Starch - Starke

Description

In an age of diminishing non-renewable energy resources and heightened ecological awareness it is imperative that more attention be given to renewable resources. For over 40 years the journal starch has focused on the most important of these: carbohydrates such as cellulose starch and sugars produced by photosynthesis. Comprehensive and topical it examines the new technology necessary to exploit these resources and publishes original articles dealing with fundamental and applied studies. Particular attention is given to recent studies on new starch resources modified starches starch derivatives and starch saccharification products. Book reviews an extensive documentation service patent reviews and previews of symposia complete the package. Kurztext In einem Zeitalter abnehmender nichterneuerbarer Energiequellen und gesteigertem Umweltbewußtsein ist es unbedingt erforderlich mehr Augenmerk auf die Möglichkeiten der Nutzung von nachwachsenden Rohstoffen zu legen. Seit mehr als 40 Jahren leistet die Zeitschrift stärke hierzu einen wichtigen Beitrag: Sie konzentriert sich auf die wichtigsten Vertreter der nachwachsenden Rohstoffe die Kohlenhydrate wie z.B. Zellulose Stärke und Zucker die durch Photosynthese in den Pflanzen gebildet werden. Umfassend und aktuell wird der Leser über neue Technologien zur Nutzung dieser Rohstoffe informiert.

  • Impact factor
    1.22
  • 5-year impact
    1.47
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.20
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.31
  • Website
    Starch / Stärke website
  • Other titles
    Stärke (Online), Starch, Starch/stärke, Starch - stärke
  • ISSN
    1521-379X
  • OCLC
    44089816
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The large endosperm of dicotyledon Mirabilis jalapa may have food and non-food industrial applications because of its high starch content. In this study, the structural and functional properties of endosperm starch and flour from M. jalapa were investigated. Each seed (about 170.8 mg fresh weight) contained approximately 37.3 mg of dry endosperm. The endosperm contained about 80.1% starch, 1.5% soluble sugar, and 2.3% protein. Starch granules were small (about 1.5 μm) with a regular spherical shape. The starch contained about 56.5% short branch-chain of amylopectin, 21.3% long branch-chain of amylopectin, and 22.2% amylose. The starch and flour had CA-type crystallinity, while the swelling power and water solubility of starch were 15.8 g/g and 17.1%, respectively. The starch had lower gelatinization temperature and higher pasting viscosity than flour. No peak and hot viscosity was observed in pasting profiles of starch and flour. The flour had higher resistance to acid and amylase hydrolysis than starch. Native, gelatinized and retrograded starches had about 16.3%, 86.6%, and 76.6% of rapidly digestible starch, and 46.5%, 2.4%, and 11.8% of resistant starch, respectively. These results were compared with those obtained from monocotyledon rice endosperm starch and flour.
    Starch - Starke 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid viscoanalyser (RVA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) can be applied to study thermal transitions in starch based systems at different water levels. The effect of different hydrocolloids on wheat starch thermal transitions in the presence and absence of NaCl (2%) was evaluated in flour-hydrocolloid suspensions, starch-hydrocolloid mixtures and dough. These hydrocolloids include microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), two types of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC F 4M and F50), a low methoxyl pectin (LMP) and a high methoxyl pectin (HMP). The suspensions were submitted to a heating/cooling cycle in an RVA and a DSC was used to evaluate gelatinization and ALC transition in dough and mixtures. All of the suspensions containing NaCl exhibited higher hot paste stability. Furthermore, CMC and pectins showed an inhibitory effect on amylose retrogradation. Results also showed that starch thermal transitions in limited and excess water can be highly affected by hydrocolloids, particularly when NaCl is present.
    Starch - Starke 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Among cereal grains, rice is the world's leading source of caloric energy in the human diet. About 90% of a milled rice kernel is starch (dry weight basis), thus justifying the need to understand the impacts of factors affecting starch composition and behavior when processed. This review presents past and current perspectives regarding the effects of growing environment on the macro, micro, and nano level structures of rice starch. The environmental elements considered in this work are: air temperature, atmospheric carbon dioxide, light, water, and soil nutrients. All these elements are essential for plant development and reproduction. The effect of air temperature is the most widely explored aspect of the environment in relation to rice production and grain quality. This could be attributed in part to the recently purported and highly publicized global warming phenomenon. Amylose content has remained a major predictor of rice starch quality but emerging instrumental techniques have facilitated more thorough research addressing the fine structure of amylopectin, which constitutes ∼70% of the starch present in a milled rice kernel. Kernel chalkiness appears to be the most common visual manifestation of environment-related stress. Typically, there are genotype by environment interactions; this may result in inconsistent temporal and spatial findings. However, such interactions may prove useful in identifying particular genotypes that are adaptable and stable across growing locations.
