to quantitate degree of neutrophil infiltration. Results: The numbers of total cells, macrophages and neutrophils in the BAL fluid of smoke-exposed mice were significantly increased as compared to clean air group. These changes were significantly ameliorated in CAM-treated mice. The lung morphological analysis confirmed decrease of neutrophils by CAM treatment. Studies by quantitative PCR demonstrated CAM treatment significantly reduced lung expression levels of IL-17A, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and MMP-9 induced by cigarette smoke. Conclusion: We demonstrate that CAM administration resolves enhanced pulmonary inflammation induced by short term cigarette smoke exposure in mice.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2015.09.005
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: A high level of exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a marker for inflammation in the airways of asthmatic subjects. However, little is known about how NO and inducible nitric oxides synthase (iNOS) activity may affect remodelling in the distal lung. We hypothesized that there is a link between iNOS and ongoing remodelling processes in the distal lung of mild asthmatics. Methods: Patients with mild asthma (n=6) and healthy control subjects (n=8) were included. Exhaled NO was measured at different flow rates and alveolar NO concentrations were calculated. For studies of remodelling processes in the distal lung, primary fibroblasts were grown from transbronchial biopsies and stimulated with unselective and selective NOS inhibitors or a NO donor. The mRNA expression of iNOS and synthesis of NO (indirectly as nitrite/nitrate) were measured and distal lung fibroblast synthesis of the extracellular matrix proteoglycans were analysed. Results: The distal lung fibroblasts expressed iNOS, and there was a tendency of higher expression in fibroblasts from patients with asthma. The selective iNOS inhibitor 1400W inhibited iNOS expression and NO synthesis in fibroblasts from patients with asthma (p=0.031). Treatment with 1400W significantly increased synthesis of the proteoglycan versican (p=0.018) in distal fibroblasts from patients with asthma whereas there were no effects in fibroblasts from control subjects. Conclusions: Our data suggest that there is a link between iNOS and remodelling in the distal lung of subjects with mild asthma and that iNOS could have a modulatory role in pathological airway remodelling.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2015.09.003
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    ABSTRACT: Asthma is increasing globally and current treatments only manage a proportion of patients. There is an urgent need to develop new therapies. Lymphocytes are thought to play a central role in the pathophysiology of asthma through the production of inflammatory mediators. This is thought to be via the transcription factor NFAT which in turn can be activated through Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of CRAC in clinical and pre-clinical models of allergic asthma. Initial data demonstrated that the NFAT pathway is increased in stimulated lymphocytes from asthmatics. To confirm a role for the channel we showed that a selective inhibitor, Synta 66, blocked mediator production from lymphocytes. Synta 66 inhibited CD 2/3/28 induced IL-2, IL-7, IL-13 & IFNΥ in a concentration-dependent manner in healthy and severe asthma donors, with over 60% inhibition observed for all cytokines. NFAT pathway was also increased in a pre-clinical asthma model. In this model we have demonstrated that CRAC played a central role in the airway inflammation and late asthmatic response (LAR). In conclusion, our data provides evidence that suggests targeting CRAC channels could be of therapeutic benefit for asthma sufferers.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2015.09.002
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    ABSTRACT: At the Eighth International London Cough Conference held in London in July 2014, the focus was on the relatively novel concept of cough hypersensitivity syndrome (CHS) as forming the basis of chronic cough. This concept has been formulated following understanding of the neuronal pathways for cough and a realisation that not all chronic cough is usually associated with a cause. The CHS is defined by troublesome coughing triggered by low level of thermal, mechanical or chemical exposure. It also emcompasses other symptoms or sensations such as laryngeal hypersensitivity, nasal hypersensitivity and possibly also symptoms related to gastrooesopahgeal reflux. The pathophysiologic basis of the CHS is now being increasingly linked to an enhancement of the afferent pathways of the cough reflex both at the peripheral and central levels. Mechanisms involved include the interactions of inflammatory mechanisms with cough sensors in the upper airways and with neuronal pathways of cough, associated with a central component. Tools for assessing CHS in the clinic need to be developed. New drugs may be developed to control CHS. A roadmap is suggested from the inception of the CHS concept towards the development of newer antitussives at the Symposium. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2015.08.009
