Starch - Starke

Description

In an age of diminishing non-renewable energy resources and heightened ecological awareness it is imperative that more attention be given to renewable resources. For over 40 years the journal starch has focused on the most important of these: carbohydrates such as cellulose starch and sugars produced by photosynthesis. Comprehensive and topical it examines the new technology necessary to exploit these resources and publishes original articles dealing with fundamental and applied studies. Particular attention is given to recent studies on new starch resources modified starches starch derivatives and starch saccharification products. Book reviews an extensive documentation service patent reviews and previews of symposia complete the package. Kurztext In einem Zeitalter abnehmender nichterneuerbarer Energiequellen und gesteigertem Umweltbewußtsein ist es unbedingt erforderlich mehr Augenmerk auf die Möglichkeiten der Nutzung von nachwachsenden Rohstoffen zu legen. Seit mehr als 40 Jahren leistet die Zeitschrift stärke hierzu einen wichtigen Beitrag: Sie konzentriert sich auf die wichtigsten Vertreter der nachwachsenden Rohstoffe die Kohlenhydrate wie z.B. Zellulose Stärke und Zucker die durch Photosynthese in den Pflanzen gebildet werden. Umfassend und aktuell wird der Leser über neue Technologien zur Nutzung dieser Rohstoffe informiert.

  • Impact factor
    1.22
  • 5-year impact
    1.47
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.20
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.31
  • Website
    Starch / Stärke website
  • Other titles
    Stärke (Online), Starch, Starch/stärke, Starch - stärke
  • ISSN
    1521-379X
  • OCLC
    44089816
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A combined effect of ultrasound and enzymatic pretreatment on yield and functional properties of taro starch was investigated. A 3 × 2 × 2 factorial design was employed with three factors, i.e., sonication time (0, 10, and 20 min), concentration of cellulase (0 and 100 U/100 g fresh tuber) and xylanase (0 and 100 U/100 g fresh tuber). Starch yield varied from 14.60 to 20.81%. The highest yield of 20.81% was obtained, when ultrasonication time was 20 min and concentration for both cellulase and xylanase was 100 U/100 g taro tubers, which was an increase of 42.53% from conventional method. An increase in swelling, solubility and pasting properties of the isolated starches pretreated only with ultrasound was observed, but no such difference was observed with enzymes alone, or when ultrasound was applied in combination with enzymes. A slight decrease in clarity of the starch pastes was also observed after ultrasonication. Freeze-thaw stability of the starches was found to be better when ultrasound was used as pretreatment for extraction. Higher yield of starch with better functional properties can be achieved from taro tubers by using combination of ultrasound and enzymes.
    Starch - Starke 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Starch-based fixatives (SBF), specifically low molecular weight, highly-cationic starches (LHCS), have been reported efficiently to control dissolved and colloidal substances (DCS) in pulp suspensions, and enhance paper strengths. However, as their degree of substitution (DS) was as high as 0.65,their preparation cost was very high. In this study, two products with lower DSs of just 0.08 (LHCS 0.08) and 0.22 (LHCS 0.22) were prepared and compared to a traditional polyamine (PA) fixative. It was found that the novel LHCSs interacted more readily with the anionic pulp fibers while the PA interacted more readily with the anionic DCS. Consequently, both LHCS 0.08 and LHCS 0.22 increased the paper strength more than the PA. Moreover, it was found that the LHCS 0.22 was most efficient in fixing the colloidal substances onto fibers, while the PA was most efficient in neutralizing the dissolved substances. We conclude that LHCS with DS as low as 0.22 can be used as a good fixative, however, starch with DS of only 0.08 is not efficient enough.
    Starch - Starke 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Starches of four varieties of waxy proso millet were examined in terms of granule morphology, amylose, transparency, retrogradation, pasting and thermal properties. The starches had great numbers of large polygonal granules with smooth edges, small numbers of small spherical granules, and an average granule size of 6.12 µm. Compared with the starches of non-waxy proso millet and maize, the starches of the waxy proso millet varieties had lower amylose contents (0.21%) and higher phosphorus contents (1.85 mg/100g); higher transparency (29.84%) and lower volume percentages of retrogradation (5.01%); higher peak viscosities (3304 cP), trough viscosities (2422 cP) and breakdowns (882 cP), and lower setbacks (267 cP); and lower onset temperatures (To) (69.7°C), peak temperatures (Tp) (75.3°C), final temperatures (Tc) (80.8°C) and enthalpies (▵H) (10.55 J/g) in their starch gelatinization.
