Depression and Anxiety (Depress Anxiety )

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons


Depression and Anxiety welcomes original research and synthetic review articles covering molecular genetic biopsychosocial neurochemical neuropsychological physiological behavioral sociological psychodynamic psychotherapeutic cognitive and pharmacotherapeutic aspects of mood and anxiety disorders and related phenomena in humans and animals. The journal publishes full-length Research Papers Topical Reviews Brief Reports Book Reports Clinical Case Studies and Letters. Contributions are grouped and published by topic.

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    Depression and Anxiety website
  • Other titles
    Depression and anxiety (Online), Depression and anxiety, Depression
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    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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John Wiley & Sons

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    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
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    • 'John Wiley and Sons' is an imprint of 'Wiley-Blackwell'
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Among individuals with anxiety disorders, comorbid personality disorders (PDs) increase cross-sectional symptom severity and decrease functioning. Little is known, however, about how PDs influence the course of anxiety disorders over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of PDs on the persistence of four anxiety disorders in a nationally representative sample in the United States.
    Depression and Anxiety 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric and adult anxiety disorder patients exhibit attention bias to threat and difficulty disengaging attention away from threat. Cognitive frameworks suggest that these patterns are associated with hyperactivation of regions associated with detecting threat, such as the amygdala, and hypoactivation of regions associated with regulating attention, including the lateral prefrontal cortex and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC). The aim of the present study was to examine the neural correlates of these processes in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders.
    Depression and Anxiety 07/2014;
  • Depression and Anxiety 07/2014; 31(7):539-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Prevalence rates of postpartum depression (PPD) are 10 to 20% among various populations. Little is known about the characteristics of PPD among populations experiencing cultural transition. This study aimed to assess PPD symptoms (PPDS) prevalence and to identify risk factors unique to Arab-Bedouin women in southern Israel.Methods The sample included 564 women who visited maternal and child health clinics. Sociodemographic characteristics were obtained using in-person interviews. PPDS were assessed using a validated Arabic translation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Prevalence of PPDS was estimated using the cut-off score of EPDS ≥10; a more stringent cut-off score of EPDS ≥13 was used to define women with moderate to severe PPDS.ResultsThe prevalence of PPDS among women was 31%, of which 19.1% were assessed as having moderate to severe symptoms (EPDS ≥ 13). In a multivariate logistic regression, the variables associated with EPDS ≥10 were having an ill-infant odds ratio (OR) = 3.9, lack of husband's support (OR = 2.6), history of emotional problems (OR = 3.2), low income (OR = 1.6), low level of education (OR = 1.6), high marital conflicts (OR = 1.5), and an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 1.5).Conclusion In the generally understudied population of Arab-Bedouin women living in southern Israel, we found a high prevalence of PPDS. The unique risk factors described in our research can inform health care professionals in designing interventions for early detection and prevention of PPD.
    Depression and Anxiety 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are known to be highly comorbid. However, previous findings regarding the nature of this comorbidity have been inconclusive. This study prospectively examined whether PTSD and depression are distinct constructs in an epidemiologic sample, as well as assessed the directionality of the PTSD-depression association across time.Methods Nine hundred and forty-two Detroit residents (males: n = 387; females: n = 555) were interviewed by phone at three time points, 1 year apart. At each time point, they were assessed for PTSD (using the PCL-C), depression (PHQ-9), trauma exposure, and stressful life events.ResultsFirst, a confirmatory factor analysis showed PTSD and depression to be two distinct factors at all three waves of assessments (W1, W2, and W3). Second, chi-square analysis detected significant differences between observed and expected rates of comorbidity at each time point, with significantly more no-disorder and comorbid cases, and significantly fewer PTSD only and depression only cases, than would be expected by chance alone. Finally, a cross-lagged analysis revealed a bidirectional association between PTSD and depression symptoms across time for the entire sample, as well as for women separately, wherein PTSD symptoms at an early wave predicted later depression symptoms, and vice versa. For men, however, only the paths from PTSD symptoms to subsequent depression symptoms were significant.Conclusions Across time, PTSD and depression are distinct, but correlated, constructs among a highly-exposed epidemiologic sample. Women and men differ in both the risk of these conditions, and the nature of the long-term associations between them.
