Electrophoresis (Electrophoresis)

Publisher: Electrophoresis Society; International Electrophoresis Society, Wiley-VCH Verlag

Journal description

Attracting high-quality papers from the world's leading laboratories ELECTROPHORESIS has proved itself indispensable in the life sciences where electrophoresis is the most widely used method. ELECTROPHORESIS is the foremost journal for new analytical and preparative methods and for innovative applications on all aspects of electrophoresis. It has an international scope and publishes original papers short communications and review articles in the following areas: biochemistry molecular and cell biochemistry genetics immunology microbiology clinical chemistry forensics food science and many more. Special Issues Paper Symposium issues devoted to new developments prepared by an expert Guest Editor are published regularly with special emphasis on capillary electrophoresis (2-3 issues per year)and proteomics. The journal also publishes proceedings of international and national electrophoresis meetings.

Current impact factor: 3.03

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 3.028
2013 Impact Factor 3.161
2012 Impact Factor 3.261
2011 Impact Factor 3.303
2010 Impact Factor 3.569
2009 Impact Factor 3.077
2008 Impact Factor 3.509
2007 Impact Factor 3.609
2006 Impact Factor 4.101
2005 Impact Factor 3.85
2004 Impact Factor 3.743
2003 Impact Factor 4.04
2002 Impact Factor 4.325
2001 Impact Factor 4.282
2000 Impact Factor 3.385
1999 Impact Factor 3.447
1998 Impact Factor 3.054
1997 Impact Factor 2.848
1996 Impact Factor 2.467
1995 Impact Factor 2.73
1994 Impact Factor 2.274
1993 Impact Factor 1.842
1992 Impact Factor 2.159

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.72
Cited half-life 7.90
Immediacy index 0.53
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 0.58
Website Electrophoresis website
Other titles Electrophoresis (Online), Electrophoresis, Proteomics reviews
ISSN 1522-2683
OCLC 43388561
Material type Periodical, Program, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Wiley-VCH Verlag

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    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
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  • Conditions
    • Pre-print may be deposited on personal intranet or institutional intranet repository, but not on a public repository
    • Pre-print must not updates with future versions
    • Published source must be acknowledged with set phrases (See policy)
    • Must link to publisher's site: http://www.interscience.wiley.com/
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Some journal exceptions-check individual homepages
  • Classification
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Virtual and experimental 2DE coupled with ESI LC-MS/MS was introduced to obtain better representation of the information about human proteome. The proteins from HEPG2 cells and human blood plasma were run by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). After staining and protein spot identification by MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry, the protein maps were generated. The experimental physicochemical parameters (pI/Mw) of the proteoforms further detected by ESI LC-MS/MS in these spots were obtained. Next, the theoretical pI and Mw of identified proteins were calculated using program Compute pI/Mw (http://web.expasy.org/compute_pi/pi_tool-doc.html). Accordingly, the relationship between theoretical and experimental parameters was analyzed, and the correlation plots were built. Additionally, virtual/experimental information about different protein species/proteoforms from the same genes was extracted. As it was revealed from the plots, the major proteoforms detected in HepG2 cell line have pI/Mw parameters similar to theoretical values. In opposite, the minor protein species have mainly very different from theoretical pI and Mw parameters. A similar situation was observed in plasma in much higher degree. It means that minor protein species are heavily modified in cell and even more in plasma proteome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/elps.201500382
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    ABSTRACT: Two-dimensional (2-D) computer simulation revealed that amino acids and weak electrolytes were cationized because of the migration of counter-ion from a BGE zone to a sample zone, which encouraged electrokinetic injection (EKI) of these analytes (by the mobility-boost (MB) effect). To investigate the effects of kinds and concentrations of counter-ions on the MB effect and the analyte amount injected into the capillary, experiments and one-dimensional (1-D) computer simulations were performed. When acetate was used as the counter-ion, the LODs (S/N = 3) of l-histidine and creatinine respectively reached 0.10 and 0.25 nM because of the concentration effect by transient ITP (tITP). The concentrations of l-histidine and creatinine in human blood plasma obtained using the proposed method were agreed with those obtained using the conventional methods. The proposed method can be applied to the analysis of amino acids and weak bases which have similar pI and pKa to l-histidine and creatinine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/elps.201500307
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    ABSTRACT: Separation of (6) Li and (7) Li isotopes by capillary zone electrophoresis was demonstrated. The background electrolyte contained 5 mM 4-aminopyridine, 0.9 mM oxalic acid, 0.25 mM CTAB and 0.25% (w/v) Tween 20 (рН = 9.2). The running conditions were +25 kV at 30°C with indirect photometric detection at 261 nm. Under optimal experimental conditions the analysis time was less than 21 min. Separation of Li preparations with mole fraction of (6) Li ranging from 3.44 up to 90.38% was demonstrated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/elps.201500399