    Starch - Starke 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The current study investigates the amount of charged groups induced by sulfuric acid hydrolysis on the surface of starch nanocrystals. Conductometric titration revealed the existence of both weak and strong acidic groups. Strong acidic groups (sulfate ester groups) were present at low amounts (13.2 mmol kg-1) and their concentration increased with increasing duration of hydrolysis. The amounts of weak acidic groups (carboxylic acid) were greater (32 to 38 mmol kg-1) and the duration of hydrolysis appeared to have no effect. Negative zeta potential values were measured in the studied pH ranges (2.3 and 10). Zeta potential decreased for pH values fewer than 4, remained constant between 4 and 8, then decreased for higher values. Absolute zeta potential values were low (-6 to -29 mV) which could explain the poor suspension stability and the great tendency for particles to aggregate and settle in an aqueous medium. The increase in the pH of the suspension resulted in a lower aggregation as the mean apparent size of the particles decreased in this case. The increase in ionic strength had a similar effect, although the mechanisms involved were hypothesised to be quite different.
    Starch - Starke 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The present work was carried out to study the effect of acetylation (0, 3, 6 and 9 g vinyl acetate/gram starch) on the physico-chemical properties of starch, isolated from Indian horse chestnut (Aesculus indica). Work on starch acetylation and characterization from Indian horse chestnut has not been reported so far in literature. Moisture, protein, fat and ash content of native starch was found as 5.97%, 0.27%, 0.22% and 0.01%, respectively. Acetyl content, swelling index, solubility index and water absorption capacity of acetylated starch increased with increase in acetyl %, whereas, pasting temperature, syneresis and amylose content reduced with acetylation. Granule morphology under the scanning electron microscopy revealed that granules were round, oval, irregular or elliptical with smooth surfaces.
    Starch - Starke 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Four commercial products based on pyrodextrins and differing in viscosity and digestibility in vitro were studied in the aspect of their surface activity. Their assimilability by probiotic strains of bacteria from genus Lactobacillus was checked by analysis of the growth of four bacteria strains cultured on a modified MRS medium containing the commercial pyrodextrins instead of glucose. Interfacial tension at the air/water and toluene/water interfaces was measured with a du Noüy tensiometer. Experimental isotherms were approximated with the Szyszkowski equation and surface parameters were calculated. It was established that commercial pyrodextrins show digestibility reduced to about 50% as well as surface activity that makes them useful as emulsifiers. The presence of dextrins in the medium has no effect on the growth of any of the probiotic Lactobacillus bacteria strains studied, but significantly modifies their metabolic activity resulting in changes in type and amount of the short chain fatty acids produced.
    Starch - Starke 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Active antioxidant food packaging films were developed by the incorporation of ascorbic acid (AA) and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) into a rice starch-glycerol matrix. BHT significantly improved the water resistance of starch films. Both AA and BHT promoted significant increase in the elastic modulus but a decrease in film stretchability. S/G/BHT film presented significant decrease in water vapour permeability (WVP). AA and BHT significantly affected the lightness (L*) and yellow (b*) color of the films with minor differences in the green (a*) color. SEM revealed smooth surface of the films. Thermal analysis showed increase in glass transition temperature (Tg) and enthalphy of transition (ΔH) of films with the incorporation of AA and BHT. Exposure of the films to various food simulants showed that the release from the films was dependent on the type of food simulant and the antioxidant. In the aqueous food simulant, films containing ascorbic acid (S/G/AA) produced the largest release and in the fatty food stimulant S/G/BHT film presented fast release.
    Starch - Starke 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Edible films based on 80:20 waxy:normal corn starch were evaluated for their potential use in the food industry. Two types of film were prepared by the casting method: The first from native corn starch and the second from starch modified with glycerol. The influence of this chemical modification on the physicochemical and mechanical properties of both the starch and films was investigated. The phosphation of the base material improved the interaction between the plasticizer and the modified starch. This was demonstrated by the lower moisture content and water activity, higher crystallinity, greater elongation under stress and higher thermal resistance observed for the cross-linked films. The results showed that high quality edible films can be prepared from modified 80:20 waxy:normal corn starch, and demonstrated their potential as a coating or packaging material in the food industry.
    Starch - Starke 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A complete SGP null mutant (Sgp-A1B1D1 null) winter wheat line was crossed with three wheat varieties: ‘Ukrainka’, ‘Lona’ and ‘Solstice’. Three backcrosses (BCs) were carried out and marker assisted selection used to identify lines carrying all the three mutant alleles for each cross. BC3 and BC2xBC2 F3, F4 and F5 lines (2012-2014) were studied in detail for physical (thousand kernel weight), compositional (protein, gluten, amylose) and starch viscosity properties (rapid visco analyser-RVA). Ten triple mutant high-amylose lines (∼40%) were identified among the BC2xBC2 lines, which had high protein content (>14%), low starch content, gluten index, starch viscosity values and thousand kernel weight. Two of these lines had moderately high amylose (∼30%) content, with outstanding gluten quality, but modified starch viscosity properties.