    Depression and Anxiety 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background We used growth mixture modeling (GMM) to identify subsets of patients with qualitatively distinct symptom trajectories resulting from treatment. Existing studies have focused on 12-week antidepressant trials. We used data from a concurrent antidepressant and psychotherapy trial over a 6-month period.Method Eight hundred twenty-one patients were randomized to receive either fluoxetine or tianepine and received cognitive-behavioral therapy, supportive therapy, or psychodynamic therapy. Patients completed the Montgomery–Åsberg depression rating scale (MADRS) at the 0, 1, 3, and 6-month periods. Patients also completed measures of dysfunctional attitudes, functioning, and personality. GMM was conducted using MADRS scores and the number of growth classes to be retained was based on the Bayesian information criterion.ResultsCriteria supported the presence of four distinct latent growth classes representing gradual responders of high severity (42% of sample), gradual responders of moderate severity (31%), nonresponders (15%), and rapid responders (11%). Initial severity, greater use of emotional coping strategies, less use of avoidance coping strategies, introversion, and less emotional stability predicted nonresponder status. Growth classes were not associated with different treatments or with proportion of dropouts.Conclusions The longer time period used in this study highlights potential overestimates of nonresponders in previous research and the need for continued assessments. Our findings demonstrate distinct growth trajectories that are independent of treatment modality and generalizable to most psychotherapy patients. The correlates of class membership provide directions for future studies, which can refine methods to predict likely nonresponders as a means to facilitate personalized treatments.
    Depression and Anxiety 07/2014;
  • Depression and Anxiety 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the prevalence and predictive factors of PTSD and depression in relation with peritraumatic distress, trauma exposure, and sociodemographic characteristics among children and adolescent who survived the 2010 Haiti's earthquake.
    Depression and Anxiety 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Perinatal depression negatively impacts women, parenting, and children's development. However, not much is known about maternal specific beliefs that may be associated with perinatal depression. We created a new measure that examined the rigidity of perinatal women's beliefs in three major domains suggested to be closely related to mood and behavior: anticipated maternal self-efficacy, perceptions of child vulnerability, and perceptions of societal expectations of mothers (PSEM).
    Depression and Anxiety 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Metacognitive therapy (MCT) is a relatively new approach to treating mental disorders. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of MCT in patients with mental disorders. A comprehensive literature search revealed 16 published as well as unpublished studies on the efficacy of MCT, of which nine were controlled trials. These studies report on 384 participants suffering from anxiety or depression. Treatment efficacy was examined using a random effects model. On primary outcome measures the aggregate within-group pre- to posttreatment and pretreatment to follow-up effect sizes for MCT were large (Hedges' g = 2.00 and 1.65, respectively). Within-group pre- to posttreatment changes in metacognitions were also large (Hedges' g = 1.18) and maintained at follow-up (Hedges' g = 1.31). Across the controlled trials, MCT was significantly more effective than both waitlist control groups (between-group Hedges' g = 1.81) as well as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT; between-group Hedges' g = 0.97). Results suggest that MCT is effective in treating disorders of anxiety and depression and is superior compared to waitlist control groups and CBT, although the latter finding should be interpreted with caution. The implications of these findings are limited by small sample sizes and few active control conditions. Future studies should include larger sample sizes and also include comparisons of MCT with other empirically supported therapies.
    Depression and Anxiety 05/2014; 31(5):402-11.
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    ABSTRACT: Background There is an urgent need for more effective treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD). As understanding of the cognitive and affective neuroscience underlying psychiatric disorders expands, so do opportunities to develop interventions that capitalize on the capacity for brain plasticity. Cognitive training is one such strategy. In this article, we report a proof-of-concept study of a novel cognitive-emotional training exercise designed to enhance cognitive control for emotional information processing and targeting components of the neural networks that have been implicated in MDD.Methods Twenty-one participants with MDD in a current episode were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment conditions: 11 participating in a cognitive-emotional training paradigm (emotional faces memory task (EFMT)) involving eight sessions over 4 weeks, and 10 participating in an active control condition (control training, CT). Assessments of MDD symptoms, negative affective bias in cognitive processing, and neurocognition (attention and working memory) were administered at baseline and after 4 weeks.ResultsParticipants in the EFMT group exhibited a greater reduction in MDD symptoms compared to the CT group, and 6 of the 11 EFMT participants achieved clinical response (≥50% reduction in symptoms). EFMT participants also exhibited changes in negative affective bias in the hypothesized direction whereas the CT participants did not. Both groups exhibited similar, small improvements in attention and working memory.Conclusions Cognitive-emotional training may represent a feasible and effective intervention strategy for MDD. This proof-of-concept study highlights the need for future studies to fully understand the effectiveness, and mechanisms of effect, of these training strategies.
    Depression and Anxiety 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Prenatal maternal depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms have been found to be associated with child and adolescent behavior problems. In this paper, we investigate their impact on behavior problems and depressive symptoms in adulthood.Methods Participants included 3,099 mother–offspring pairs from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), an Australian based, prebirth cohort study. We used latent class growth analysis (LCGA) with parallel processes to identify trajectories of maternal depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms over four time periods between the mothers’ first clinic visit and 5 years postpregnancy. We fitted the estimates from the maternal trajectories in multivariate logistic regression models to predict internalizing and externalizing behavior at age 21. We adjusted for a wide range of prenatal and postnatal factors, including maternal life events, relationship quality, contact with the new born, as well as concurrent maternal depressive and anxious symptoms and father's history of mental health problem.ResultsLCGA found seven groups of mothers; one group of mothers exhibited high levels of depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms during pregnancy but not at later time points. Their offspring experienced increased levels of behavior problems and depressive symptoms.Conclusions This paper provides the first evidence that high levels of maternal subjective depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms experienced in early pregnancy may predict internalizing and externalizing behavior problems and depressive symptoms in young adults.
