Electrophoresis (Electrophoresis )

Publisher: Electrophoresis Society; International Electrophoresis Society, John Wiley and Sons

Description

Attracting high-quality papers from the world's leading laboratories ELECTROPHORESIS has proved itself indispensable in the life sciences where electrophoresis is the most widely used method. ELECTROPHORESIS is the foremost journal for new analytical and preparative methods and for innovative applications on all aspects of electrophoresis. It has an international scope and publishes original papers short communications and review articles in the following areas: biochemistry molecular and cell biochemistry genetics immunology microbiology clinical chemistry forensics food science and many more. Special Issues Paper Symposium issues devoted to new developments prepared by an expert Guest Editor are published regularly with special emphasis on capillary electrophoresis (2-3 issues per year)and proteomics. The journal also publishes proceedings of international and national electrophoresis meetings.

  • Impact factor
    3.26
  • 5-year impact
    2.87
  • Cited half-life
    7.10
  • Immediacy index
    0.48
  • Eigenfactor
    0.03
  • Article influence
    0.63
  • Website
    Electrophoresis website
  • Other titles
    Electrophoresis (Online), Electrophoresis, Proteomics reviews
  • ISSN
    1522-2683
  • OCLC
    43388561
  • Material type
    Periodical, Program, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

John Wiley and Sons

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
    • On personal web site or secure external website at authors institution
    • Deposit in institutional repositories is not allowed
    • JASIST authors may deposit in an institutional repository
    • Non-commercial
    • Pre-print must be accompanied with set phrase (see individual journal copyright transfer agreements)
    • Published source must be acknowledged with set phrase (see individual journal copyright transfer agreements)
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'John Wiley and Sons' is an imprint of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Electrophoresis 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: High throughput particle counting by a differential resistive pulse sensing (RPS) method in a microfluidic chip is presented in this paper. A sensitive differential microfluidic sensor with multiple detecting channels and one common reference channel was devised. To test the particle counting performance of this chip, an experimental system which consists of the microfluidic chip, electric resistors, an amplification circuit, a LabView based data acquisition device was developed. The influence of the common reference channel on the signal to noise ratio (S/N) of particle detection was investigated. The relationship between the hydraulic pressure drop applied across the detecting channel and the counting throughput was experimentally obtained. The experimental results show that the reference channel designed in this work can improve the S/N by ten times, thus enabling sensitive high throughput particle counting. Because of the greatly improved S/N, the sensing gate with a size of 25 × 50 × 10 μm (W × L × H) in our chips can detect and count particles larger than 1.5 μm in diameter. The counting throughput increases with the increase in the flowing velocity of the sample solution. An average throughput of 7140 /min under a flow rate of 10 μL/min was achieved. Comparing with other methods, the structure of the chip and particle detecting mechanism reported in this paper is simple and sensitive, and does not have the cross-talking problem. Counting throughput can be adjusted simply by changing the number of the detecting channels. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we describe the developmental validation assay performed on a novel designed short tandem repeat multiplex system, AGCU 21+1 STR kit. This kit contains a sex-determining locus Amelogenin and 21 non-Combined DNA Index System STR loci, i.e., D6S474, D12ATA63, D22S1045, D10S1248, D1S1677, D11S4463, D1S1627, D3S4529, D2S441, D6S1017, D4S2408, D19S433, D17S1301, D1GATA113, D18S853, D20S482, D14S1434, D9S1122, D2S1776, D10S1435 and D5S2500. The 21+1 kit was validated by a series of tests including optimized PCR conditions, sensitivity, precision and accuracy, stutter ratio, DNA mixture, inhibitors and species specificity according to the revised validation guidelines issued by the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods. Our results in this study showed that the kit was a useful tool for forensic application. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study we investigated a new approach for studying the interaction between p53 and MDM2/X. The method is based on the different mobility between the interacting domains of the oncosuppressor p53 and its protein ligands MDM2/X on polyacrylamide gels under native conditions. While the two proteins MDM2/X alone were able to enter the gel, the formation of a binary complex between p53 and MDM2/X prevented the gel entry. The novel technique is reliable for determining the different affinity elicited by MDM2 or MDMX towards p53, and can be useful for analyzing the dissociation power exerted by other molecules on the p53•MDM2/X complex. