Chemistry - A European Journal (Chem Eur J)

Publisher: Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker; Koninklijke Nederlandse Chemische Vereniging; Société royale de chimie (Belgium); Koninklijke Vlaamse Chemische Vereniging; Società chimica italiana; All authors, Wiley-VCH Verlag

Journal description

Since 1995 Chemistry - A European Journal is the new international forum based in Europe for the publication of outstanding Full Papers from all areas of chemistry and related fields. Chemistry increases the visibility of European chemistry and attracts authors and readers worldwide under the motto "Made in Europe for the World". It appears bimonthly and has established itself as a truly international journal with top quality contributions from Europe the US and Japan. All manuscripts are peer-reviewed and electronic processing ensures accurate reproduction of text and data and short publication times. An additional "Concepts" section in Chemistry provides the nonspecialist reader with a useful conceptual guide to unfamiliar areas and the expert with new angles on familiar problems. For information about the European Journals see Editorial . Society Affiliations 14 European Chemical Societies Kurztext Chemistry - A European Journal publiziert seit 1995 "Full Papers" aus allen Gebieten der Chemie einschließlich ihrer Grenzbereiche. Sie erscheint zweimal monatlich. Als europäisches Forum für ausführliche Originalpublikationen zieht sie Beiträge von international bekannten Autoren aus der ganzen Welt an und ist daher für jeden Chemiker unverzichtbar. Die Rubrik "Concepts" führt Nicht-Spezialisten in neue Gebiete ein und stellt Spezialisten bekannte Probleme aus einem neuen Blickwinkel vor. Informationen über die "European Journals" siehe: Editorial . Readers Chemists of all disciplines

Current impact factor: 5.70

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 5.696
2012 Impact Factor 5.831
2011 Impact Factor 5.925
2010 Impact Factor 5.476
2009 Impact Factor 5.382
2008 Impact Factor 5.454
2007 Impact Factor 5.33
2006 Impact Factor 5.015
2005 Impact Factor 4.907
2004 Impact Factor 4.517
2003 Impact Factor 4.353
2002 Impact Factor 4.238
2001 Impact Factor 4.614
2000 Impact Factor 4.698
1999 Impact Factor 4.814
1998 Impact Factor 5.153
1997 Impact Factor 4.828
1996 Impact Factor 4.814

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 5.87
Cited half-life 3.90
Immediacy index 1.29
Eigenfactor 0.17
Article influence 1.53
Website Chemistry - A European Journal website
Other titles Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany: Online), Chemistry, Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English: Online), Angewandte Chemie (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany: Online), Chembiochem (Online), Chemphyschem (Online)
ISSN 1521-3765
OCLC 42084594
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Wiley-VCH Verlag

  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • Upon funder agreement with publisher
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print may be deposited on personal intranet or institutional intranet repository, but not on a public repository
    • Pre-print must not updates with future versions
    • Published source must be acknowledged with set phrases (See policy)
    • Must link to publisher's site:
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Some journal exceptions-check individual homepages
  • Classification
    ​ white