    Depression and Anxiety 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Even though traumatic stress is a major risk factor for depression, most people do not develop a depression. The effects of stress may particularly emerge after repeated exposure in vulnerable individuals. Therefore, we hypothesized that (1) increased exposure to stress across the life span is associated with an increased depression risk and (2) this effect is the most pronounced in individuals with high levels of neuroticism.Methods We investigated the effect of childhood maltreatment, major life events, daily hassles, and a composite index thereof (cumulative stress index) on depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder (MDD) including the possible moderating role of neuroticism in a discovery sample from the general population (N = 563) and an independent replication sample from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (N = 2,274).ResultsAll stress domains were independently associated with depressive symptoms in the discovery sample. In the replication sample, we confirmed these findings for childhood maltreatment and daily hassles but not for major life events with depressive symptoms as outcome. Nevertheless, all stress domains significantly contributed to the presence of MDD in the replication sample. The cumulative stress index was significantly associated with depression in the discovery (β = 1.42, P < .001) and replication sample (β = 3.79, P < .001), especially in those individuals with high levels of trait neuroticism (discovery: β = 0.013, P < .001; replication: β = 0.367, P < .001).Conclusions This is the first study to show that cumulative stress exposure across different stress domains contributes to depressive symptoms and MDD in adulthood. Moreover, we show that increased exposure to stress across the life span has more impact on vulnerable individuals with high levels of trait neuroticism.
    Depression and Anxiety 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Advancing research on the etiology, prevention, and treatment of psychopathology requires the field to move beyond modular conceptualizations of neural dysfunction toward understanding disturbance in key brain networks. Although some studies of anxiety and depression have begun doing so, they typically suffer from several drawbacks, including: (1) a categorical approach ignoring transdiagnostic processes, (2) failure to account for substantial anxiety and depression comorbidity, (3) examination of networks at rest, which overlooks disruption manifesting only when networks are challenged. Accordingly, the present study examined relationships between transdiagnostic dimensions of anxiety/depression and patterns of functional connectivity while goal maintenance was challenged.Methods Participants (n = 179, unselected community members and undergraduates selected to be high/low on anxiety/depression) performed a task in which goal maintenance was challenged (color-word Stroop) while fMRI data were collected. Analyses examined moderation by anxiety/depression of condition-dependent coupling between regions of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) previously associated with approach and avoidance motivation and amygdala/orbitofrontal cortex (OFC).ResultsAnxious arousal was positively associated with amygdala↔right dlPFC coupling. Depression was positively associated with OFC↔right dlPFC coupling and negatively associated with OFC↔left dlPFC coupling.Conclusions Findings advance the field toward an integrative model of the neural instantiation of anxiety/depression by identifying specific, distinct dysfunctions associated with anxiety and depression in networks important for maintaining approach and avoidance goals. Specifically, findings shed light on potential neural mechanisms involved in attentional biases in anxiety and valuation biases in depression and underscore the importance of examining transdiagnostic dimensions of anxiety/depression while networks are challenged.
    Depression and Anxiety 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Almost half of children with an inhibited temperament will develop social anxiety disorder by late adolescence. Importantly, this means that half of children with an inhibited temperament will not develop social anxiety disorder. Studying adults with an inhibited temperament provides a unique opportunity to identify neural signatures of both risk and resilience to social anxiety disorder.Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure brain activation during the anticipation of viewing fear faces in 34 young adults (17 inhibited, 17 uninhibited). To identify neural signatures of risk, we tested for group differences in functional activation and connectivity in regions implicated in social anxiety disorder, including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and insula. To identify neural signatures of resilience, we tested for correlations between brain activation and both emotion regulation and social anxiety scores.ResultsInhibited subjects had greater activation of a prefrontal network when anticipating viewing fear faces, relative to uninhibited subjects. No group differences were identified in the amygdala. Inhibited subjects had more negative connectivity between the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the bilateral amygdala. Within the inhibited group, those with fewer social anxiety symptoms and better emotion regulation skills had greater ACC activation and greater functional connectivity between the ACC and amygdala.Conclusions These findings suggest that engaging regulatory prefrontal regions during anticipation may be a protective factor, or putative neural marker of resilience, in high-risk individuals. Cognitive training targeting prefrontal cortex function may provide protection against anxiety, especially in high-risk individuals, such as those with inhibited temperament.
    Depression and Anxiety 04/2014;

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