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This work explores dielectrophoresis (DEP)-active hydrophoresis in sorting particles and cells. The device consists of pre-focusing region and sorting region with great potential to be integrated into advanced lab-on-a-chip bioanalysis devices. Particles or cells can be focused in the pre-focusing region and then sorted in the sorting region. The DEP-active hydrophoretic sorting is not only based on size but also on dielectric properties of the particles or cells of interest without any labelling. A mixture of 3 μm and 10 μm particles were sorted and collected from corresponding outlets with high separation efficiency. According to the different dielectric property of viable and nonviable Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells at the medium conductivity of 0.03 S/m, the viable CHO cells were focused well and sorted from cell sample with a high purity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Electrophoresis and dielectrophoresis of cells can reveal many distinct cellular properties but are often conducted separately. Herein a simultaneous strategy was proposed, and a simple method was established by making cells migrate through a cross channel under a micro video for real-time observation. The experiment can be performed within 0.044-1s. In combination with digital calculation based on electromagnetic theory, the method was validated to be applicable to the determination of electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic mobilities, μEP and μDEP , of human blood erythrocytes, giving μEP = - (0.87±0.16)×10(-4) cm(2) · V(-1) · s(-1) and μDEP = - (4.5±1.3)×10(-8) cm(4) · V(-2) · s(-1) by vector decomposition, or μEP = - (0.89±0.14)×10(-4) cm(2) · V(-1) · s(-1) and μDEP = - (4.6±1.2)×10(-8) cm(4) · V(-2) · s(-1) by least squares fitting, all agreeing with published data. Hydrodynamic and electroosmotic flows were eliminated for better measurement. It was found that the location of cells had a serious impact on the measurement precision, and the upstream of the cross channel along the electric field was chosen for precise measurement. The method is also extendable to the study of other cells and particles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A Tee configuration sheath flow cuvette with square cross section channels has been produced in poly(dimethylsiloxane) for capillary electrophoresis detection. The output of a 1.4 W laser diode operating at 450 nm was focused onto the 300 μm core of a 370 μm OD fiber optic whose end was inserted into one arm of the Tee for laser induced fluorescence. The optimal configuration had the fiber optic positioned 500 μm downstream from the intersection and the end of the 35 cm 50 μm ID 365 μm OD capillary just outside of the intersection and in the leg of the Tee resulting in a 90° configuration. Detection limits of 50 pM and 3 pM and linear calibrations of at least three orders of magnitude were obtained for Lucifer Yellow and fluorescein respectively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Electrophoresis 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The analysis of ionic content of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from one single breath by CE with C4D is demonstrated for the first time. A miniature sampler made from a 2 ml syringe and an aluminum cooling cylinder for collection of EBC was developed. Various parameters of the sampler that influence its collection efficiency, repeatability and effect of respiratory patterns were studied in detail. Efficient procedures for the cleanup of the miniature sampler were also developed and resulted in significant improvement of sampling repeatability. Analysis of EBC was performed by CE-C4D in a 60 mM MES/L-Histidine BGE with 30 μM CTAB and 2 mM 18-crown-6 at pH 6 and excellent repeatability of migration times (RSD < 1.3% (n = 7)) and peak areas (RSD < 7% (n = 7)) of 12 inorganic anions, cations and organic acids was obtained. It has been shown that the breathing pattern has a significant impact on the concentration of the analytes in the collected EBC. As the ventilatory pattern can be easily controlled during single exhalation, the developed collection system and method provides a highly reproducible and fast way of collecting EBC with applicability in point-of-care diagnostics.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Electrophoresis 11/2014;
  • Qian Liang, Cunlu Zhao, Chun Yang
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    ABSTRACT: Although the existing theories have predicted enhancement of electrophoretic mobility of microparticles near a solid wall, the relevant experimental studies are rare. This is mainly due to difficulties in experimentally controlling and measuring particle-wall separations under dynamic electrophoretic conditions. This paper reports an experimental verification of the enhancement of electrophoretic mobility of a microparticle moving near the wall of a microchannel. This is achieved by balancing dielectrophoretic and lift forces against gravitational force acting on the microparticle so as to control the gap of particle-wall separation. A simple experimental setup is configured and a fabrication method is developed to measure such separation gap. The experiments are conducted for various particle sizes under different electric field strengths. Our experimental results are compared against the available theoretical predictions in the literature.