    Starch - Starke 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Sorghum is a grain with potential for developing foods with slow starch digestion, of benefit to healthy glucose metabolism. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the effects of total moisture in barrel (22-25%), final barrel zone temperature (115-140°C), and sorghum flour in dry mix (30-80%) during extrusion of sorghum-maize flour, on extrudate slowly digested starch (SDS) and expansion ratio. SDS level had a negative linear association (p= 0.007) with final barrel zone temperature and a positive linear association (p<0.001) with sorghum level. Expansion ratio had a quadratic association with final barrel zone temperature (P=0.002) and moisture in barrel (p<0.001). A linear model described the combined effects of extrusion parameters on SDS levels (R2=68.23%), while a quadratic model described their effects on expansion ratio (R2=75.24%). SDS level was positively associated with both polyphenolic level (r=0.622, p=0.001) and antioxidant capacity (r=0.668, p=0.001). The validated RSM model indicated that 22% total moisture in barrel, 115°C final barrel temperature zone, and 74.67% sorghum in dry mix were optimum settings to deliver maximum levels of SDS with adequate expansion ratio. This is the first report of the optimisation of SDS level in a sorghum based extrudate. These findings demonstrate the potential of sorghum for the development of extruded snack foods with elevated levels of both SDS and antioxidant capacity.
    Starch - Starke 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Tartary buckwheat, which has nutritional and health benefits, has been consumed in China for so many years. However, its predominant component, starch, limits the application range of tartary buckwheat in the food industry. In this study, tartary buckwheat starch (TBS) was extracted and subjected to heat-moisture treatment (HMT) at different moisture levels (20-35%). Both the solubility and swelling power of native starch significantly decreased following HMT. In HMT-modified TBS, oil absorption capacity decreased and water absorption capacity increased with increasing moisture level. The typical A-type X-ray diffraction pattern of native starch was not affected by HMT. Gelatinization temperature, gelatinization temperature range, and relative crystallinity increased with increasing moisture level. However, peak viscosity, gelatinization enthalpy, hardness, and adhesiveness of starch gels significantly decreased with moisture level. These results revealed that the structure and physicochemical properties of TBS can be modified by HMT to improve its thermal stability and extend its application range.
    Starch - Starke 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Medium optimization for production of raw starch degrading enzyme (RSDE) from a newly isolated thermophilic filamentous bacterium, Laceyella sacchari LP175, is described. Yeast extract and raw cassava starch were found to be the best nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, for enzyme production. Response surface methodology with Plackett-Burman design and central composite design showed that an optimized concentration of 4.93 g/L raw cassava starch and 2.8 g/L yeast extract in basal medium yielded 181.1 U/mL RSDE activity in a shaking flask at 50 °C and pH 7.0 after 48 h. Maximum RDSE activity in crude enzyme was achieved at pH 6.5 and 50 °C. The major end product of raw cassava starch hydrolysis was maltose (88%). The Km and Ki values of raw cassava starch and maltose, respectively, were found to be 2.85 mg/mL and 1.04 mg/mL. Raw cassava starch at 100 g/L was hydrolyzed with 200 U/mL RSDE for 12 h, yielding 36.8% hydrolysis. The addition of commercial glucoamylase (1.6 U/mL) synergistically enhanced the hydrolysis reaction, yielding 70% hydrolysis (equivalent to 78.0 g/L glucose). The high efficiency of RSDE produced from L. sacchari LP175 could be useful for replacing conventional enzymes currently used in various raw starch processing industries.
    Starch - Starke 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Native and modified starches are important raw materials used in the industry. Gelatinization and rheological properties of starch are primary physicochemical properties to determine its applications. Starch gelatinization refers to a process that starch loses the native order and crystalline structure of the granules and becomes amorphous. Key rheological properties of starch include pasting property, viscosity of starch paste, and rheological features of starch gel. In this review, gelatinization and rheological properties of native starches from different botanical sources are compared and impacts of other ingredients, including sugars, salts, and lipids, on the properties are summarized. The review also covers current understandings of the gelatinization and rheological properties of modified starches with different structures. The information provided will be useful for the applications of starch in the industry as well as fundamental research in this field.
    Starch - Starke 11/2014;
  • Starch - Starke 11/2014; 66(11-12).