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    ABSTRACT: CE is known for being one of the most powerful analytical techniques when performing enantioseparations due to its numerous advantages such as excellent separation efficiency and extremely low solvents and reagents consumption, all of them derived from the capillary small dimensions. Moreover, it is worth-highlighting that unlike in chromatographic techniques, in CE the chiral selector is generally within the separation medium instead of being attached to the separation column which makes the method optimization a more versatile task. In addition, this advantage reduces the cost per analysis as the chiral selector consumption is kept to a minimum. Despite its numerous advantages, when using UV-Vis detection, CE lacks of sensitivity detection due to its short optical path length derived from the narrow separation capillary. This issue can be overcome by means of different approaches, either by sample treatment procedures or by in-capillary preconcentration techniques or even by employing detection systems more sensitive than UV-Vis, such as LIF or MS. The present review assembles the latest contributions regarding improvements of sensitivity in chiral CE published from June 2013 until May 2015, which follows the works included in a previous review reported by Sánchez-Hernández et al. [Electrophoresis 2014, 35, 12-27]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/elps.201500315
  • Yu Liu · Chen Li · Zhi Li · Samuel D. Chan · Daisuke Eto · Warren Wu · Jian Ping Zhang · Ring‐Ling Chien · Henry G. Wada · Michael Greenstein · Shinji Satomura
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    ABSTRACT: Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been widely used for the detection and monitoring of a variety of infectious diseases. PCR and capillary electrophoresis (CE) were integrated into a microfluidic chip that was designed to achieve rapid real-time amplicon sampling, separation, and quantitation without requiring various probes. A novel chip design allows the overlapped execution of PCR and CE, minimizing the time required for CE analysis after each PCR cycle. The performance of the on-chip qPCR method was demonstrated using a 45-minute model assay protocol for the phiX174 bacteriophage, and the multiplexing capability of the method was demonstrated by adding a second target, E. coli genomic DNA, to the model assay. The results indicate good sensitivity, reproducibility and linearity over the tested assay range, 50 to 2×104 copies/25 μl reaction. Based on this performance, the on-chip qPCR method should be applicable to a wide variety of infectious disease detection and monitoring assays with the addition of suitable sample preparation protocols.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Electrophoresis 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/elps.201500298
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    ABSTRACT: Affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) has been applied to estimation of apparent binding constant of complexes of (R,S)-enantiomers of selected acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) with chiral selector β-cyclodextrin (βCD) in aqueous alkaline medium. The noncovalent interactions of five pairs of (R,S)-enantiomers of ANPs-based antiviral drugs and their derivatives with βCD were investigated in the background electrolyte (BGE) composed of 35 or 50 mM sodium tetraborate, pH 10.0, and containing variable concentration (0-25 mM) of βCD. The apparent binding constants of the complexes of (R,S)-enantiomers of ANPs with βCD were estimated from the dependence of effective electrophoretic mobilities of (R,S)-enantiomers of ANPs (measured simultaneously by ACE at constant reference temperature 25°C inside the capillary) on the concentration of βCD in the BGE using different nonlinear and linear calculation methodologies. Nonlinear regression analysis provided more precise and accurate values of the binding constants and a higher correlation coefficient as compared to the regression analysis of the three linearized plots of the effective mobility dependence on βCD concentration in the BGE. The complexes of (R,S)-enantiomers of ANPs with βCD have been found to be relatively weak - their apparent binding constants determined by the nonlinear regression analysis were in the range 13.3-46.4 L/mol whereas the values from the linearized plots spanned the interval 12.3-55.2 L/mol. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/elps.201500337
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    ABSTRACT: The present review intends to cover the literature on the use of CE-/LC-MS for the analysis of human fluids, from 2010 until present. It has been planned to provide an overview of the most recent practical applications of these techniques to less extensively used human body fluids, including, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, synovial fluid, nipple aspirate, tear fluid, breast fluid, amniotic fluid and cerumen. Potential pitfalls related to fluid collection and sample preparation, with particular attention to sample clean-up procedures, and methods of analysis, from the research laboratory to a clinical setting will also be addressed. While being apparent that proteomics/metabolomics represent the most prominent approaches for global identification/quantification of putative biomarkers for a variety of human diseases, evidence is also provided of the suitability of these sophisticated techniques for the detection of heterogeneous components carried by these fluids. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/elps.201500272
