Starch - Starke

Publisher: Wiley-VCH Verlag

Journal description

In an age of diminishing non-renewable energy resources and heightened ecological awareness it is imperative that more attention be given to renewable resources. For over 40 years the journal starch has focused on the most important of these: carbohydrates such as cellulose starch and sugars produced by photosynthesis. Comprehensive and topical it examines the new technology necessary to exploit these resources and publishes original articles dealing with fundamental and applied studies. Particular attention is given to recent studies on new starch resources modified starches starch derivatives and starch saccharification products. Book reviews an extensive documentation service patent reviews and previews of symposia complete the package. Kurztext In einem Zeitalter abnehmender nichterneuerbarer Energiequellen und gesteigertem Umweltbewußtsein ist es unbedingt erforderlich mehr Augenmerk auf die Möglichkeiten der Nutzung von nachwachsenden Rohstoffen zu legen. Seit mehr als 40 Jahren leistet die Zeitschrift stärke hierzu einen wichtigen Beitrag: Sie konzentriert sich auf die wichtigsten Vertreter der nachwachsenden Rohstoffe die Kohlenhydrate wie z.B. Zellulose Stärke und Zucker die durch Photosynthese in den Pflanzen gebildet werden. Umfassend und aktuell wird der Leser über neue Technologien zur Nutzung dieser Rohstoffe informiert.

Current impact factor: 1.68

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.677
2013 Impact Factor 1.401
2012 Impact Factor 1.22
2011 Impact Factor 1.243
2010 Impact Factor 1.261
2009 Impact Factor 0.832
2008 Impact Factor 1
2007 Impact Factor 1.064
2006 Impact Factor 1.136
2005 Impact Factor 0.661
2004 Impact Factor 1.05
2003 Impact Factor 1.025
2002 Impact Factor 0.839
2001 Impact Factor 0.741
2000 Impact Factor 0.659
1999 Impact Factor 0.641
1998 Impact Factor 0.66
1997 Impact Factor 0.647
1996 Impact Factor 0.599
1995 Impact Factor 0.71
1994 Impact Factor 0.701
1993 Impact Factor 0.61
1992 Impact Factor 0.581

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.81
Cited half-life >10.0
Immediacy index 0.16
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.37
Website Starch / Stärke website
Other titles Stärke (Online), Starch, Starch/stärke, Starch - stärke
ISSN 1521-379X
OCLC 44089816
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Wiley-VCH Verlag