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    ABSTRACT: Lung diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide and effective therapies are imperfect. Nonetheless, recently some novel strategies have been developed to treat and curtail their debilitating impact. Some of the treatments include the role of MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in stemming the spread of lung morbidities. Micro RNAs are small non-coding RNAs which are known as important players in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression in mammalian cells by regulating translation. MiRNAs are involved in basic regulatory mechanisms of cells including influencing inflammation. MiRNA dysregulation, resulting in aberrant expression of a gene, is suggested to play a key role in susceptibility of diseases. MiRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A better understanding of the involvement of miRNAs in pathogenesis of these diseases could result in the development of new therapeutic and diagnostic tools. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of miRNA biogenesis and role as well as recent insights into role of some miRNAs in different pulmonary diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2015.08.007
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy profile of roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is well known. In asthma treatment, much less is understood about the role of roflumilast, particularly its mechanism of action and potential bronchodilatory effects. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of action of roflumilast in patients with asthma using data from eight placebo-controlled, double-blind phase I-III studies. The studies were conducted at 14 sites in Europe, North America and South Africa from 1997 to 2005. The effect of treatment with 250μg, 500μg or 1000μg roflumilast was compared with placebo in seven cross-over studies and one parallel-group study in 197 patients 18-70 years of age. Primary endpoints focused on the extent of the late allergic response after an allergen challenge, change in sputum cell eosinophil counts or exhaled nitric oxide, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Secondary endpoints included the extent of the early allergic response and measurements of tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), sputum cells and inflammatory markers. Roflumilast attenuated allergen-induced bronchoconstriction (FEV1) in patients with asthma. Significant reductions in allergen-induced airway inflammation, including a reduction in both eosinophil and neutrophil counts were also observed and physiologic responses to allergen-induced challenge were confirmed by a significant reduction in TNFα. Side effects were similar to COPD, but did not include weight loss. The results from these studies indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of roflumilast observed in COPD are also seen in asthma and advance our understanding of its mechanism of action. All studies were funded by Takeda. Trial registration numbers available on ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01365533. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2015.08.006
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    ABSTRACT: The utilization of multiple natural and synthetic products in surfactant replacement therapies in treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) prompted us to take a closer looks at these various therapeutic options and their efficacies. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effects of six exogenous pulmonary surfactants (EPS) (Survanta, Alveofact, Infasurf, Curosurf, Surfaxin and Exosurf) on mortality rate in NRDS by a network meta-analysis. An exhaustive search of electronic databases was performed in PubMed, Ovid, EBSCO, Springerlink, Wiley, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang and VIP databases (last updated search in October 2014) to retrieve randomized controlled trials (RCTs) relevant to our study topic. Published clinical trials were screened based on the following inclusion criteria: (1) study design: RCTs; (2) interventions: treatment with Survanta, Alveofact, Infasurf, Curosurf, Surfaxin or Exosurf for NRDS; (3) study subject: infants with NRDS confirmed by clinical diagnosis; (4) outcome: the mortality rate of infants with NRDS. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata 12.0 software (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) and Comprehensive Meta-analysis (CMA 2.0) software. From the 1840 studies initially retrieved through database searches, a total of 17 high quality RCTs were selected for this network meta-analysis. The selected studies included a combined total of 57,223 infants with NRDS treated with various EPS (Survanta, 27,017; Alveofact, 159; Infasurf, 20,377; Curosurf, 20,911; Surfaxin, 646; Exosurf, 1640). Network meta-analysis results showed that the mortality rates in NRDS infants treated with Alveofact, Infasurf, Curosurf, Surfaxin, Exosurf were not significantly different compared to Survanta (Alveofact: OR = 1.163, 95% CI = 0.645-2.099, P = 0.616; Infasurf: OR = 0.985, 95% CI = 0.777-1.248, P = 0.897; Curosurf: OR = 0.789, 95% CI = 0.619-1.007, P = 0.056; Surfaxin: OR = 0.728, 95% CI = 0.477-1.112, P = 0.142; Exosurf: OR = 0.960, 95% CI = 0.698-1.319, P = 0.799). Notably, the surface under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA) value in Surfaxin group was significantly higher than the other five groups (Surfaxin: 80.4%; Survanta: 37.0%; Alveofact: 24.4%; Infasurf: 40.0%; Curosurf: 73.9%; Exosurf: 44.2%), suggesting that infant mortality rate in Surfaxin group was the lowest among the six EPS groups. Our study demonstrated that Surfaxin could effectively reduce the mortality rate of infants with NRDS and may have a better efficacy in NRDS treatment, compared to Survanta, Alveofact, Infasurf, Curosurf and Exosurf. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 08/2015; 34. DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2015.08.005