    Starch - Starke 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Esterified cassava starches were prepared by reaction with three types of acid anhydride (1–4% dsw of acetic anhydride, succinic anhydride and octenyl succinic anhydride), yielding acetylated (AC), succinylated (SC) and octenyl succinylated (OSA) starches with different degrees of substitution (DS = 0.006-0.039). Their thermal properties, i. e. the glass transition temperature (Tg) at limited water content (13%) and retrogradation at intermediate (50%) and excess (70%) water content were evaluated by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in order to elucidate the effect of substituted groups. At limited water system, the substitution of ester groups on starch molecules caused changes in Tg; the changes were dependent on substituent characteristics and contents. With respect to increasing free volume induced by the substitution of hydroxyl groups with large ester group of octenyl succinyl, OSA starches had lower Tg, while this effect was not observed for AC and SC starch, presumably because of their low molecular weights. In both intermediate and excess water systems, esterification at low DS did not cause dramatic change in onset gelatinization temperatures. Starch retrogradation in excess water system was the lowest for OSA starch. The Avrami equation exhibits the highest half-time (t1/2) of recrystallization and the lowest rate constant (k) of retrogradation for OSA. The glass transition temperature of most esterified cassava maltodextrins (DS ≈ 0.02, 0.03; Dextrose Equivalent, DE < 2 and 3 < DE < 6) had decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing DE except OSA maltodextrin with DS 0.024 was not significantly different (P > 0.05).
    Starch - Starke 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the development of sago (Metroxylon sagu) starch-based edible films for potential hard capsule application. In its conduct, films were made with different amount of starch (9, 10 and 11% w/v) and glycerol (25, 30, 35 and 40% w/w starch) by casting method. The films were characterized by physicochemical, water vapor barrier properties and mechanical properties analysis. The results reveal that sago starch films generally have low solubility in water. It was also found that higher glycerol content leads to decrease tensile strength and increase elongation of the films, while constant glycerol content with higher amylose content results in increased tensile strength and decreased elongation of the films. The increase of water vapor permeability of all films is in line with that of glycerol concentration. Films prepared with 10% of sago starch and 25% of glycerol have the highest tensile strength, the lowest elongation and water vapor permeability, a low moisture content and solubility.
    Starch - Starke 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The current study explores the properties of starch and non-starch polysaccharides based bigels containing sunflower oil and their application in controlled delivery of metronidazole and probiotics. The bigels were prepared by mixing span-40 and sunflower oil organogels with the aqueous polysaccharide sol. The microstructure of the bigels was characterized by fluorescent microscope. The bigels were then characterized for their mechanical properties using texture analysis. The flow behavior of the gels was studied using rheometer. The micrographs suggested uniform distribution of the organogels in the continuous aqueous phase. The bigels were viscoelastic in nature with a shear thinning behavior. The release of metronidazole from the bigels was diffusion mediated. These bigels showed good antimicrobial efficacy. The probiotics encapsulated within the bigels were tolerant to gastric and intestinal environment compared to the free cells. The preliminary studies suggest that the developed bigels can be used effectively for the delivery of poorly soluble drugs and probiotics.
    Starch - Starke 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to investigate formation of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) and change in physicochemical properties of sweet potato and yam starches under a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatments using three mild organic acids including acetic acid, lactic acid and citric acid and heating temperature at 110 oC for 8h. The results show that the SDS and RS in sweet potato starch significantly increased from 6.6% and 14.7% in native starch to 8.7% – 13.2% and 37.5% – 42.1% in acid and heat-moisture treated starches, respectively. Likewise, the SDS and RS in yam starch increased from 4.7% and 21.6% in native starch to 10.0% – 11.3% and 39.0% – 46.4% in the treated starches, respectively. The RS content in the acid and heat-moisture treated starches also significantly higher than that of the heat-moisture treated starches without acid hydrolysis. Yam starch produced higher amount of RS under acid and heat-moisture treatment as compared to sweet potato starch at the same condition. Swelling power and viscosity of starches significantly reduced, whereas the solubility significantly increased after treatments. The citric acid had the most impact on RS formation and starch properties, followed by lactic acid and acetic acid. As a result, the combination of acid and heat-moisture treatment is a useful method to produce higher amount of resistant starch which can be applied for functional foods.
    Starch - Starke 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The rare sugar D-psicose was shown to have an ability to promote gelatinization of rice flour and to retard its retrogradation. The force at fracture of rice cake samples containing sucrose but no D-psicose increased after refrigerated storage, while that of the samples containing D-psicose or trehalose remained largely unchanged. Both the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy determined using differential scanning calorimetry were lower in the presence of D-psicose than sucrose or trehalose. X-ray diffraction peaks arising from crystalline structures in starch disappeared upon heating up to 68°C in the presence of D-psicose and 75°C in the presence of sucrose or trehalose. The reduction in the dielectric relaxation strength due to starch retrogradation was more pronounced in the presence of sucrose or trehalose than D-psicose. The present results suggest that D-psicose facilitates melting of the crystalline structure in rice flour upon heating and inhibit re-crystallization during storage.