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Electrophoresis 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) is a major protein in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism and decreased serum levels have been observed in many species in response to inflammatory and infectious challenges. Little is known about the porcine homologue, therefore in this work we have characterized it through biochemical and proteomic techniques. In 2DE, porcine serum Apo A-I is found as three spots, the two more acidic ones corresponding to the mature protein, the more basic spot to the protein precursor. Despite high sequence coverage in LC-MS/MS we did not find a sequence or PTM difference between the two mature protein species. Besides this biochemical characterization, we measured overall levels and relative species abundance of serum Apo A-I in four different viral and bacterial porcine infectious diseases. Lower overall amounts of Apo A-I were observed in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli infections. In the 2DE protein pattern, an increase of the protein precursor together with a lower level of mature protein species were detected in the porcine circovirus type 2-systemic disease (PCV2-SD) and S. typhimurium infection. These results reveal that both the porcine serum Apo A-I concentration and the species pattern are influenced by the nature of the infectious disease.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Electrophoresis 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A series of eight chiral β-blocker drugs, acebutolol, atenolol, carazolol, carteolol, carvedilol, propranolol, sotalol and talinolol, have been enantioseparated using two single component anionic β-cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives, namely heptakis (2,3-di-O-methyl-6-sulfo)-β-cyclodextrin (HDMS-β-CD) and heptakis (2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-sulfo)-β-cyclodextrin (HDAS-β-CD), in aqueous and non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis (CE). The influence of the nature of substituents (methyl or acetyl) in positions 2 and 3 on the CD derivatives and of the electrophoretic medium (water or methanol) on the enantioselectivity and enantiomer affinity pattern of these structurally related compounds was systematically studied. All eight β-blockers could be enantioseparated at least partially in the four CE systems, except sotalol with HDMS-β-CD in non-aqueous CE (NACE). In general, lower affinity and enantioselectivity were obtained in the presence of HDMS-β-CD compared to HDAS-β-CD. Reversals of enantiomer affinity patterns were observed for all compounds. Enantiomer affinity patterns towards these two CDs were found to be opposite to each other in NACE for all compounds except carvedilol and in aqueous CE for atenolol, carteolol, talinolol and sotalol. It is particularly noteworthy that opposite enantiomer affinity patterns were also observed using the same CD derivative when the aqueous background electrolyte (BGE) was replaced with the methanolic one: for carazolol, carvedilol and propranolol in the presence of HDMS-β-CD and for acebutolol and carvedilol with HDAS-β-CD.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Electrophoresis 11/2014;
  • Jiaquan Chen, Yingxiang Du, Fenxia Zhu, Bin Chen, Qi Zhang, Shuaijing Du, Ping Li
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    ABSTRACT: It has been reported that chiral dual system is able to improve the enantioseparation of enantiomers in many cases. Currently, the dual systems involved in capillary electrophoresis (CE) chiral separation are mostly dual cyclodextrins (CDs) systems, and the polysaccharides-based chiral dual system was reported in only one paper. To the best of our knowledge, the use of chondroitin sulfate C (CSC)-based dual system for enantiomeric separation has not been reported previously. Herein, four CSC-based chiral dual systems, namely CSC/glycogen, CSC/chondroitin sulfate A (CSA), CSC/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), as well as CSC/β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), were evaluated for the first time for their enantioseparation capability by CE in this paper. During the course of the work, the influences of chiral selector concentration and buffer pH values on enantioseparation in dual systems were systematically investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the dual system consisting of CSC and glycogen exhibited better separations toward nefopam, duloxetine, sulconazole, atenolol, laudanosine and cetirizine enantiomers compared to the single CSC or glycogen system. The combination of CSC and HP-β-CD improved the separation of amlodipine and chlorphenamine enantiomers. However, no synergistic effect was observed in the CSC/CSA and CSC/β-CD systems.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Electrophoresis 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal activity loss may be due to toxicity caused mainly by amyloid-beta (1–40) and (1–42) peptides forming soluble oligomers. Here the amyloid-beta (12–28) peptide fragment (monomer) and its dimer are characterized at low pH through the modeling of their diffusion coefficients and effective electrophoretic mobilities. Translational diffusion coefficient experimental values of monomer and dimer analogues of this peptide fragment and monomer and dimer mixtures at thermodynamic equilibrium are used as reported in the literature for different monomer initial concentrations. The resulting electrokinetic and hydrodynamic global properties are employed to evaluate the amyloid-beta (12–28) peptide fragment propensity to dimerization through a thermodynamic theoretical framework. Therefore equilibrium constants are considered at pH 2.9 to elucidate one of the amyloidogenic mechanisms involving the central hydrophobic region LVFFA of the peptide spanning residues 17–21 associated with phenylalanine at positions 19 and 20 in the amino acid sequence of amyloid-beta peptides. An analysis demonstrating that peptide aggregation is a concentration-dependent process is provided, where both pair and intraparticle charge regulation phenomena become relevant. It is shown that the modeling of the effective electrophoretic mobility of the amyloid-beta (12–28) peptide fragment is crucial to understand the effect of hydrophobic region LVFFA in the amyloidogenic process.