Starch - Starke

Publisher: Wiley-VCH Verlag

Journal description

In an age of diminishing non-renewable energy resources and heightened ecological awareness it is imperative that more attention be given to renewable resources. For over 40 years the journal starch has focused on the most important of these: carbohydrates such as cellulose starch and sugars produced by photosynthesis. Comprehensive and topical it examines the new technology necessary to exploit these resources and publishes original articles dealing with fundamental and applied studies. Particular attention is given to recent studies on new starch resources modified starches starch derivatives and starch saccharification products. Book reviews an extensive documentation service patent reviews and previews of symposia complete the package. Kurztext In einem Zeitalter abnehmender nichterneuerbarer Energiequellen und gesteigertem Umweltbewußtsein ist es unbedingt erforderlich mehr Augenmerk auf die Möglichkeiten der Nutzung von nachwachsenden Rohstoffen zu legen. Seit mehr als 40 Jahren leistet die Zeitschrift stärke hierzu einen wichtigen Beitrag: Sie konzentriert sich auf die wichtigsten Vertreter der nachwachsenden Rohstoffe die Kohlenhydrate wie z.B. Zellulose Stärke und Zucker die durch Photosynthese in den Pflanzen gebildet werden. Umfassend und aktuell wird der Leser über neue Technologien zur Nutzung dieser Rohstoffe informiert.

Current impact factor: 1.40

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.401
2012 Impact Factor 1.22
2011 Impact Factor 1.243
2010 Impact Factor 1.261
2009 Impact Factor 0.832
2008 Impact Factor 1
2007 Impact Factor 1.064
2006 Impact Factor 1.136
2005 Impact Factor 0.661
2004 Impact Factor 1.05
2003 Impact Factor 1.025
2002 Impact Factor 0.839
2001 Impact Factor 0.741
2000 Impact Factor 0.659
1999 Impact Factor 0.641
1998 Impact Factor 0.66
1997 Impact Factor 0.647
1996 Impact Factor 0.599
1995 Impact Factor 0.71
1994 Impact Factor 0.701
1993 Impact Factor 0.61
1992 Impact Factor 0.581

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.47
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.20
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.31
Website Starch / Stärke website
Other titles Stärke (Online), Starch, Starch/stärke, Starch - stärke
ISSN 1521-379X
OCLC 44089816
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Wiley-VCH Verlag

  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • Upon funder agreement with publisher
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print may be deposited on personal intranet or institutional intranet repository, but not on a public repository
    • Pre-print must not updates with future versions
    • Published source must be acknowledged with set phrases (See policy)
    • Must link to publisher's site:
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Some journal exceptions-check individual homepages
  • Classification
    ​ white