Publications in this journal

  • Lei Mei, Lin Wang, Cai-ming Liu, Yu-liang Zhao, Zhi-fang Chai, Wei-qun Shi
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction of mechanically interlocked components into actinide-based metal–organic materials such as polyrotaxanes will generate an entirely new type of inorganic–organic hybrid materials showing more supramolecular encapsulation-based dynamics. In this work, tetranuclear uranyl-directed polyrotaxanes (UO2)4O2-C5A3-CB6 (1) and (UO2)4O2-C6A3-CB6 (2), which are the first actinide pseudorotaxanes with high-nuclearity uranium centers, were obtained through systematic extension of the string spacer in pseudorotaxane ligands from 1,4-butylene (C4) to 1,5-pentylene (C5) and 1,6-hexylene (C6). Both of the as-synthesized tetranuclear uranyl polyrotaxanes were structurally characterized and analyzed. Considering the structure of UO2-C4A3-CB6 and the 1,4-butylene string spacer, the preference for the uranyl tetramer may be related to the configurational inversion of the pseudorotaxane ligands from trans mode to cis mode on coordination to the uranyl center. Detailed structural analysis suggests that the length of the stretched string molecules for CB6-encapsulated pseudorotaxanes has remarkable effect on the supramolecular inclusion interactions and the configurations of pseudorotaxanes, and should be responsible for the configurational inversion of pseudorotaxane spacers and subsequent distinct changes of the uranyl building units and geometric structures.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/chem.201500343
  • Pablo González‐Monje, Fernando Novio, Daniel Ruiz‐Molina
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have developed a novel approach for grafting coordination polymers, structured as nanoparticles bearing surface reactive carboxylic groups, to amino-functionalized surfaces through a simple carbodiimide-mediated coupling reaction. As a proof-of-concept to validate our approach, and on the quest for novel hybrid interphases with potential technological applications, we have used valence tautomeric nanoparticles exhibiting spin transition at or around room temperature. SEM and AFM characterization reveal that the nanoparticles were organized chiefly into a single monolayer while X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements confirm that the nanoparticles retain a temperature-induced electronic redistribution upon surface anchorage. Our results represent an effective approach towards the challenging manufacture of coordination polymers.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/chem.201500671
  • Nicolas Sieffert, Julien Boisson, Sandrine Py
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A DFT study of the reaction mechanism of the rhodium-catalysed enantioselective arylation of (E)-N-propylidene-4-methyl-benzenesulfonamide by phenylboronic acid [Lin et al J. Am. Chem. Soc.­ 2011, 133, 12394] is reported. The catalyst ([{Rh(OH)(diene)}2]) includes a chiral diene ligand and the reaction is conducted in 1,4-dioxane in the presence of drying agents (4 Å molecular sieves). Because phenylboronic acid is in equilibrium with phenylboroxin and water under the reaction conditions, three catalytic cycles are proposed that differ in the way the transmetallation and the release of the product are brought about, depending on the availability of phenylboronic acid, water and boroxin in the reaction medium. Based on computations, a new mechanism for the title reaction is proposed, in which phenylboronic acid plays the double role of “aryl source” and proton donor. This path does not require the presence of adventitious water molecules, in keeping with a reaction conducted in a dry medium. Comparisons with the generally accepted mechanism for arylation of enones proposed by Hayashi and co-workers (J. Am. Chem. Soc.­ 2002, 124, 5052) show that the latter mechanism is less favourable and is not expected to operate in the case of the N-tosylimine substrate considered herein. Finally, the possibility that phenylboroxin is the aryl source has also been investigated, but is not found to be competitive.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/chem.201500587
  • José Manuel Villalba Franco, Gregor Schnakenburg, Takahiro Sasamori, Arturo Espinosa Ferao, Rainer Streubel
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reactions of 3-imino-azaphosphiridine complexes 1 a,b with carbodiimides 2 a,b, isocyanates 3 a,b, and carbon dioxide are described. Whereas exchange of the carbodiimide unit occurs in the first case, an overall ring expansion takes place with phenyl isocyanate (3 a) and carbon dioxide to yield complexes 4 and 5 bearing novel 1,3,5-oxazaphospholane ligands; the isopropyl derivative 3 b did not react under these conditions. DFT calculations provide insight into the pathway of the reaction with carbon dioxide with model complex 1 c, revealing effects of initial non-covalent interactions with the substrate onto the ring bonding, thus triggering an initially masked frustrated Lewis-pair-type behavior.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/chem.201501628
  • Xiaodong Shen, Haohua Huo, Chuanyong Wang, Bo Zhang, Klaus Harms, Eric Meggers
