Depression and Anxiety (Depress Anxiety)

Publisher: Wiley

Journal description

Depression and Anxiety welcomes original research and synthetic review articles covering molecular genetic biopsychosocial neurochemical neuropsychological physiological behavioral sociological psychodynamic psychotherapeutic cognitive and pharmacotherapeutic aspects of mood and anxiety disorders and related phenomena in humans and animals. The journal publishes full-length Research Papers Topical Reviews Brief Reports Book Reports Clinical Case Studies and Letters. Contributions are grouped and published by topic.

Current impact factor: 4.29

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 4.288
2012 Impact Factor 4.61
2011 Impact Factor 4.184
2010 Impact Factor 3.065
2009 Impact Factor 2.926
2008 Impact Factor 2.526

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 4.35
Cited half-life 4.50
Immediacy index 0.44
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 1.44
Website Depression and Anxiety website
Other titles Depression and anxiety (Online), Depression and anxiety, Depression
ISSN 1520-6394
OCLC 43989596
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • On author's personal website, institutional repositories, arXiv, AgEcon, PhilPapers, PubMed Central, RePEc or Social Science Research Network
    • Author's pre-print may not be updated with Publisher's Version/PDF
    • Author's pre-print must acknowledge acceptance for publication
    • On a non-profit server
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher source must be acknowledged with citation
    • Must link to publisher version with set statement (see policy)
    • If OnlineOpen is available, BBSRC, EPSRC, MRC, NERC and STFC authors, may self-archive after 12 months
    • If OnlineOpen is available, AHRC and ESRC authors, may self-archive after 24 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 07/08/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background For exposure therapy to be successful, it is essential that fear extinction learning extends beyond the treatment setting. d-Cycloserine (DCS) may facilitate treatment gains by increasing generalization of extinction learning, however, its effects have not been tested in children. We examined whether DCS enhanced generalization of fear extinction learning across different stimuli and contexts among children with specific phobias.Methods The study was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized controlled trial among dog or spider phobic children aged 6–14. Participants ingested either 50 mg of DCS (n = 18) or placebo (n = 17) before receiving a single prolonged exposure session to their feared stimulus. Return of fear was examined 1 week later to a different stimulus (a different dog or spider), presented in both the original treatment context and an alternate context. Avoidance and fear were measured with Behavior Approach Tests (BATs), where the child was asked to increase proximity to the stimulus while reporting their fear level.ResultsThere were no differences in BAT performance between groups during the exposure session or when a new stimulus was later presented in the treatment context. However, when the new stimulus was presented in a different context, relative to placebo, the DCS group showed less avoidance (P = .03) and less increase in fear (P = .04) with moderate effect sizes.ConclusionsDCS enabled children to better retain their fear extinction learning. This new learning generalized to different stimuli and contexts.
    Depression and Anxiety 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/da.22356
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    ABSTRACT: Background To develop and validate a risk prediction algorithm for the recurrence of panic disorder.Methods Three-year longitudinal data were taken from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2001/2002–2004/2005). One thousand six hundred and eighty one participants with a lifetime panic disorder and who had not had panic attacks for at least 2 months at baseline were included. The development cohort included 949 participants; 732 from different census regions were in the validation cohort. Recurrence of panic disorder over the follow-up period was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule, based on the DSM-IV criteria. Logistic regression was used for deriving the algorithm. Discrimination and calibration were assessed in the development and the validation cohorts.ResultsThe developed algorithm consisted of 11 predictors: age, sex, panic disorder in the past 12 months, nicotine dependence, rapid heartbeat/tachycardia, taking medication for panic attacks, feelings of choking and persistent worry about having another panic attack, two personality traits, and childhood trauma. The algorithm had good discriminative power (C statistic = 0.7863, 95% CI: 0.7487, 0.8240). The C statistic was 0.7283 (95% CI: 0.6889, 0.7764) in the external validation data set.Conclusions The developed risk algorithm for predicting the recurrence of panic disorder has good discrimination and excellent calibration. Data related to the predictors can be easily attainable in routine clinical practice. It can be used by clinicians to calculate the probability of recurrence of panic disorder in the next 3 years for individual patients, communicate with patients regarding personal risks, and thus improve personalized treatment approaches.