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effect of date syrup on pasting, rheological and retrogradation properties of cornstarch gels was investigated using an HR-2 Discovery Rheometer equipped with a pasting cell and parallel plate geometry. Pasting and rheological measurements were made on 6% (dry basis) corn starch with different levels of date syrup (starch: syrup; 1:0, 1:1, 1:2 or 1:3). The pasting measurements showed that addition of the date syrup increased the pasting temperature with increasing date syrup levels versus controls. Rheological measurements showed that peak viscosity and elastic modulus (G’) increased with increases in date syrup (1:2 - 1:3) but this decreased at 1:1 versus control. Changes in elastic modulus as a result of cold storage for one week decreases with increases in date syrup concentration. This suggested that the date syrup could be an effective sweetener in reducing starch gel retrogradation during cold storage.
    Starch - Starke 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500062
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    ABSTRACT: Maize grits with or without starchy additives (native wheat starch, distarch phosphates, soluble fibre) were extruded through a single-screw laboratory extruder Brabender KE 19/25 with a controlled barrel temperature in three zones and in a head, die diameter 4 mm, comprising a compression ratio of the screw of 2:1. The purpose was to influence resistant starch (RS) content together with improving /saving key physicochemical properties by controlling extrusion cooking variables (water addition into feed of 5 -20 percent, screw speed 80 rpm - 120 rpm, temperature, mass fraction of the additive in the dry premix 0 -50%). The influences of most starchy additives were negligible. Pre-gelatinized cross-linked starch and soluble fibre Nutriose influenced significantly the process pressure, where a low value exhibited high values RS. Based on the data of forty eight trials, seven mathematical optimization models were computed. High RS content worsened the expansion ratio. To obtain a RS content of 1% it was necessary to decrease expansion ratio to 1.7 where the breaking strength was acceptable. The result of minimizing resistant starch content created an expansion ratio from 2.6 to 2.7, a breaking strength ≤ 1 N/mm2 and a RS content (maximum) of 0.2 %.
    Starch - Starke 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500059
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    ABSTRACT: The differential influence of dry heat treatment on pasting, thermal, morphological, and crystalline structural properties of glutinous rice starch (GRS) and glutinous rice flour (GRF) in a dry state for 0, 2, or 4 h at 130°C were studied. The results revealed that the viscosity and thermal stability of GRS and GRF increased after dry heat treatment. Peak viscosity of GRF rose nearly threefold from 1156 to 3145 cP. The number of disulphide bonds in GRF increased from 1.93 to 3.19 µmol/g, indicating the covalent SS linkages after dry heat treatment may result in the changes of protein structure, which may greatly influence properties of dry heated flour. Morphology of gelatinized GRS was denser, and a strong laminar structure was observed for gelatinized GRF after dry heat treatment. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy indicated that both GRS and GRF had relatively higher transmittance intensities in the region of 1068 and 1022 cm-1. X-ray diffraction showed that the crystallinity of GRS increased from 32.82 to 35.02% and GRF increased from 29.32 to 34.14% after dry heat treatment. Dry heat treatment had greater effects on viscosity and structural properties of GRF than those of GRS.
    Starch - Starke 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500016
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of water deficit after pollination on the physicochemical properties of waxy maize starch were clarified, using Suyunuo5 and Yunuo7 as test materials. Pot experiments were conducted in 2012 and 2013; a pool trial was performed in 2014. Results indicated that the starch granule size was decreased by water deficit in both pot and pool experiments. Furthermore, the water deficit reduced the starch crystallinity and peak intensities at different reflection angles. The reduced iodine binding capacity under drought condition indicated that the proportion of long chains in amylopectin was decreased by water deficit. Swelling power was only decreased by drought under pool condition. The structural changes in starch decreased the peak and breakdown viscosities, but increased the retrogradation percentage. The maximum absorption wavelength, blue value, gelatinization enthalpy, pasting and gelatinization temperatures of starch were not affected by the water deficit. Therefore, drought during grain filling deteriorated the pasting viscosities and increased the tendency of retrogradation by reducing the starch granule size, proportion of long-chains in amylopectin, swelling power and crystallinity.
    Starch - Starke 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500061
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    ABSTRACT: In this research, acid hydrolyzed starch, B-type microcrystalline starch and amorphous starch were prepared from natural corn starch. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were used to analyze the structure of these four types of starches. The Raman spectrum scattering peaks have decreased vibration wave numbers because of the changes of crystal type, and the intensity of each Raman peak is related to the size of the crystalline region. By identifying the scattering peak area in Raman spectrum as the crystalline region and the total area under the scattering curve minus the fluorescent area as the sum of the amorphous and crystalline regions, we have established a useful method for calculating the crystallinity of starch samples by Raman spectra. The comparison of results by Raman spectra with those by X-ray diffraction indicated that when the sample had high crystallinity, the difference between XRD and Raman spectrum results is small. When the sample crystallinity was low, the error of this method was only slightly larger. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy could be used as an efficient method for evaluation of the relative crystallinity of starches.