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  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Physicochemical and functional properties of starches from some under-utilized yam (D. cayenensis, D. dumetorum, D. bulbifera) and cocoyam (X. maffa (Scoth) grown in Southeast Nigeria were determined. Analysis of variance showed that yam starches of D. cayenensis and D. bulbifera were characterized by large mean granule sizes (28 and 37.5 µm), high amylose content (37.8 and 35 %), and high paste clarity (11.6 and 16 %). Starches of D. dumetorum and cocoyam, X. maffa (Scoth), were characterized by smaller granule sizes (about 6 and 5 µm), low amylose content (11.2 and 13 %), and low paste clarity (6 and 9.8 %). The gelatinization enthalpy (ΔH) of D. cayenensis starch (16.7 j/g) was higher than the other tuber starches (about 12 j/g). Onset, peak and end temperatures ranged from 73 to 81.3 0C, 77.3 to 85.2 0C and 85.4 to 93 0C respectively, with X. maffa (Scoth) having the highest temperatures. The pasting temperatures ranged from 76 to 81 0C. Hot paste, cold paste and final viscosities were from 116.7 to 748 cP, 145.7 to 913.7 cP, and 156.7 to 966.3cP respectively. D.bulbifera and D. cayenensis maintained higher viscosities than D. dumetorum and X. maffa (Scoth). Low paste clarity of D. dumetorum and X. maffa (Scoth) was associated with their small granule sizes and low amylose content. The physicochemical and functional properties of the yam and cocoyam tuber starches show that they can be used for specific food applications.
    Starch - Starke 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500114
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    ABSTRACT: Acid-thinned corn starches were prepared systematically by varying acid concentrations (0.09 M-0.72 M HCl) and hydrolysis times (4 and 24 h). The relationships between modification parameters, molecular starch structure, and functional properties were investigated. The carbohydrate solubilization was significantly enhanced with increasing acid concentration only in the long-term process. SEM micrographs revealed the preservation of the granular structure and the thermal properties changed only moderately applying different hydrolysis conditions. Molecular characterization using SEC-MALS (size exclusion chromatography-multi angle laser light scattering) showed a strong degradation of amylopectin after 4 hours of hydrolysis. Enzymatic debranching prior to the analysis and separation of the amylose peak using deconvolution enabled the calculation of MMD curves of the acid-thinned amylose fraction. The data gave evidence of extensive molecular degradation of the amylose with increasing acid concentration when hydrolyzed for 24 hours. The hot paste viscosity decreased with decreasing Mw and the sol-to-gel-transition temperature was found to be strongly dependent on both, the Mw of the starch as well as the amylose fraction. The correlation between molecular properties and gel strength gave evidence of an optimum degree of hydrolysis. Acid-thinning of the starch to Mw of about 12·106 to 8·106 g·mol-1 and 3·105 to 2.5·105 g·mol-1for the amylose fraction, respectively, resulted in the highest gel strength within the present study. However, differences in gel strength had only marginal impact on the gel elasticity. The peak separation permitted a comprehensive and detailed characterization of the amylose fraction. The obtained data proved the exposed role of the amylose in the gelation process of acid-thinned starches and their gel firmness. Correlations between the modification process, the molecular starch structure and resulting functional properties were found.
    Starch - Starke 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500210
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    ABSTRACT: Glucuronoxylans represent a large group of naturally occurring and renewable biopolymers with a wide range of application possibilities. Controlled depolymerization of Fagus sylvatica 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan afforded three fractions of descending molecular mass, i.e. 3000, 2600 and 1800 g/mol. The native polymer (GX1) and its depolymerized fractions (GX2, GX3 and GX4) were decorated by functional groups to give sulfated products (GXS1, GXS2, GXS3 and GXS4) which were used for pharmacological tests. Antitussive activity tests revealed that the increase in the dose of the glucuronoxylan sulfate (GXS1) from 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight resulted in only slightly increased cough-suppressing effect. This fact indicates that the cough-suppressing effect of the glucuronoxylan sulfate is not dose-dependent. Results have shown significant cough-suppressing effect of GXS1, it was only slightly lower than the effect of narcotic codeine. Glucuronoxylan-derived fractions decorated by sulfates (GXS2, GXS3 and GXS4) showed similar cough-suppressing effect as the polymer-sulfate (GXS1) confirming thus that the changes in molecular mass does not affect the cough suppressive activity. Similarly, different contents of sulfate groups in GXS2, GXS3 and GXS4 did not influence their effect. Tests have shown that in the antitussive activity of all glucuronoxylan sulfates a bronchodilation was not involved. During the experiment course, no serious side effects after administration of glucuronoxylan sulfates were observed which is important fact from the application point of view.
    Starch - Starke 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500122
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of acid modification on the disintegrant properties of two native starches obtained from Digitaria exilis (white fonio) and Ipomea batatas (sweet potato) were evaluated in comparison with official corn starch in paracetamol tablet formulations. The starches were extracted from grains of white fonio and tubers of sweet potato, and modified by acid hydrolysis using 6% w/w hydrochloric acid for 48 h. The native and modified forms of the starches were employed as exo-disintegrants in paracetamol tablet formulations at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0% w/w. The disintegrant properties were assessed using crushing strength (Cs), friability (Fr), disintegration time (DT), disintegrant efficiency ratio (DER), and the dimensionless quantity DERc. The results showed that crushing strength and friability of the tablets appeared to depend on the type, concentration, and nature of disintegrant used. Disintegration time generally decreased with increase in disintegrant concentration and the values complied with the pharmacopoeial standard for uncoated tablets (≤15 min). Tablets containing acid modified starches showed longer disintegration times than those containing the native starches although there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the values. Acid modification generally increased the disintegration efficiency ratio (DER) of the formulations while the values of DERc indicated that sweet potato starch would be the most efficient disintegrant with greater ability to enhance the balance between the mechanical and disintegration properties of the tablet. Thus, the experimental starches compared well with corn starch as disintegrants and could be useful for commercial tablet formulations.