    Depression and Anxiety 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/da.22359
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric mental illnesses in children and adolescents, and are associated with abnormal cognitive control in emotional, particularly threat, contexts. In a series of studies using eye movement saccade tasks, we reported anxiety-related alterations in the interplay of inhibitory control with incentives, or with emotional distractors. The present study extends these findings to working memory (WM), and queries the interaction of spatial WM with emotional stimuli in pediatric clinical anxiety. Participants were 33 children/adolescents diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, and 22 age-matched healthy comparison youths. Participants completed a novel eye movement task, an affective variant of the memory-guided saccade task. This task assessed the influence of incidental threat on spatial WM processes during high and low cognitive load. Healthy but not anxious children/adolescents showed slowed saccade latencies during incidental threat in low-load but not high-load WM conditions. No other group effects emerged on saccade latency or accuracy. The current data suggest a differential pattern of how emotion interacts with cognitive control in healthy youth relative to anxious youth. These findings extend data from inhibitory processes, reported previously, to spatial WM in pediatric anxiety. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Depression and Anxiety 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/da.22350
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    ABSTRACT: Despite evidence of elevated risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behavior in youth with Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders (CTD), few studies have actually examined that relationship. This study documented the frequency and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in a sample of children and adolescents with CTD (N = 196, range 6-18 years old). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the Centers for Disease Control. Youth and parents completed a battery of measures that assessed co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses, child emotional and behavioral symptoms, and impairment due to tics or co-occurring conditions. A structured diagnostic interview identified that 19 youths with CTD (9.7%) experienced suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors, which was elevated compared to 3 youths (3%) who experienced these thoughts in a community control sample (N = 100, range 6-18 years old, P = .03). For youth with CTD, suicidal thoughts and behaviors were frequently endorsed in the context of anger and frustration. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) anxious/depressed, withdrawn, social problems, thought problems, and aggressive behavior subscales, as well as the total internalizing problems scale, were associated with the presence of suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors. Suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors were significantly associated with tic symptom severity; tic-related impairment; and obsessive-compulsive, depressive, anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders' symptom severity. CBCL anxiety/depression scores mediated the relationship between tic severity and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Findings suggest that about 1 in 10 youth with CTD experience suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors, which are associated with a more complex clinical presentation and often occur in the presence of anger and frustration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Depression and Anxiety 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/da.22357
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was twofold: (1) to systematically examine differences in fear conditioning between anxiety patients and healthy controls using meta-analytic methods, and (2) to examine the extent to which study characteristics may account for the variability in findings across studies. Forty-four studies (published between 1920 and 2013) with data on 963 anxiety disordered patients and 1,222 control subjects were obtained through PubMed and PsycINFO, as well as from a previous meta-analysis on fear conditioning (Lissek et al.). Results demonstrated robustly increased fear responses to conditioned safety cues (CS-) in anxiety patients compared to controls during acquisition. This effect may represent an impaired ability to inhibit fear in the presence of safety cues (CS-) and/or may signify an increased tendency in anxiety disordered patients to generalize fear responses to safe stimuli resembling the conditioned danger cue (CS+). In contrast, during extinction, patients show stronger fear responses to the CS+ and a trend toward increased discrimination learning (differentiation between the CS+ and CS-) compared to controls, indicating delayed and/or reduced extinction of fear in anxiety patients. Finally, none of the included study characteristics, such as the type of fear measure (subjective vs. psychophysiological index of fear), could account significantly for the variance in effect sizes across studies. Further research is needed to investigate the predictive value of fear extinction on treatment outcome, as extinction processes are thought to underlie the beneficial effects of exposure treatment in anxiety disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Depression and Anxiety 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/da.22353