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Octahedral iridium(III) complexes containing two bidentate cyclometalating 5-tert-butyl-2-phenylbenzoxazole (IrO) or 5-tert-butyl-2-phenylbenzothiazole (IrS) ligands in addition to two labile acetonitrile ligands are demonstrated to constitute a highly versatile class of asymmetric Lewis acid catalysts. These complexes feature the metal center as the exclusive source of chirality and serve as effective asymmetric catalysts (0.5–5.0 mol % catalyst loading) for a variety of reactions with α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, namely Friedel–Crafts alkylations (94–99 % ee), Michael additions with CH-acidic compounds (81–97 % ee), and a variety of cycloadditions (92–99 % ee with high d.r.). Mechanistic investigations and crystal structures of an iridium-coordinated substrates and iridium-coordinated products are consistent with a mechanistic picture in which the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds are activated by two-point binding (bidentate coordination) to the chiral Lewis acid.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/chem.201500922
  • Chengfeng Wang, Xiang Ren, Hujun Xie, Zhan Lu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The first nitro-group-initiated redox-neutral [3+2] cycloaddition of nitrocyclopropanes with alkenes by using visible-light-absorbing transition-metal complexes was reported. High diastereoselectivities were observed for two quaternary carbon centers on the ring and validated by DFT calculations. Spiro- or polycyclic structures can be constructed smoothly. Cyclic γ-amino acid derivatives and polysubstituted cyclic amino alcohols can be obtained easily through reduction of the nitro group.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/chem.201500873
  • Kyriakos C. Stylianou, Laura Gómez, Inhar Imaz, Cristóbal Verdugo‐Escamilla, Xavi Ribas, Daniel Maspoch
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The reaction of the chiral dipeptide glycyl-L(S)-glutamate with CoII ions produces chiral ladders that can be used as rigid 1D building units. Spatial separation of these building units with linkers of different lengths allows the engineering of homochiral porous MOFs with enhanced pore sizes, pore volumes, and surface areas. This strategy enables the synthesis of a family of isoreticular MOFs in which the pore size dictates the enantioselective adsorption of chiral molecules (in terms of their size and enantiomeric excess).
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/chem.201501315
  • Li Zhang, Dong Peng, Ru‐Ping Liang, Jian‐Ding Qiu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Noncovalent and multifunctional hybrids have been generated via π–π stacking and electrostatic interactions by combining the nanometer-scale graphene structure of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with FeIII 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine (FeTMPyP). The inner filter effect (IFE) of FeTMPyP on the GQDs results in substantial PL quenching of the GQDs. The quenched PL of GQDs by the FeTMPyP can be switched back “on” in response to the reaction between FeTMPyP and H2O2, which causes rupture of the cyclic tetrapyrrolic nucleus with consequential loss of iron from FeTMPyP, and then proceeds further to produce colorless dipyrroles and monopyrroles. This “turn on” system can be applied for simple and convenient H2O2 sensing and can be further extended to the detection of glucose in combination with the specific catalytic effect of glucose oxidase (GOx) through the oxidation of glucose and formation of H2O2. Because of the inherent synthetic control available for the design of metalloporphyrins, the GQDs-based optical sensing approach described here has the potential to be highly versatile for other target analytes.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/chem.201500803
  • Jie Wang, Yunpeng Cao, Qiang Li, Lei Liu, Mingdong Dong
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein misfolding and abnormal assembly could lead to aggregates such as oligomer, proto-fibril, mature fibril, and senior amyloid plaques, which are associated with the pathogenesis of many amyloid diseases. These irreversible amyloid aggregates typically form in vivo and researchers have been endeavoring to find new modulators to invert the aggregation propensity in vitro, which could increase understanding in the mechanism of the aggregation of amyloid protein and pave the way to potential clinical treatment. Graphene oxide (GO) was shown to be a good modulator, which could strongly control the amyloidosis of Aβ (33–42). In particular, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements revealed the size-dependent manner of GO on modulating the assembly of amyloid peptides, which could be a possible way to regulate the self-assembled nanostructure of amyloid peptide in a predictable manner.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/chem.201500577
  • Sven O. Krabbenborg, Janneke Veerbeek, Jurriaan Huskens
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Self-assembly to create molecular and nanostructures is typically performed at the thermodynamic minimum. To achieve dynamic functionalities, such as adaptability, internal feedback, and self-replication, there is a growing focus on out-of-equilibrium systems. This report presents the dynamic self-assembly of an artificial host–guest system at an interface, under control by a dissipative electrochemical process using (electrical) energy, resulting in an out-of-equilibrium system exhibiting a supramolecular surface gradient. The gradient, its steepness, rate of formation, and complex surface composition after backfilling, as well as the surface compositions after switching between the different states of the system, are assessed and supported by modelling. Our method shows for the first time an artificial surface-confined out-of-equilibrium system. The electrochemical process parameters provide not only control over the system in time, but also in space.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/chem.201501544