    Starch - Starke 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500188
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to characterize structures, physical properties, and enzymatic-hydrolysis rate of starch isolated from bamboo seeds (Phyllostachys heterocycla var. pubescens (Mazel) Ohwi) in comparison with that of indica and japonica-rice starch. The bamboo seeds consisted of 68.2% starch (dry basis, db), which was lower than the indica and japonica-rice kernels (85.1 and 87.1%, respectively). The bamboo-seed starch also had compound granules, with morphology and sizes comparable to the rice starches. The bamboo-seed amylopectin had a similar branch-chain-length distribution to the indica-rice amylopectin, and both had longer average branch-chain length (DP = 19.1 and 19.7, respectively) than the japonica-rice amylopectin (DP = 17.1). The bamboo-seed and indica-rice starches showed higher onset gelatinization temperatures (To = 68.9 and 71.9°C, respectively) and gelatinization enthalpy changes (ΔH = 14.2 and 15.3 J/g), larger percentages of retrogradation (57.1 and 55.4%), but slower enzymatic-hydrolysis rates (50.6 and 46.3% at 24 h) than the japonica-rice starch (56.4°C, 14.0 J/g, 11.4%, and 66.2%, respectively). The bamboo-seed starch displayed a higher pasting temperature but substantially lower viscosity than the rice starches, which could be attributed to its larger amylose content and smaller molecular weight and gyration-radius of the amylopectin.
    Starch - Starke 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500206
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, wheat starch was tempered to 20 or 30% moisture content and infrared (IR) treated at 550 or 730 W for 30, 60, 90 min. Infrared-treated wheat starch samples mostly retained birefringence and typical A-type diffraction pattern. Intensity of a new peak (at 2θ = 20°) slightly increased as the IR power increased. Relative crystallinity values decreased after the infrared treatment, especially at the higher moisture content (30%) or IR power (730 W). Significant increases in To, Tp, and Tc–To values and decrease in ΔH were observed after the infrared treatment (p < 0.05). Remarkable changes in thermal properties were observed for the starch samples treated at higher moisture contents. Decrease observed in retrogradation enthalpies of the infrared-treated wheat starches after 7 days of storage was not significant. Infrared treatment at 30% moisture content and 550 or 730 W caused decreases in viscosity values. The sample treated at 30% moisture content and 730 W for 90 min gave the lowest viscosity values. Results of the present study were consistent with the results of the literature using conventional heat-moisture treatment methods and this revealed that infrared heat-moisture treatment may provide an alternative route for modification of wheat starch in a shorter time.
    Starch - Starke 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500160
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    ABSTRACT: Isolation of starches from various tubers such as elephant foot yam (NYS), taro (NTS), ginger (NGS), green banana (NBS) and lotus stem (NLS) was carried out for studying various characteristics viz. physicochemical, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), rapid visco analyzer (RVA), rheological, morphological and colour in order to explore their end use potential. A significant variation was observed in pasting properties of isolated starches. X-ray diffractometery (XRD) showed a B-type crystal pattern of banana starch, while yam, taro, ginger and lotus starches had A-type crystal pattern. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that taro starch possessed the smallest granule size having cluster pattern while lotus starches have the largest granular size with hemispherical facets having dents or hollows at one end. Thermal properties of isolated starches revealed that NLS had lowest To, Tp, Tc values i.e. 68.3, 72.0 and 76.8°C, respectively. Similarly the lowest gel characteristics such as hardness, gumminess, chewiness and adhesiveness 3.09 g, 1.45, 1.27, 8.42 gs, respectively, were also found in NLS. L* values of NTS and NYS starches were the highest i.e. 93.36, 93.29 with no significant difference whereas the lowest i.e. 89.917 in NGS.
    Starch - Starke 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500186
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    ABSTRACT: This study reports the potential of Candida tropicalis BPU1—isolated from the rumen of Malabari goat—in producing polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) on raw starchy substrates. Initially, commercial soluble starch or naturally available raw starchy substrates (flours of potato, tapioca, or jack seed) was supplemented in a minimal medium to evaluate the efficiency of C. tropicalis BPU1 in producing PHB crystals. Among them, potato flour and commercial starch supported the maximum production of PHB at comparable levels of 0.36 g/g and 0.39 g/g cell dry weight (cdw), respectively. Subsequently, using potato flour as substrate, Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology were employed to statistically optimize the culture parameters, which resulted in the 0.6 fold increase (i.e., 0.59 g/g) in production of PHB over the unoptimized condition (potato flour 0.5%, pH 6.9, 38°C, and 19 h incubation). PHB crystals were characterized by TLC, UV-visible spectrophotometry, FTIR spectroscopy, NMR and TGA, which showed typical spherulite morphology during its growth, and were thermostable up to 240°C. Briefly, this study projects the possibilities of the utilization of cheap and raw starchy agro-products as substrate for the production of PHB at a cheaper rate; and that the eukaryotic unicellular C. tropicalis BPU1 offers much industrial significance.
    Starch - Starke 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500086