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    ABSTRACT: Disturbed circadian rhythms have been associated with depression and anxiety, but it is unclear if disturbances in the 24-hr activity rhythm and sleep are independently and specifically related to these disorders. In 1,714 middle-aged and elderly participants of the Rotterdam Study, we collected actigraphy recordings of at least 96 hr (138 ± 14 hr, mean ± standard deviation). Activity rhythms were quantified calculating the fragmentation of the rhythm, stability of the rhythm over days, and timing of the rhythm. Total sleep time, sleep onset latency, and wake after sleep onset were also estimated with actigraphy. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, persons with clinically relevant depressive symptoms were interviewed to diagnose DSM-IV-depressive disorder. Anxiety disorders were determined with the Munich version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. More fragmented rhythms were associated with clinically relevant depressive symptoms (odds ratio (OR): 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04;1.54) and anxiety disorders (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.14;1.70) after covariate adjustment. Less stable rhythms, longer sleep onset latency, and more wake after sleep onset were related to clinically relevant depressive symptoms or anxiety disorders only if not adjusted for covariates and other activity rhythm and sleep indicators. Our study in middle-aged and elderly persons suggests that fragmentation of the 24-hr activity rhythm is associated with depression and anxiety. Moreover, this association also largely accounts for the effect of disturbed sleep on these psychiatric disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Depression and Anxiety 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/da.22355
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    ABSTRACT: Studies indicate that women victims of intimate partner violence are at increased risk for poor mental health. This research disentangled the effect of partner violence on new-onset depression and psychosis spectrum symptoms from effects of child maltreatment and other confounding factors, including substance abuse and antisocial personality. Participants were 1,052 mothers involved in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative cohort of families followed prospectively. To test the directionality of associations between partner violence and depression, only women without a history of depression at the beginning of the study were considered (n = 978). Partner violence and mental health were assessed during face-to-face interviews with women across three time points. Four of 10 women reported being the victim of violence from their partner in a 10-year period. They represent 33% of our cohort and they account for 51% of new-onset depression. These women had a twofold increase in their risk of suffering from new-onset depression once the effect of childhood maltreatment, socioeconomic deprivation, antisocial personality, and young motherhood were controlled. Women who were abused both in childhood and adulthood were four to seven times more likely to suffer from depression than never-abused women. We observed similar associations with psychosis spectrum symptoms. Women victims of partner violence account for more than their share of depression. Findings strengthen existing evidence that partner violence independently contributes to women's poor mental health. Psychological difficulties among a considerable number of women could be reduced by stopping partner violence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Depression and Anxiety 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/da.22347
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    ABSTRACT: Background Telomeres protect the ends of chromosomes, and shorter leukocyte telomeres are associated with poor health. Depression may be associated with the shortening of leukocyte telomeres. The present study set out to consolidate the varying effect sizes found so far in studies of depression and telomere length and to identify moderators of the relationship between depression and telomere length.MethodsA meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between depression and leukocyte telomere length used information from 21,040 participants.ResultsA significant effect size, r = −.12, P < .001, indicated that depression was associated with shorter telomere length. Several variables significantly moderated effect size. Concurrent associations (k = 25) between depression and telomere length were significantly stronger than longitudinal associations (k = 5). Studies that used the Southern blot (k = 3) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH; k = 2) assays to measure telomere length showed larger effect sizes than studies that used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR; k = 25). Finally, study reports that indicated that the telomere assays were conducted blind to depression level of participants (k = 11) had significantly lower effect sizes than those of other studies (k = 19).Conclusions The significant relationship between depression and shorter telomere length is consistent with a theoretical model positing that distress, such as experienced in depression, results in physiological changes leading to shortened telomeres.
    Depression and Anxiety 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/da.22351
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    ABSTRACT: Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is highly familial, but studies have yet to examine preschoolers at risk for BD using standardized, developmentally appropriate clinical assessment tools. We used such methods to test whether preschoolers at familial risk for BD have more observed difficulty modulating emotions and behaviors than do low-risk preschoolers. Identification of emotional and behavioral difficulties in at-risk preschoolers is crucial for developing new approaches for early intervention and prevention of BD.Methods Using the standardized disruptive behavior diagnostic observation schedule (DB-DOS) protocol for preschoolers, we compared 23 preschoolers (Mage: 4.53 ± 0.73 years; 18 males) with a first-degree relative with BD to 21 preschoolers (Mage: 4.65 ± 0.84 years; 11 males) without a family history of BD. We characterized psychopathology in this sample using the Preschool Aged Psychiatric Assessment and behavioral and emotional problems using the Child Behavior Checklist.ResultsHigh-risk preschoolers demonstrated significantly more intense, pervasive, and clinically concerning problems in anger modulation and behavior dysregulation on the DB-DOS than the low-risk group. High-risk relative to low-risk preschoolers, were also more likely to have maternal-reported anxiety and oppositional defiant disorders and internalizing and externalizing problems.Conclusions Clinically concerning problems in anger modulation and behavior regulation, measured during standardized laboratory observation, differentiate preschoolers at high familial risk for BD from those at low risk. Investigation in a large longitudinal sample is critical for replication and for determining whether these observed behavioral differences can be reliably used as prodromal indicators of mood disorders.