  • Minoru Mitsumi, Kazunari Ezaki, Yuuki Komatsu, Koshiro Toriumi, Tatsuya Miyatou, Motohiro Mizuno, Nobuaki Azuma, Yuji Miyazaki, Motohiro Nakano, Yasutaka Kitagawa, Takayasu Hanashima, Ryoji Kiyanagi, Takashi Ohhara, Kazuhiro Nakasuji
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A newly synthesized one-dimensional (1D) hydrogen-bonded (H-bonded) rhodium(II)–η5-semiquinone complex, [Cp*Rh(η5-p-HSQ-Me4)]PF6 ([1]PF6; Cp*=1,2,3,4,5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl; HSQ=semiquinone) exhibits a paraelectric–antiferroelectric second-order phase transition at 237.1 K. Neutron and X-ray crystal structure analyses reveal that the H-bonded proton is disordered over two sites in the room-temperature (RT) phase. The phase transition would arise from this proton disorder together with rotation or libration of the Cp* ring and PF6− ion. The relative permittivity εb′ along the H-bonded chains reaches relatively high values (ca., 130) in the RT phase. The temperature dependence of 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra demonstrates that the proton is dynamically disordered in the RT phase and that the proton exchange has already occurred in the low-temperature (LT) phase. Rate constants for the proton exchange are estimated to be 10−4–10−6 s in the temperature range of 240–270 K. DFT calculations predict that the protonation/deprotonation of [1]+ leads to interesting hapticity changes of the semiquinone ligand accompanied by reduction/oxidation by the π-bonded rhodium fragment, producing the stable η6-hydroquinone complex, [Cp*Rh3+(η6-p-H2Q-Me4)]2+ ([2]2+), and η4-benzoquinone complex, [Cp*Rh+(η4-p-BQ-Me4)] ([3]), respectively. Possible mechanisms leading to the dielectric response are discussed on the basis of the migration of the protonic solitons comprising of [2]2+ and [3], which would be generated in the H-bonded chain.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/chem.201500796
  • Stefan Michael Rommel, Richard Weihrich
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reductive diffusion of Ni2+ into SnS particles was shown to selectively form Sn2Ni3S2, hybrid, or even core-shell Ni@SnS, Ni1.523Sn, and Ni3S2, by tuning the reaction conditions at low temperatures. The mechanism of Ni2+ reduction and diffusion into SnS was observed in ethylene glycol, which served both as solvent and reducing agent. Tuning of reaction temperature and duration, morphology of the template SnS, and the application of ethylenediamine as supporting chelating agent, influence the formation of the final products. Their formation was controlled by carefully adjusting redox and equilibrium reactions. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX).
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/chem.201500498
  • Zidong He, Aiqing Zhong, Hui Zhang, Linfeng Xiong, Yang Xu, Tianqi Wang, Minghong Zhou, Kun Huang
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel method for the in situ synthesis of dual-phase thermosensitive ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (USGNPs) with diameters in the range of 1–3 nm was developed by using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-block-poly(N-phenylethylenediamine methacrylamide) (PNIPAM-b-PNPEDMA) amphiphilic diblock copolymers as ligands. The PNPEDMA block promotes the in situ reduction of gold precursors to zero-valent gold and subsequently binds to the surface of gold nanoparticles, while PNIPAM acts as a stabilizing and thermosensitive block. The as-synthesized USGNPs stabilized by a thermosensitive PNIPAM layer exhibit a sharp, reversible, clear–opaque transition in aqueous solution between 30 and 38 °C. An unprecedented finding is that these USGNPs also show a reversible soluble–precipitate transition in nonpolar organic solvents such as chloroform at around 0 °C under acidic conditions.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/chem.201406670
  • Hong Wu, Chunyong Tian, Yufei Zhang, Jiafu Shi, Chen Yang, Songping Zhang, Zhongyi Jiang
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A diffusion-limited assembly approach was explored to fabricate symmetrical [Cu(Succinate)]n microclusters with a different shape and size for the first time. The molecular structure of succinate and its coordination reaction capability towards copper(II) ions governed the one-dimensional growth of the nanofibers and the concomitant formation of the microclusters. In detail, a symmetrical concentration gradient was formed around the endpoints of the nanofibers caused by the diffusion-limited process at high reactant concentrations. The concentration gradient forced the nanofibers to grow divergently and further aggregate into open microcluster structure. The shape and size of the microclusters could be tuned by altering the concentration of the reactants. Particularly, mask-like double-hole symmetrical microclusters (MDHSMs) were obtained when the concentration of both reactants was as high as 140 mM. The resultant MDHSMs showed high selectivity in adsorption of dyes and proteins, and may find potential applications in water treatment, bioseparation, and immobilization of biomacromolecules.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/chem.201500028
  • Magda Monari, Elisa Montroni, Andrea Nitti, Marco Lombardo, Claudio Trombini, Arianna Quintavalla