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Electrophoresis 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were incorporated into an organic polymer monolith containing 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid (AAPBA) and pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) to form a novel monolithic stationary phase for capillary electrochromatohraphy (CEC). The effects of the mass ratio of AAPBA/PETA, the amount of GO, and the volume of porogen on the morphology, permeability and pore properties of the prepared poly (AAPBA-GO-PETA) monoliths were investigated. A series of test compounds including amides, alkylbenzenes, polycyclic aromatics, phenols and anilines were used to evaluate and compare the separation performances of the poly (AAPBA-GO-PETA) and the parent poly (AAPBA-co-PETA) monoliths. The results indicated that incorporation of GO into monolithic oclumn exhibited much higher resolutions (>1.5) and column efficiency (62 000∼110 000 plates/m for toluene, DMF, formamide and thiourea) than the poly (AAPBA-co-PETA). The successful application in isocratic separation of peptides suggests the potential of the GO incorporated monolithic column in complex sample analysis. In addition, the reproducibility and stability of the prepared poly (AAPBA-GO-PETA) monolith was assessed. The run-to-run, column-to-column and batch-to-batch reproducibilities of this monolith for alkylbenzenes’ retention were satisfactory with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 1.8% (n = 5), 3.7% and 5.6% (n = 3), respectively, indicating the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Electrophoresis 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We designed one multiplex assay with a reduced number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from whole mitochondrial genome as a screening approach for forensic purposes and developed a multiplex SNaPshot assay with 26 mitochondrial SNPs (mtSNPs). This assay included 16 target mtSNPs that defined the main haplogroups in Chinese population and 10 hot-spot mtSNPs found by pyrosequencing. To validate our multiplex mtSNP assay, we not only analyzed a Chinese Han population sample, but also sequenced the complete control region of same set of individuals. Fifty-one haplotypes were observed in 204 individuals using our multiplex mtSNP assay and the haplotype diversity was estimated to be 0.9626. Our multiplex mtSNP assay could also distinguish some individuals sharing the same control region sequences. The same mtSNP profiles were obtained from the bloodstain, hair shaft and salivary swab from same individuals. A good profile could be obtained with 50 pg of DNA. It was evident that our multiplex mtSNP assay not only improved the discrimination power, but also allowed allocating mtDNA profiles to particular haplogroups not clearly defined with the control region alone. We highlight the importance of the balance of target mtSNPs for haplogroup assignment and hot-spot mtSNPs for increasing discrimination power.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Electrophoresis 11/2014;
  • Hsiang‐Yin Liu, Tzung‐Jeng Hwang, I‐Lin Tsai, Ching‐Hua Kuo
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    ABSTRACT: Paliperidone is a new antipsychotic drug with a relatively low therapeutic concentration of 20–60 ng mL−1. We established an accurate and sensitive capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of paliperidone concentrations in human plasma in this study. To minimize matrix effect caused quantification errors, paliperidone was extracted from human plasma using Oasis HLB solid phase extraction cartridges with three step washing procedure. To achieve sensitive quantification of paliperidone in human plasma, a high conductivity sample solution with sweeping-MEKC method was applied for analysis. The separation is performed in a background electrolyte composed of 75 mM phosphoric acid, 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, 12% acetonitrile, and 15% tetrahydrofuran. Sample solution consisted of 10% methanol in 250 mM phosphoric acid and the conductivity ratio between sample matrix and BGE was 2.0 (γ, sample/BGE). The results showed it able to detect paliperidone in plasma samples at concentration as low as 10 ng mL−1 (S/N = 3) with a linear range between 20–200 ng mL−1. Compared to the conventional MEKC method, the sensitivity enhancement factor (SEF) of the developed sweeping-MEKC method was 100. Intra- and interday precision of peak area ratios were less than 6.03%; the method accuracy was between 93.4 and 97.9%. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of plasma samples of patients undergoing paliperidone treatment.