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we propose an electrochemical immunoassay into a disposable microfluidic platform, using quantum dots (QDs) as labels and their enhanced detection using bismuth as an alternative to mercury electrodes. CdSe@ZnS QDs were used as label to detect human IgG as a model protein and detected through highly sensitive stripping voltammetry of the dissolved metallic component (cadmium in our case). The modification of the screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) was done by a simple electrodeposition of bismuth which was previously mixed with the sample containing QDs. A magneto-immunosandwich assay was performed using a micromixer and a magnet placed at its outlet in order to capture the magnetic beads (MBs) used as solid support for the immunoassay. SPCEs were integrated at the end of the channel as detector. Different parameters such as bismuth concentration, flow rate, and incubation times, were optimized. The limit of detection for HIgG in presence of bismuth was 3.5 ng mL(-1) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 13.2%. This LOD was about 3.3 fold lower than the one obtained without bismuth. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the system was increased 100 fold respect to experiments carried out with classical SPEs, both in presence of bismuth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/elps.201500288
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    ABSTRACT: The transient electrophoretic response of a homogeneous suspension of spherical particles to the step application of an electric field is analyzed. The electric double layer encompassing each particle is assumed to be thin but finite, and the effect of dynamic electroosmosis within it is incorporated. The momentum equation for the fluid outside the double layers is solved through the use of a unit cell model. Closed-form formulas for the time-evolving electrophoretic and settling velocities of the particles in the Laplace transform are obtained in terms of the electrokinetic radius, relative mass density, and volume fraction of the particles. The time scale for the development of electrophoresis and sedimentation is significantly smaller for a suspension with a higher particle volume fraction or a smaller particle-to-fluid density ratio, and the electrophoretic mobility at any instant increases with an increase in the electrokinetic particle radius. The transient electrophoretic mobility is a decreasing function of the particle volume fraction if the particle-to-fluid density ratio is relatively small, but it may increase with an increase in the particle volume fraction if this density ratio is relatively large. The particle interaction effect in a suspension on the transient electrophoresis is much weaker than that on the transient sedimentation of the particles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/elps.201500316
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, ionic liquids (ILs) are finding ever broader scope within pharmaceutical and bioanalytical applications. In the current work, ACE binding measurements of tryptophan (Try)-HSA, chlorambucil (CHL)-HSA and dacarbazine (DTIC)-HSA complexes were estimated in the absence or presence of several short chain imidazolium ILs within the range of concentrations of 10.0-1000.0 μmol L(-1) that are far below the critical micelle concentrations of ILs. Results indicated that the value of binding constant of Trp-HSA was dramatically deviated in the presence of 1000.0 μmol L(-1) 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (DMIMBr) IL. However, interestingly, there is no any deviation for the Trp-HSA binding constant with 100.0 μmol L(-1) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (BMIMBr) IL as an adjuvant additive in 67.0 mmol L(-1) phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. This finding was further used to estimate the binding constants of important but weakly binding substances of CHL and DTIC antitumors with HSA; Their binding constants were also estimated by HPAC giving data in good agreement with that revealed by ACE. These achievements were attributed to the significant improvement of HSA stability by combination with BMIMBr IL through hydrogen bond, electrostatic and π-π forces. In addition, the use of 100.0 μmol L(-1) BMIMBr extended the stability of native HSA solution stored under the ambient lab conditions up to 25 days with significant improvements in the precision of ACE bindingdata. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/elps.201500199
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    ABSTRACT: The utilization of binary markers in human individual identification is gaining ground in forensic genetics. We analysed the polymorphisms from the first commercial indel kit Investigator DIPplex (Qiagen) in 512 individuals from Afrikaans, Indian, admixed Cape Coloured, and the native Bantu Xhosa and Zulu origin in South Africa and evaluated forensic and population genetics parameters for their forensic application in South Africa. The levels of genetic diversity in population and forensic parameters in South Africa are similar to other published data, with lower diversity values for the native Bantu. Departures from Hardy Weinberg expectations were observed in HLD97 in Indians, Admixed and Bantus, along with 6.83% null homozygotes in the Bantu populations. Sequencing of the flanking regions showed a previously reported transition G>A in rs17245568. Strong population structure was detected with Fst, AMOVA and the Bayesian unsupervised clustering method in STRUCTURE. Therefore we evaluated the efficiency of individual assignments to population groups using the ancestral membership proportions from STRUCTURE and the Bayesian classification algorithm in Snipper App Suite. Both methods showed low cross-assignment error (0-4%) between Bantus and either Afrikaners or Indians. The differentiation between populations seems to be driven by four loci under positive selection processes. Based on these results we draw recommendations for the application of this kit in SA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/elps.201500243