    Starch - Starke 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt) is a destructive disease responsible for yield reductions in wheat. In this study, we quantify the impacts on grain starch accumulation and yield of different wheat cultivars in response to powdery mildew under field conditions. A coupled spectrophotometer assay, enthrone colorimetric method, 2-DE and MS/MS were used to analyse starch, total soluble sugars (TSS) and metabolic proteins, respectively. Results indicated that AM concentration increased significantly while AP and total starch concentrations decreased with the increase of powdery mildew severity. Powdery mildew suppressed the transformation of sugar to starch in wheat grains at the early infection stage, and there was insufficient substrate for starch synthesis in susceptible cultivars at the later infection stage. A proteomic analysis of metabolic protein showed that plastid α-1,4-glucan phosphorylase, sucrose synthase, β-amylase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase related to starch synthesis were all down regulated and hence starch production was accordingly suppressed. Powdery mildew stress appeared to influence expression of starch synthesis-related enzymes, repressed transformation of sugar to starch, and then inhibited starch (especially AP) synthesis, leading to yield losses.
    Starch - Starke 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The application of water-soluble polyacrylamide modified by β-cyclodextrin (ACDPAM) as a corrosion inhibitor on X70 steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution has been evaluated using electrochemical measurements, weight loss, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The polarization curves results reveal that copolymer acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency is found to increase by the increase in copolymer concentration and decrease by the rise in temperature, and it also exhibits effective inhibition even at a higher temperature. The adsorption of ACDPAM on X70 steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and is governed by chemisorption. The SEM results demonstrate that X70 surface is protected by ACDPAM.
    Starch - Starke 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to elucidate the inter-relationships between the classical compression-extension test and the dynamic rheological test to analyze the texture of cooked rice with two different water ratios. The classical compression-extension test evaluated firmness and adhesiveness, after which the modified balance was calculated. Concurrently, a rheological test, tanδ and |G*| were used to analyze the data. The compression-extension test revealed that the firmness and modified balance increased, while adhesiveness was less affected as the water to rice ratio increased. The modified balances generally increased as grains became shorter. While, |G*| increased and tanδ decreased as the grain became longer. These results were also closely related to the amylose content of each rice variety. Waxy rice (few amylose content) was least firm and highest modified balance, lowest |G*| and highest tanδ, while the results of rice with the highest amylose content showed the opposite results. Principal component analysis revealed that the modified balance, tanδ, firmness and |G*| were located in similar ordinates, indicating that the variables of the two different tests were closely related. Overall, these results demonstrate that some variables in the two different tests provide the same type of information and complementary explanations.
    Starch - Starke 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The object of this work was to evaluate starch constitution and nutritional quality of several kinds of starch noodles by determining total starch, apparent amylose, soluble amylose, insoluble amylose, and crystal structure. The results indicated that Legumes starch noodles (Pea starch noodles and Mung bean starch noodles) have higher apparent amylose, insoluble amylose, and resistant starch (RS) than others and had lower eGI (estimated glycemic index) value (101.47 ∼ 102.8), Kudzu starch noodles has the highest rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content (p < 0.05) and possessed the highest hydrolysis index (125.53). The eGI value has apparently negative correlation with RS content and insoluble amylose content. The results also showed that Legumes starch noodles owned lower eGI than other experimental subjects, which is more suitable for patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes, diabetes and cardiovascular disease to limited intake.
    Starch - Starke 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The water-holding capacity properties of native and acetate cassava starch were evaluated by freeze-thaw stability and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated that acetate starch was suitable to be used in sausage for its more stable and lower retrogradation properties compared to native starch. The water-holding capacity (WHC) of pork sausages with acetate starch was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance T2 (NMR T2) relaxometry, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). NMR T2 relaxometry and MRI displayed the significant effect of acetate starch on the water content in sausages. Water-holding capacity of sausages first increased then decreased with increase of acetate starch. The sausage with 5% (w/w) acetate starch had the highest content of immobilized water. The result was consistent with the data indirectly obtained from DSC. SEM analysis demonstrated that the sausage with 5% (w/w) acetate starch had appropriate structure and pore size to hold water. Therefore, we concluded that the sausage with 5% (w/w) acetate starch had the best WHC property in pork sausages.