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Electrophoresis 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a chiral drug can significantly differ between application of the racemate and single enantiomers. During drug development, the characteristics of candidate compounds have to be assessed prior to clinical testing. Since biotransformation significantly influences drug actions in an organism, metabolism studies represent a crucial part of such tests. Hence, an optimized and economical capillary electrophoretic method for on-line studies of the enantioselective drug metabolism mediated by cytochrome P450 enzymes was developed. It comprises a diffusion-based procedure, which enables mixing of the enzyme with virtually any compound inside the nanoliter-scale capillary reactor and without the need of additional optimization of mixing conditions. For CYP3A4, ketamine as probe substrate and highly sulfated γ-cyclodextrin as chiral selector, improved separation conditions for ketamine and norketamine enantiomers compared to a previously published electrophoretically mediated microanalysis method were elucidated. The new approach was thoroughly validated for the CYP3A4 mediated N-demethylation pathway of ketamine and applied to the determination of its kinetic parameters and the inhibition characteristics in presence of ketoconazole and dexmedetomidine. The determined parameters were found to be comparable to literature data obtained with different techniques. The presented method constitutes a miniaturized and cost-effective tool which should be suitable for the assessment of the stereoselective aspects of kinetic and inhibition studies of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolic steps within early stages of the development of a new drug.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Electrophoresis 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The separation mechanisms for palonosetron (PALO) stereoisomers in MEKC using sodium cholate (SC) as surfactant and chiral selector have been studied, in a wide range of concentrations below and above the CMC. It was found that SC micelles only provide chirally selective recognition for 3a carbon chiral center in PALO molecules. The resolution of the configurations of 2 carbon chiral center is achieved by the difference of mobility in continuous phase. A schematic diagram depicting the separation mechanisms and the corresponding migration orders among all of four stereoisomers was proposed based on the measured separation parameters. A MEKC method to achieve the complete separation of four stereoisomers in very short time using a very low chiral selector concentration, instead of high concentrations generally considered, was developed based on the understanding of the mechanisms.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Electrophoresis 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A computer simulation study describing the electrophoretic separation and migration of methadone enantiomers in presence of free and immobilized (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin is presented. The 1:1 interaction of methadone with the neutral CD was simulated by using experimentally determined mobilities and complexation constants for the complexes in a low pH BGE comprising phosphoric acid and KOH. The use of complex mobilities represents free solution conditions with the chiral selector being a buffer additive, whereas complex mobilities set to zero provide data that mimic migration and separation with the chiral selector being immobilized, i.e. CEC conditions in absence of unspecific interaction between analytes and the chiral stationary phase. Simulation data reveal that separations are quicker, electrophoretic displacement rates are reduced, and sensitivity is enhanced in CEC with on-column detection in comparison to free solution conditions. Simulation is used to study electrophoretic analyte behavior at the interface between sample and the CEC column with the chiral selector (analyte stacking) and at the rear end when analytes leave the environment with complexation (analyte destacking). The latter aspect is relevant for off-column analyte detection in CEC and is described here for the first time via the dynamics of migrating analyte zones. Simulation provides insight into means to counteract analyte dilution at the column end via use of a BGE with higher conductivity. Furthermore, the impact of electroosmotic flow on analyte migration, separation and detection for configurations with the selector zone being displaced or remaining immobilized under buffer flow is simulated. In all cases, the data reveal that detection should occur within or immediately after the selector zone.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Electrophoresis 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular crowding is a new approach to stabilizing binding sites and improving molecular recognition. In this work, the concept was applied to the preparation of imprinted monolithic columns for capillary electrochromatography (CEC). The imprinted monolithic column was synthesized using a mixture of d-zopiclone (d-ZOP)(template), methacrylic acid, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and poly (methyl methacrylate)(PMMA)(molecular crowding agent). The resulting PMMA-based imprinted capillary was able to separate ZOP enantiomers in CEC mode. The resolution of enantiomer separation achieved on the d-ZOP-imprinted monolithic column was up to 2.09. Some polymerization factors, such as template-monomer molar ratio, functional monomer-crosslinker molar ratio and the composition of the porogen, on the imprinting effect of resulting MIP monolithic column were systematically investigated. Chromatographic parameters, including pH values, the content of acetonitrile and the salt concentration on chiral separation were also studied. The results indicated the addition of PMMA resulted in MIPs with superior retention properties and excellent selectivity for d-ZOP, as compared to the MIPs prepared without addition of the crowding-inducing agent. The results revealed that molecular crowding is an effective method for the preparation of a highly efficient MIP stationary phase for chiral separation in CEC.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Electrophoresis 11/2014;