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    ABSTRACT: Transient receptor potential ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1) and vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptors are co-expressed in vagal pulmonary C-fiber sensory nerves. Because both these ligand-gated non-selective cation channels are sensitive to a number of endogenous inflammatory mediators, it is highly probable that they can be activated simultaneously during airway inflammation. Studies were carried out to investigate whether there is an interaction between these two polymodal transducers upon simultaneous activation, and how it modulates the activity of vagal pulmonary C-fiber sensory nerves. Our studies showed a distinct potentiating effect induced abruptly by simultaneous activations of TRPA1 and TRPV1 by their respective selective agonists, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and capsaicin (Cap), at near-threshold concentrations. This synergistic effect was demonstrated in the studies of single-unit recording of vagal bronchopulmonary C-fiber afferents and the reflex responses elicited by activation of these afferents in intact animals, as well as in the isolated nodose and jugular bronchopulmonary sensory neurons. This potentiating effect was absent when either AITC or Cap was replaced by non-TRPA1 and non-TRPV1 chemical activators of these neurons, demonstrating the selectivity of the interaction between these two TRP channels. Furthermore, the synergism was dependent upon the extracellular Ca(2+), and the rapid onset of the action further suggests that the interaction probably occurred locally at the sites of these channels. These findings suggest that the TRPA1-TRPV1 interaction may play an important role in regulating the function and excitability of pulmonary sensory neurons during airway inflammation, but the mechanism underlying this positive interaction is not yet fully understood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2015.08.003
  • Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2015.08.001
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    ABSTRACT: A good level of asthma control improves the quality of life of asthmatic patients and may prevent future risk in term of exacerbations and decline of pulmonary function. However, in a real-life setting, several factors contribute to generally low compliance to the treatment. A rapid-onset, long-lasting medication with few adverse effects may contribute to improve adherence to therapy, along with an effective patient education and a good physician-patient communication. Many clinical studies demonstrated the comparable efficacy of the new fluticasone propionate/formoterol (FP/F) combination in a single inhaler to other combinations of inhaled corticosteroids and β2agonists and the superiority of FP/F as compared to its individual components. Also the safety profile of this combination was encouraging in all studies, even at higher doses. By effectively and safely targeting both airway inflammation and smooth muscle dysfunction, the two pathological facets of asthma, and allowing the patient to adapt dose strength, FP/F combination in a single device represents a valid option to improve asthma control in patients with different levels of asthma severity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2015.08.004
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    ABSTRACT: Neutrophil infiltration and activation in the lung are important pathophysiological features in COPD, severe asthma and bronchiectasis mostly mediated by CXCL8 and CXCL1 via CXCR1 and CXCR2. No thorough study to date has been performed to compare the anti-inflammatory effect profile of dual CXCR1/2 vs. selective CXCR2 antagonists in relevant human neutrophil assays and pulmonary inflammation models. Dual CXCR1/2 (SCH527123, diaminocyclobutandione-1) and selective CXCR2 (SB265610, thiopyrimidine-1) antagonist activity and receptor residence time were determined by [(35)S]GTPγS binding in human (h)- and guinea pig (gp)-CXCR1 and CXCR2 overexpressing membranes. h-neutrophil chemotaxis, degranulation and ROS production were established using CXCL8 or CXCL1 to evaluate dual CXCR1/2- or selective CXCR2-dependent activities. LPS-induced lung inflammation in gp was selected to assess in vivo potency. Dual CXCR1/2 antagonists blocked both CXCL8 and CXCL1-induced h-neutrophil functions and [(35)S]GTPγS binding. In contrary, selective CXCR2 antagonists displayed significantly reduced potency in CXCL8 -mediated h-neutrophil responses despite being active in CXCR2 assays. Upon LPS challenge in gp, administration of SCH527123 inhibited the increase of neutrophils in BALF, modestly reduced blood neutrophils and induced minor neutrophil accumulation in bone marrow. Differentiation of CXCR1/2 vs. CXCR2 antagonists could not be extended to in vivo due to differences in CXCR1 receptor homology between h and gp. Dual CXCR1/2 therapy may represent a promising anti-inflammatory treatment for respiratory diseases reducing more effectively neutrophil migration and activation in the lung than a CXCR2 selective treatment. However, the in vivo confirmation of this claim is still missing due to species differences in CXCR1. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2015.08.002