    Starch - Starke 04/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201400246
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    ABSTRACT: Bacillus licheniformis TSI-14 was isolated form a natural hot water reservoir of TulsiShyam in the Gir Forest, Gujarat (India). The bacterium was identified by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Amylase production was optimized using an RSM approach (Response Surface Methodology; variables: temperature, pH, medium yeast extract and peptone, and incubation period). These data were refined using Central Composite Design (CCD). The conditions deduced for the maximal α-amylase production were 50°C, pH 7.0 and incubation times of 2 days. A 4.6 fold increase in α-amylase was achieved. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme is 31 KDa by SDS-PAGE. It is active at elevated temperatures such as 90 °C, and it prefers pH values around neutral. Optimum catalysis and stability occurred at 70 °C and pH 7. There is a strong Mg++ dependency evident; other metal ions show inhibition to a lesser or greater extent. The chelator EDTA completely inhibits while inhibitors urea and beta-mercaptoethanol show inhibition to a greater extent; thiourea enhances activity. Malto-oligosaccharides are intermediate products along with maltose as expected of a α-amylase.
    Starch - Starke 04/2015; 67(7-8). DOI:10.1002/star.201500046
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    ABSTRACT: The role of starch in frozen dough was investigated by freezing and thawing wheat starch suspension for 3, 7, and 10 cycles. Freezing caused an increasing damaged starch and leaching materials, as well as the morphological changes of the starch granules. After 10 cycles of freezing and thawing, the relative crystallinity and short-range order increased by 4.3% and 0.251, respectively. These changes resulted in a substantial increase in the gelatinization temperatures, melting enthalpy, and pasting viscosities. Freezing/thawing-treated starch (FTS) showed high susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis while the resistant starch content of 10 FTS decreased by 28%. Compared with the native starch, an apparent decrease was observed in the specific volume of 86% substitution of bread with FTS while the crumb firmness significantly increased (P>0.05). Our results showed that freezing could significantly alter the structural and functional properties of wheat starch, thus facilitating irreversible structural transformations from dough to bread.
    Starch - Starke 04/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500036
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    ABSTRACT: Linear starch form inclusion complexes with fatty acids through hydrophobic interaction. The complexation between starch and fatty acid is affected by many factors, such as starch degree of polymerization (DP), fatty acid structure, and complexation conditions. There is limited information on the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in understanding starch-fatty acid interactions. The effects of temperature and concentration of hexanoic acid on the complexation of debranched waxy maize starch and potato amylose were investigated using ITC. The starch samples were characterized for their molecular size distribution and iodine affinity. Potato amylose and debranched waxy maize starch displayed a major peak DP of 330 and 25, and iodine affinity of 2.9 and 13.9, respectively. The ITC titration data were fitted best to a one set of binding site model. Complexation was exothermic and spontaneous for all reactions based on changes in enthalpy of free energy (ΔG). The binding affinity (Ka) of debranched waxy maize starch for hexanoic acid decreased with an increase in temperature from 25 to 45°C. The Ka and number of binding sites (n) for debranched waxy maize exceeded those of potato amylose, indicating a higher complexation of debranched waxy maize for hexanoic acid. The number of binding sites (n) and enthalpy of binding (▵H) values for both starches remained independent of temperature change. The ITC results demonstrated that debranched waxy maize starch was favored over potato amylose to complex hexanoic acid.
    Starch - Starke 04/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500030
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    ABSTRACT: Aqueous dispersions of the extrudates (1%) prepared from three maize varieties containing starches with the various amylose contents (20-53%) and the high lipid level (about 7% on dry starch weight) were studied by DSC-analysis. Two different types of amylose-lipid complexes were observed in the direct process (20-120 °C, peak temperature of about 105-107 °C) and when reheating/rescanning modes were employed (peak temperature of about 85 °C). The extrudate dispersions heated only up to 100 °С in the direct DSC-scanning modes revealed a double-peaked endothermic profile in the rescans that gave the evidence for co-existence of both types of the complexes. The possible reasons underlying formation, re-formation and/or co-existence of two types of the amylose-lipids complexes in the maize extrudates studied are discussed.
    Starch - Starke 04/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500012