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    ABSTRACT: One cause of obesity and related diseases like type-2 diabetes is overconsumption of cereal foods with readily available carbohydrates, resulting in hyperglycaemia and ultimately insulin resistance. A strategy to combat this is to modulate glycaemic response through starchy cereal foods that have low glycaemic index (GI) because their starch is less available to digestion. In cereals, many factors can limit accessibility of amylase to the starch. Of these, intact pieces of endosperm, high levels of oat or barley β-glucan and high amylose starch are probably the most important. Starch accessibility in cereal foods is also greatly affected by processing. Heat-moisture thermal processing at low moisture above glass transition temperature, but below gelatinization temperature is probably the most effective processing technology to reduce starch availability. Formation of starch-lipid complexes also appears promising. Whole grain (milled whole kernel) cereal foods are intrinsically low GI but may have a long-term role in preventing obesity and type 2 diabetes through their phytochemicals, particularly polyphenols. A novel approach is to structure starchy cereal foods to deliver their carbohydrate at the distal end of the gastrointestinal tract to trigger the ileal and colonic brakes feedback systems so as to enhance satiety and hence decrease energy intake.
    Starch - Starke 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, for the first time, the supercritical solvent impregnation (SSI) technique has been used to test the incorporation of thymol into starch gels. Corn and tapioca starch hydrogels prepared at different temperatures (70–100°C) were converted to the acetogels and subsequently dried with supercritical CO2 or air to obtain aero- or xerogels, respectively. Starch xero- and aerogels were impregnated with thymol in a high pressure view cell using supercritical CO2 at 15.5 MPa and 35 °C during 24 hours. The influence of the botanical origin of starch, temperature for hydrogels preparation (Tgel-h) and drying method on the gel morphology and thymol impregnation yields was discussed. Determined thymol SSI yields were in the range of 1.15–4.02% for the corn and 0.58–3.63% for the tapioca starch gels. Xerogels had higher thymol loading capacities (1.76–4.02%) than aerogels (0.58–3.31%) at given SSI conditions. Gel morphology and thymol SSI yields were positively affected by the Tgel-h increase. The xerogel obtained from the corn starch hydrogel prepared at 100°C had the largest specific surface area (5.52 m2/g) and thymol loading capacity (4.02%) at given SSI conditions. These results, along with a simple and low-cost production, indicated the great potential of the corn starch xerogel for commercial use as a carrier in pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals.
    Starch - Starke 10/2014; 66(2014):1-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Pregelatinized starches are commonly used in many foods, particularly those processed at low temperature, to enhance viscosity and provide a desirable texture. The functional properties of the pregelatinized starch can be affected by other components used in food systems. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of various levels of L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) including 0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg (starch basis) on some functional properties of pregelatinized wheat (PGW) and corn (PGC) starches. The pH of the samples was reduced significantly as the level of L-AA increased. Cold water solubility increased while water absorption reduced with increasing concentrations of L-AA and exposure time. Cold water viscosity as determined by a Rapid Visco Analyser reduced as the amount of L-AA increased. Addition of L-AA reduced gel firmness, increased turbidity during storage for 72 h and enhanced syneresis during five freeze-thaw cycles. The general behaviors of PGW and PGC starches in the presence of different levels of L-AA were similar. However, PGW starch showed higher cold water viscosity, harder gel texture, more turbidity and greater syneresis than the PGC starch.
    Starch - Starke 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Mayonnaise is a popular condiment containing 65–75% oil by weight. The aim of the study was to develop a low fat (75% fat-replaced) mayonnaise using chemically modified octenyl-succinic anhydride (OSA) corn and OSA-sorghum starches. Secondly, the functional properties of native and modified corn and sorghum starches were also compared. The setback viscosity of OSA-sorghum starch was found to be the least while the textual changes in OSA-sorghum on cold storage were found to be negligible. Overall acceptability of low fat mayonnaise (LFM) was scored higher than full-fat mayonnaise (FFM). But the textural attributes of LFM made from OSA-sorghum were found to be quite similar to FFM.
    Starch - Starke 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aiming to characterize the flour and starch from peach palm fruit, a non-conventional raw material, these powders were studied by means of chemical composition, SEM, particle size analyzer, XRD, FTIR, and differential scanning calorimeter, with different water contents. The rheological properties of the solutions and suspensions also were evaluated. Results showed that flour and starch powders have high starch contents (between 73.0 and 84.5%) with average particle size between 9.8 µm (flour) and 8.4 µm (starch). Thermograms revealed endothermic peaks that were affected by hydration conditions between 70–72°C for flour and 61–62°C for starch. Solutions of peach palm fruit flour and starch had a pseudoplastic behavior at 30°C that can be fit well to the power-law model. Peach palm fruit is a non-conventional source of flour and starch, but the results proved that these powders could have promising industrial applications, due to their physicochemical properties being similar to those reported for others starches.
    Starch - Starke 10/2014;