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    ABSTRACT: Resistant starch (RS) in Se-rich rice flour was enhanced by autoclaving and debranching modification. The morphological, crystalline and thermal properties and the in vitro hydrolysis rate of the RS product were analyzed. The RS-enhanced Se-rich rice (SR-RS) was investigated as functional food with a beneficial effect on type 2 diabetes. The effects of SR-RS on the body weight (BW), fasting blood glucose levels (FBG), serum lipids and insulin (SIN) levels of normal and diabetic mice were investigated. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses confirmed that retrogradation and recrystallization improved the structural and thermal stabilities of RS-enhanced Se-rich rice flour. Additionally, the SR-RS showed a lower in vitro hydrolysis rate than SRF due to its high RS content. Moreover, results from the animal experiment showed SR-RS have a significant anti-diabetic effect based on the lower BW, FBG levels, SIN and lipid contents of diabetic mice treated with SR-RS compared to the diabetic control mice.
    Starch - Starke 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500168
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    ABSTRACT: Retrogradation behavior of starch nanoparticles (SNPs) prepared by the recrystallization of short-chain amylose (SCA) debranched from amylopectin-rich waxy proso millet starch was investigated. In differential scanning calorimetry thermograms, the SCA: water ratio of 1:2 (w/w) led to a remarkable increase in enthalpy at 4 or 25 °C compared with that corresponding to the ratios of 1:1 and 1:5, indicating better recrystallization and higher crystallinity of SCA. Morphology analysis showed that nanoparticles measuring 10–30 nm in diameter were formed when SCA solution (1:5, w/v) was retrograded for 15, 30, and 60 min. As the retrogradation duration was increased to 120 and 240 min, larger SNPs appeared. X-ray diffraction patterns of all SNPs were of the B type, and the degree of crystallinity increased when retrogradation time was prolonged.
    Starch - Starke 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500115
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    ABSTRACT: Starch is the principal component of rice that affects its cooking and nutritional quality. This study investigated molecular and thermal properties of starches isolated from seven Africa rice accessions (ARAs) in comparison with two commonly produced Asian rice varieties (ARVs) and a developed cross (sativa × glaberrima) variety (NERICA 4). All starch granules were polyhedral and tightly packed with size distribution ranging from 2–22 µm and displayed type-A X-ray diffraction pattern. ARAs starch granules had higher ratio of absorbance to scattering when exposed to iodine vapor exhibiting greater flexibility and availability of glucan chains to form complexes with iodine as compared to ARVs. The enthalpies of starch gelatinization (15.1–15.8 J/g) and retrograded gel melting (9.2–10.8 J/g) were higher in ARAs than in NERICA 4 (14.5 and 9.2 J/g, respectively) and ARVs, (13.3–14.3 and 6.4–7.3 J/g, respectively) possibly due to their higher amylose content and longer chains. Significant (p < 0.05) differences in peak, trough, final, breakdown, and setback viscosities were also observed among the starches with Koshihikari Asian rice having the highest peak viscosity (310 RVU). These differences in molecular structure and thermal properties between the ARAs and ARVs are likely to influence the cooking and eating quality of the ARAs.
    Starch - Starke 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500145
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    ABSTRACT: An antioxidant multilayer structure based on thermoplastic corn starch (TPCS) was developed by means of the electrohydrodynamic process of electrospinning. Firstly, the effect of adding electrospun outer layers made of polycaprolactone (PCL) on the microstructure and barrier properties of a thermoplastic corn starch (TPCS) film was evaluated. Secondly, β-carotene was encapsulated into PCL matrices by means of the electrospinning technique and these hybrid structures were directly electrospun as coating layers onto both sides of a TPCS based film, thus giving rise to an antioxidant multilayer packaging structure. The influence of β-carotene on the structural, antioxidant, barrier and optical properties of the developed multilayer systems were studied. Barrier properties of the TPCS based films were improved by the addition of the electrospun coatings. However, β-carotene addition did not improve barrier properties as compared to their counterparts prepared without the active compound, although both permeability values remained up to 75% lower than those obtained for the pure TPCS. On the other hand, the stability of the β-carotene was studied using colour assays and the antioxidant activity after the film-forming process. Results showed that the stability of the β-carotene was greatly affected by the annealing step (used to improve the adhesion between layers) even when it was encapsulated into the electrospun PCL layer.
    Starch - Starke 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500154
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have revealed that diabetes mellitus caused gut bacterial dysbiosis, and intervention studies aiming to selectively alter the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiota are crucial next steps for investigating the links between the microbiome and diabetes. The sequences encompassing V1-V3 16S rDNA hypervariable regions were PCR amplified from rat fecal samples fed with resistant starch (RS). In total, thirteen different phyla and one hundred and seven different genus were obtained with a 3% distance cut off. The microbiota profile of normal rats was significantly different from that of rats in diabetic control and RS intervention group. The most prominent phyla were Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the three groups. The proportion of Proteobacteria was significantly higher in the rats of diabetic control compared to normal group, and RS intervention could inhibit the proliferation of Proteobacteria phyla, including a wide variety of pathogenic species, such as Escherichia-Shige, Klebsiella and Pseudomona. At genus level, Lactobacillus in the diabetic control was significantly lower than that in the normal group, while the feeding of RS increased the amount of Lactobacillus. More importantly, the consumption of RS reduced the composition of Ruminococcus and increased S24-7 norank comparing with the diabetic control. This study might indicate that RS is an effective food ingredient for manipulating the gut microbiota.
    Starch - Starke 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/star.201500139