    Depression and Anxiety 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/da.22342
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    ABSTRACT: Background Outcome expectancy, or the degree to which a client believes that therapy will result in improvement, is related to improved treatment outcomes for multiple disorders. There is a paucity of research investigating this relation in regards to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Additionally, the bulk of the research on outcome expectancy and treatment outcomes has relied mostly on self-report outcome measures.Methods The relation between outcome expectancy on self-report measures, clinician-rated measures, and two biological indices (fear-potentiated startle and cortisol reactivity) of PTSD symptoms was explored. The sample included combat veterans (N = 116) treated with virtual reality exposure therapy for PTSD.ResultsResults supported a negative association between outcome expectancy and both self-report and clinician-rated symptoms at the conclusion of treatment, but outcome expectancy was related to the magnitude of change during treatment for self-report measures only. Outcome expectancy was unrelated to biological measures of treatment response.Conclusions These findings suggest that outcome expectancy may be related to patient and clinician perceptions of outcomes, but not biological indices of outcome for PTSD.
    Depression and Anxiety 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/da.22354
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    ABSTRACT: Background The antidepressive effect of pioglitazone has been noted in patients with major depressive disorder in absence of metabolic syndrome. This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of pioglitazone in patients with bipolar depression without concomitant metabolic syndrome or diabetes.Method Forty-eight outpatients with the diagnosis of bipolar I disorder and a major depressive episode participated in a parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and 44 patients underwent 6-week treatment with either pioglitazone (30 mg/day) or placebo as an adjunctive treatment to lithium. Therapeutic serum lithium levels of 0.6–0.8 mEq/L were required for two or more consecutive weeks immediately before starting pioglitazone and during the 6-week study. Patients were evaluated using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) at baseline and weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6. The primary outcome was to evaluate the efficacy of pioglitazone in improving the depressive symptoms.ResultGeneral linear model repeated measures showed significant effect for time × treatment interaction on the HDRS scores [F(2.78, 116.65) = 4.77, P = .005]. Significantly greater reduction was observed in HDRS scores in the pioglitazone group than the placebo group from baseline HDRS score at weeks 2, 4, and 6, P = .003, .006, and .006, respectively. No serious adverse event was observed.Conclusion This study showed that pioglitazone could be a tolerable and effective adjunctive therapy for improving depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder without type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome.
    Depression and Anxiety 01/2015; DOI:10.1002/da.22340
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    ABSTRACT: Background Although cognitive theories of depression have postulated enhanced processing of negatively valenced information, previous EEG studies have shown both increased and reduced sensitivity for negative performance feedback in MDD. To reconcile these paradoxical findings, it has been speculated that sensitivity for negative feedback is potentiated in moderate MDD, but reduced in highly anhedonic subjects. The goal of this study was to test this hypothesis by analyzing the feedback-related negativity (FRN), frontomedial theta power (FMT), and source-localized anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) activity after negative feedback.Methods Fourteen unmedicated participants with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 15 control participants performed a reinforcement learning task while 128-channel Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. FRN, FMT, and LORETA source-localized aMCC activity after negative and positive feedback were compared between groups.ResultsThe MDD group showed higher FRN amplitudes and aMCC activation to negative feedback than controls. Moreover, aMCC activation to negative feedback was inversely related to self-reported anhedonia. In contrast, self-reported anxiety correlated with feedback-evoked frontomedial theta (FMT) within the depression group.Conclusions The present findings suggest that, among depressed and anxious individuals, enhanced processing of negative feedback occurs relatively early in the information processing stream. These results extend prior work and indicate that although moderate depression is associated with elevated sensitivity for negative feedback, high levels of anhedonia may attenuate this effect.
    Depression and Anxiety 01/2015; DOI:10.1002/da.22338