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new Michael–Michael cascade reaction between 2-(2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene)acetic esters 1 and nitroenoates 2, catalyzed by bifunctional thioureas, is investigated. The combination of the two Michael reactions results in a novel and facile [4+2] or [3+2] spiroannulation process, which is characterized by the following features: 1) two carbon–carbon bonds and four stereocenters, including a quaternary spiro carbon, are formed under mild conditions; 2) an unprecedented and stereochemically defined substitution pattern on the spirocarbocyclic unit is obtained; 3) the double-bond configuration of the donor–acceptor nitroenoate 2 determines the absolute configuration of the spiro center, whereas the remaining stereocenters are formed under control of the catalyst. The effect on the final stereochemical outcome of structural variations of each starting material, catalyst, and experimental conditions is analyzed in detail. In particular, the use of specifically designed chiral nitroenoates enables diverse polyfunctional spirocyclohexane derivatives containing six consecutive stereogenic centers to be constructed. To our knowledge, this is the first asymmetric organocatalytic strategy enabling both five- and six-membered β-nitro spirocarbocyclic oxindoles.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/chem.201500676
  • Oscar Francesconi, Cristina Nativi, Gabriele Gabrielli, Irene De Simone, Sam Noppen, Jan Balzarini, Sandra Liekens, Stefano Roelens
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The binding abilities of a set of structurally related aminopyrrolic synthetic receptors for mannosides, endowed with antimycotic activity against yeast and yeast-like pathogens bearing mannoproteins on their cell surface, have been investigated towards the highly mannosylated gp120 and gp41 glycoproteins of the HIV envelope. A pronounced binding interaction with both glycoproteins was observed by SPR for most of the investigated compounds. Comparison of their binding properties towards the glycoproteins with their binding affinities toward mannosides revealed a direct correlation, supporting their role as carbohydrate binding agents (CBAs). Cytostatic activity studies revealed antiproliferative activity dependent on the nature and the structure of compounds. Antiviral activity studies against a broad panel of DNA and RNA viruses showed inhibitory effect against HIV infection of the T-lymphocyte CEM cell line for two compounds, suggesting antiviral activity similar to other CBAs, such as the nonpeptidic pradimicin antibiotics.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/chem.201501030
  • Sungwoo Kim, Hyunjin Kim, Yongdoo Choi, Youngmi Kim
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new design for fluorescence probes of esterase activity that features a carboxylate-side pro-fluorophore is demonstrated with boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-based probes 1 a and 1 b. Because the design relies on the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of an ester group that is not electronically activated, these probes exhibit a stability to background hydrolysis that is far superior to classical alcohol-side profluorophore-based probes, large signal-to-noise ratios, reduced sensitivity to pH variations, and high enzymatic reactivity. The utility of probe 1 a was established with a real-time fluorescence imaging experiment of endogenous esterase activity that does not require washing of the extracellular medium.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/chem.201501127
  • Tamara Rama, Eva M. López‐Vidal, Marcos D. García, Carlos Peinador, José M. Quintela
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A M2L2 rectangular-shaped metallacycle, obtained by metal-directed self-assembly of a 2-(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)-2,7-diazapyrenium salt and [(en)Pd (NO3)2] (en=ethylenediamine), has been investigated as a molecular receptor for a wide range of aromatic substrates in water. Complexation and catenation of the receptor with selected mono- and polycyclic aromatic substrates produced 1:1 inclusion complexes and [2]catenanes in a highly efficient fashion, as determined by NMR and UV/Vis spectroscopic techniques, as well as single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Furthermore, the thermodynamic and kinetic features of the complexation processes have been analyzed for selected model guests.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/chem.201501087
  • Sophia Bazzi, Jan Novotný, Yevgen P. Yurenko, Radek Marek
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new class of quadruplex nucleobases, derived from 3-deazaguanine, has been designed for various applications as smart quadruplex ligands as well as quadruplex-based aptamers, receptors, and sensors. An efficient strategy for modifying the guanine quadruplex core has been developed and tested by using quantum chemistry methods. Several potential guanine derivatives modified at the 3- or 8-position or both are analyzed, and the results compared to reference systems containing natural guanine. Analysis of the formation energies (BLYP-D3(BJ)/def2-TZVPP level of theory, in combination with the COSMO model for water) in model systems consisting of two and three stacked tetrads with Na+/K+ ion(s) inside the internal channel indicates that the formation of structures with 3-halo-3-deazaguanine bases leads to a substantial gain in energy, as compared to the corresponding reference guanine complexes. The results cast light on changes in the noncovalent interactions (hydrogen bonding, stacking, and ion coordination) in a quadruplex stem upon modification of the guanine core. In particular, the enhanced stability of the modified quadruplexes was shown to originate mainly from increased π–π stacking. Our study suggests the 3-halo-3-deazaguanine skeleton as a potential building unit for quadruplex systems and smart G-quadruplex ligands.
    Chemistry - A European Journal 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/chem.201500743