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    ABSTRACT: Enrichment of cereals with healthy ingredients such as resistant starch (RS) may enhance their health value in human and animal nutrition. We recently observed some effects of citric acid (CA) and lactic acid (LA) on RS in barley. The main goal of this research was to evaluate potential additive effects of an additional thermal treatment on RS and other key nutrients of barley grain. Barley samples were steeped in 5% solutions (vol/vol) of CA or LA for 24 h, in 2 different temperatures (22°C or oven-heating at 50°C), without or with a subsequent rapid cooling (4°C) of the oven-heated barley. An additional treatment was a retrogradation cycle (first heating at 100°C and then rapid cooling at 4°C for 2 h each) after treatments with CA and LA. Both rapid cooling at 4°C and retrogradation cycling doubled the RS content of barley compared to untreated control and chemical treatment alone. Chemical treatments decreased ash, protein, and insoluble fibers, but increased the recovery of the organic residues, a fraction that includes soluble fibers. These changes in the chemical composition of barley might contribute to an enhanced health value of the treated cereal, but more research is warranted to validate these findings in in vivo trials.
    Starch - Starke 04/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500040
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    ABSTRACT: Acrostichum aureum is a perennial mangrove fern with horizontally growing massive rhizome. Nutritional and physicochemical characteristics of the rhizome and extracted starch was examined. The rhizome was found to be a rich source of starch and essential nutrients like protein, fibre, ash and minerals. The rhizome had 53% starch. Starch granules showed variation in shape and sizes. Amylose content of the starch was 24%. The pH of the starch was slightly acidic. Physicochemical and nutritional studies indicated that fern starch can be used as food substitute and for the pharmaceutical application.
    Starch - Starke 04/2015; 67(7-8). DOI:10.1002/star.201500024
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of NaCl (0−1.0 mol/L) on the freeze-thaw stability of tapioca starch (TS) gels was investigated by syneresis measurements, texture analysis and thermal analysis. Furthermore, SEM images, the spin-spin relaxation time (T2) and freezable water on TS during freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs) and zeta potential of TS gels was compared to research the possible reasons of the effect. NaCl reduced the syneresis percentage and hardness of TS gels. DSC experiments demonstrated that starch retrogradation was retarded by NaCl addition. Micrograph images revealed that increased NaCl concentrations decreased the size of ice crystal in the gels and led to fewer links within the starch matrix. The T2 of the system with NaCl decreased more quickly than that without NaCl during FTCs. Moreover, the amount of freezable water in the starch and the zeta potential of the starch gels decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations; the both retarded the association of starch molecules during FTCs. Thus, NaCl effectively preserved the quality of freeze-thawed TS gels, and it might be used to preserve the quality of frozen TS-based products.
    Starch - Starke 04/2015; 67(7-8). DOI:10.1002/star.201500048
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    ABSTRACT: Influences of high speed jet (HSJ) treatment on solubility, rheological characteristics, morphology and crystalline structure of indica rice starch were investigated. The solubility of indica rice starch was improved significantly from 1.34% to 32.4%. Dynamic oscillation analysis revealed that HSJ treatment significantly altered the viscoelasticity of rice starch. During a dynamic frequency sweep, G′20Hz was decreased from 3382 to 268 Pa, indicating that HSJ treatment had a great influence on the elasticity of the resulting rice starch gel. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that rice starch granules lost their integrity. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that, upon HSJ treatment, rice starch lost it A-type crystalline structure and became amorphous. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed a decrease in onset temperatures (To) and gelatinization enthalpies (ΔH) and on increase in peak temperatures (Tp). The results indicated that the HSJ treatment is an effective technique for improving rice starch solubility and altering its rheological properties.
    Starch - Starke 04/2015; 67(7-8). DOI:10.1002/star.201400256
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    ABSTRACT: Chestnut starches were isolated from chestnuts cultivated in three different regions of Korea (Gongju-si (GJ), Gwangyang-si (GY), and Hadong-gun (HD)), and their physicochemical properties were investigated to assess further potential commercial uses of chestnuts. GJ and HD had higher protein and fat content than GY. GJ had the highest amylose content (20.37%). Chestnut starch granules were shaped as rounded triangles or irregular ovals, 2-10 μm in size, with B-type X-ray diffraction patterns. HD showed the highest solubility and swelling power at 90 °C. DSC analysis revealed that the thermal properties of the three starches were not significantly different (p<0.05). In RVA, chestnut starches displayed relatively lower pasting temperatures and higher peak viscosity and breakdown values than corn starch. It is very interesting to note that chestnut starches formed gels at relatively low concentrations (5%), and their gels had much higher freeze-thaw stability than corn starch.
    Starch - Starke 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500034