    Starch - Starke 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Corn starches with varying ratios of amylose to amylopectin are plasticized by hot-melt extrusion. The nearly amorphous matrices are loaded with different model drug substances to evaluate the interaction of plasticized starch and active pharmaceutical ingredients with varying solubility. Two different thermal analytical methods are applied to provide a detailed insight into the thermal behavior of the material: Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dymamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). A comparison of both methods provides a more detailed understanding of the interaction of different constituents in the range of the glass transition temperature (Tg). Activation energies of Tgs can be determined by applying Arrhenius equation. Residual moistures of the unprocessed starches and the extruded products are compared using thermogravimetric analysis. Extrusion processing causes no changes of the dynamic vapor sorption behavior in the targeted storage conditions. Crystalline structure of the matrices has been studied via XRD. Recrystallization effects can be observed for high amylose corn starches, whereas for waxy corn starches no recrystallization occurs. The crystal state of the final product during API addition can be strongly linked to corresponding solubility. Drug loading with phenazone, a high soluble API, leads to the formation of a solid solution, whereas addition of the more lipophilic acetaminophen results in the formation of a solid dispersion.
    Starch - Starke 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The salt-induced crystallization behavior of potato amylose was probed by measurement of fluorescent inversive microscope, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The crystalline patterns and granular structures of potato amylose in the presence of salt were highly dependent on the type and concentration of salt as well as the amylose content. High amylose content and low salt concentration (specifically 4% of amylose content and below 0.1 mol/L of salt in this study) favored the organization of double-stranded helices into regular assemblies. Salt was proposed to act on the crystallization of potato amylose mainly via the cation-starch interactions occurring between the cations of salt and the negatively charged phosphate groups and free hydroxyl groups of potato amylose. The difference in the crystalline growth mode of potato amylose with different concentrations might be attributed to different nature of cations, especially the charge density.
    Starch - Starke 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, the effect of different hydrocolloids (guar, xanthan, and pectin) were evaluated on some functional properties of cowpea starch. It was found that these hydrocolloids significantly enhanced the water absorption while reducing the swelling power and solubility. Only pectin was found to be an effective gum which reduces the syneresis of the cowpea starch gel during freeze–thaw process. The results indicated that guar gum caused a noticeable increase of peak viscosity as well as viscosity at 95°C examined by viscoamylograph whereas reducing trend was observed for both peak viscosity and viscosity at 95°C when pectin was added. It was also observed that guar gum caused a rapid rise in viscosity during the cooling period whereas the addition of the xanthan as well as pectin dropped the viscosity of cowpea starch. The heating stability of cowpea starch was found to be reduced by the addition of guar and xanthan gums while set back capability was successfully reduced by all selected hydrocolloids. The firmness of cowpea starch gel could be improved by the addition of all selected hydrocolloids during storage as compared to native starch.
    Starch - Starke 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Predicting and controlling starch retrogradation is of great interest. Advancements in starch retrogradation are relatively slow and many problems remain to be resolved. At present, starch retrogradation can be controlled qualitatively, but not quantitatively, by some techniques. Constituents or food additives such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and salts play a significant role in inhibiting the retrogradation of starchy foods. Recent studies concerning the effect of additives on starch retrogradation are reviewed, and potential mechanisms are discussed.
    Starch - Starke 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The design of cost-effective biopolymers-based adsorbents is of particular interest. In our work, a cationic functional starch (CFS)/Na+-montmorillonite (Na+-MMT) composite was prepared by combining 5 wt% modified starch containing quaternary ammonium cationic functional groups and 0.5% w/v Na+-MMT dispersed solution together. Its microstructure was characterized by FTIR and XRD. Removal of three metal anionic ions with different valence like: , , and by the composite was compared. Adsorption equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamic models were also investigated. The adsorption capacity was very high and followed the sequence of > > , which could be demonstrated with strong electrostatic interaction between active cationic functional groups and metal anionic ions. The Langmuir isotherm gave satisfying fits to equilibrium data of ions indicating monolayer adsorption to monovalent anionic ion, while the Freundlich equation fitting equilibrium data of and ions better predicated multilayer adsorption to polyvalent anionic ion. There was a better matching accuracy between the experimental data and the pseudo second order model. The removal percentages for the three ions of , , by the composite were 96.84, 94, and 89.84%, respectively.
    Starch - Starke 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aqueous mixtures of defatted corn starch and different fatty acids were heated and processed with high-pressure homogenization to form starch–lipid complexes. A variety of fatty acids with chain lengths of 12–18 carbons and with varying degrees of unsaturation were studied regarding their ability to form amylose–lipid complexes. Linoleic acid (65.7%) displayed the greatest complex forming ability with defatted corn starch, followed by lauric acid (63.2%), oleic acid (62.2%), myristic acid (61.2%), palmitic acid (59.8%), and stearic acid (54.6%). The XRD analysis showed that the complexes presented the well-known V-helical type diffraction. DSC was used to analyze the thermal properties. Based on the 85–110°C transition temperature and the 60–95°C synthesis temperature, the experimental complexes are less ordered type I complexes. The in vitro digestibility studies indicated that long-chain saturated fatty acids increased digestibility more than the short-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids when in complex with defatted corn starch.
    Starch - Starke 05/2014;

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