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to optimise and validate the methodology for determination of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in saliva by capillary electrophoresis (CE) combined with a contactless conductivity detector (C(4) D) and indirect UV absorbance detection (λABS = 210 nm). The optimised background electrolyte, consisting of 8.5 mM maleic acid, 17 mM arginine, 255 μM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and 15% acetonitrile, was evaluated for the separation of GHB in saliva within 6 minutes. The performance characteristics of the CE-C(4) D-indirect UV methodology was validated. The instrument detection and quantification limits were 0.49 and 1.6 mg L(-1) for C(4) D, and 5.1 mg L(-1) and 17.0 mg L(-1) for indirect UV, respectively. The linearity was obtained over the range from 2.5-400 mg L(-1) for C(4) D and from 12.5-400 mg L(-1) for indirect UV. The inter-day precisions were within 2.3-5.7% and intra-day precisions were within 1.6-9.0% for C(4) D as well as 2.1-9.3%, 5.6-10.1% for indirect UV in spiked saliva, respectively. The recoveries were within 87.2-104.4%. The matrix effects were +53.2% for small concentrations up to 25 mg L(-1) for C(4) D and +23.6% for concentrations up to 75 for mg L(-1) for indirect UV detection. No matrix effects were observed for higher concentration levels. In conclusion, CE-C4D-indirect UV can offer a rapid, accurate, sensitive and definitive method for the determination of GHB abuse in saliva samples as a forensic screening tool. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/elps.201500293
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    ABSTRACT: Clenbuterol (CL), as a feed additive, has been banned in many countries due to its potential threat to human health. In detection of CL, a fast, low-cost technique with high accuracy and specificity would be ideal for its administrative on-field inspections. Among the attempts to pursue a reliable detection tool of CL, a technique which combines surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and immunoassay, is close to meet the requirements as above. However, multiple steps of interactions between CL analyte, antibody and antigen are involved in this method, and under conventional setup, the operation of SERS/ immunoassay were unwieldy. In this paper, to facilitate a more manageable sample manipulation for SERS-immunoassay measurement, a 3D paper chip was suggested. A switch-on-chip multilayered (abbreviated as SoCM-) microfluidic paper-based analysis device (uPad) was fabricated to provide operators with manual switches on the interactions between different microfluids. Besides, on a detection slip we made on the main body of our SoCM-uPad, antigen was anchored in pattern. With this architecture, multi-step interactions between the CL analyte in swine hair extract and the SERS probe-modified antibody and antigen, were managed for on-chip SERS-immunoassay detection. This would be very attractive for fast, cheap, accurate and on-site specific detection of CL from real samples. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/elps.201500324
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    ABSTRACT: Filter paper strips were enclosed between two poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates to fabricate paper-packed channel microchips under pressure in the presence of far infrared irradiation. After the enclosed paper strip was oxidized by periodate, trypsin was covalently immobilized in them to fabricate microfluidic proteolysis bioreactor. The feasibility and performance of the unique bioreactor were demonstrated by digesting bovine serum albumin and lysozyme. The results were comparable to those of conventional in-solution proteolysis while the digestion time was significantly reduced to ∼18 s. The suitability of the microfluidic paper-based bioreactors to complex proteins was demonstrated by digesting human serum. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/elps.201500358
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    ABSTRACT: A new multidimensional analytical approach for the ultra-trace determination of target chiral compounds in unpretreated complex real samples was developed in this work. The proposed analytical system provided high orthogonality due to on-line combination of three different methods (separation mechanisms), i.e. (i) isotachophoresis (ITP), (ii) chiral capillary zone electrophoresis (chiral CZE) and (iii) triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ MS). The ITP step, performed in a large bore capillary (800 μm), was utilized for the effective sample pretreatment (preconcentration and matrix clean-up) in a large injection volume (1-10 μL) enabling to obtain as low as ca. 80 pg.mL(-1) limits of detection for the target enantiomers in urine matrices. In the chiral CZE step, the different chiral selectors (neutral, ionizable, and permanently charged cyclodextrins) and buffer systems were tested in terms of enantioselectivity and influence on the MS detection response. The performance parameters of the optimized ITP - chiral CZE-QqQ MS method were evaluated according to the FDA guidance for bioanalytical method validation. Successful validation and application (enantioselective monitoring of renally eliminated pheniramine and its metabolite in human urine) highlighted great potential of this chiral approach in advanced enantioselective biomedical applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/elps.201500351