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    ABSTRACT: TGF-β1/Smad3 pathway plays a key role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, including lung fibroblasts proliferation and epithelial cell aberrant activation. Ponatinib is a multi-targeted tyrosine-kinase inhibitor. However, whether Ponatinib has anti-fibrotic functions is unknown. In this study, the effects of Ponatinib on TGF-β1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells, on the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1), on the apoptosis of human type I alveolar epithelial cells (AT I) in vitro, and on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis was investigated in vivo. Treatment with Ponatinib resulted in a reduction of EMT in A549 cells with a decrease in vimentin and p-Smad3, whereas an increase in E-cadherin. Apoptosis of AT I was attenuated with an increase in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. HLF-1 proliferation was reduced with a decrease in PDGF-BB and FGF-2 expressions. Treatment with Ponatinib resulted in an amelioration of the BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats with reductions of the pathological score, collagen deposition, p-Smad3, α-SMA, PDGF-BB and FGF-2 expression. In summary, Ponatinib reversed the EMT, inhibited the apoptosis of AT I, as well as HLF-1 proliferation and prevented pulmonary fibrosis by suppressing the TGF-β1/Smad3 pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2015.07.004
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic cough often report symptoms arising in the throat, in response to non-specific stimuli. Accordingly, the concept of a 'hypersensitivity' of the larynx in chronic cough has evolved over the past ten years. Patients with cough and laryngeal hypersensitivity frequently report features that overlap other laryngeal dysfunction syndromes, including a tendency for the vocal cords to inappropriately adduct. The mechanisms underlying laryngeal hypersensitivity in chronic cough are currently unclear, however recent studies provide new clinical and physiological techniques to aid detection and monitoring of laryngeal hypersensitivity. This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2015.08.008
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    ABSTRACT: The global market for over-the-counter (OTC) medicines in the category cough/cold is enormous amounting to 5.77 billion euro in 2014 (source IMS). Despite this enormous healthcare investment, mainly by direct consumer purchase, evidence for efficacy is poor by modern standards. Because of a lack of new drug development existing OTC medicines are supported by trials of inadequate design. This has led to the claim that cough medicines are inefficacious. Recent developments in measuring cough support some existing agents but investment in modern studies to provide comprehensive proof of efficacy has not occurred. The switch from prescription medicine to OTC which has occurred in other markets will not occur in antitussives since novel therapies have yet to be developed. One area, that of herbal derived medicines, has seen innovation because it is less hampered by regulatory constraints. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2015.07.006
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    ABSTRACT: Gene therapy, i.e. the delivery and expression of therapeutic genes, holds great promise for congenital and acquired respiratory diseases. Non-viral vectors are less toxic and immunogenic than viral vectors, although they are characterized by lower efficiency. However, they have to overcome many barriers, including inflammatory and immune mediators and cells. The respiratory and airway epithelial cells, the main target of these vectors, are coated with a layer of mucus, which hampers the effective reaching of gene therapy vectors carrying either plasmid DNA or small interfering RNA. This barrier is thicker in many lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis. This review summarizes the most important advancements in the field of non-viral vectors that have been achieved with the use of nanoparticulate (NP) systems, composed either of polymers or lipids, in the lung gene delivery. In particular, different strategies of targeting of respiratory and airway lung cells will be described. Then, we will focus on the two approaches that attempt to overcome the mucus barrier: coating of the nanoparticulate system with poly(ethylene glycol) and treatment with mucolytics. Our conclusions are: 1) Ligand and physical targeting can direct therapeutic gene expression in specific cell types in the respiratory tract; 2) Mucopenetrating NPs are endowed with promising features to be useful in treating respiratory diseases and should be now advanced in pre-clinical trials. Finally, we discuss the development of such polymer- and lipid-based NPs in the context of in vitro and in vivo disease models, such as lung cancer, as well as in clinical trials. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 07/2015; 34. DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2015.07.003