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    ABSTRACT: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used to study the separation of the atropoisomers of four phosphoric acids and two sulfonic acids and the enantiomers of two phosphoric acids. All solutes are in their anionic forms in aqueous electrolytes. The chiral additives were two hydroxypropyl cyclodextrins (CD) and cyclofructan 6 (CF6). The CDs were able to separate four solutes and CF6 only one: binaphthyl-diyl-hydrogenophosphate (BHP). Since CF6 is able to bind with cations, nitrate of alkaline metals and Ba(2+) and Pb(2+) were added greatly improving the BHP separation at the expense of longer migration times. There seems to be a link between CF6-cation binding constants and BHP resolution factors. Cation additions were also performed with CD selectors that are less supposed to form complexes with cations. Significant improvements of enantiomer or atropoisomer separations were observed also associated with longer migration times. It is speculated that the anionic solutes associate with the added cations forming larger entities better differentiated by CDs This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/elps.201500292
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue is known to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide and currently there is neither available specific therapeutics to treat nor a vaccine to prevent this disease. Although efforts are being made, development of a vaccine against this disease remains challenging. Hawaii Biotech Inc (HBI) developed a recombinant subunit envelope protein-based vaccine against all four serotypes produced in Drosophila S2 cells which were transferred over to Merck in 2010. Each subunit of the four dengue serotypes contains the N-terminal 80% of the amino acids comprising the envelope protein (DEN-80E). A Phase 1 study using only monovalent DEN1-80E was done by HBI and most recently, a Phase 1 clinical trial of the tetravalent DEN-80E formulation (V180) was conducted. Here, we report the development of a dose assay for the tetravalent dengue vaccine-containing subunit protein of DEN1-80E, DEN2-80E, DEN3-80E, and DEN4-80E using various separation methods such as HPLC and CE. Based on the results of the comparison, the CZE separation was chosen as the most suitable method to perform the dose assay for the tetravalent dengue vaccine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/elps.201500186
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    ABSTRACT: Capillary electrophoresis is one of the most important analytical techniques. Although the injected sample volume in capillary electrophoresis is only in the nanoliter range, most commercial CE-instruments need approximately 50 μL of the sample in the injection vial to perform the analysis. Hence, in order to fully profit from the low injection volumes, smaller vial volumes are required. Thus experiments were performed using silicone oil which has higher density than water (1.09 g/mL) to replace sample dead volume in the vial. The results were compared to those performed without using the silicone oil in the sample vial. As an example five standard proteins namely beta-lactoglobulin, BSA, HSA, Myoglobin and Ovalbumin, and one of the coagulation cascade involved proteins called vitonectin were investigated using capillary electrophoresis. Mobility ratios and peak areas were compared. However no significant changes were observed (RSDs% for mobility ratios and peak areas were better than 0.9% and 5.8% respectively). Afterwards an affinity capillary electrophoresis method was used to investigate the interactions of two proteins, namely HSA and vitronectin, with three ligands namely enoxaparin sodium, unfractionated heparin and pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS). Mobility shift precision results showed that the employment of the filling has no noticeable effect on any of the protein-ligand interactions. Using a commercial PrinCE instrument and an autosampler the required sample volume is reduced down to 10 μL, and almost this complete volume can be subsequently injected during repeated experiments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/elps.201500309
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper a perturbation method is introduced to study the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a microparallel channel with 3D wall roughness. The corrugations of the two walls are periodic sinusoidal waves of small amplitude in two directions either in phase or half-period out of phase. Based on linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation, Laplace equation and the Navier-Stokes equations, the perturbation solutions of velocity, electrical potential and volume flow rate are obtained. By using numerical computation, the influences of the wall corrugations on the mean velocity are analyzed. The variations of electrical potential, velocity profile, mean velocity and their dependences on the wave number α and β of wall corrugations in two directions, the nondimensional electrokinetic width K, and the zeta potential ratio between the lower wall and the upper wall ς are analyzed graphically. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/elps.201500228