Depression and Anxiety (Depress Anxiety )

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons


Depression and Anxiety welcomes original research and synthetic review articles covering molecular genetic biopsychosocial neurochemical neuropsychological physiological behavioral sociological psychodynamic psychotherapeutic cognitive and pharmacotherapeutic aspects of mood and anxiety disorders and related phenomena in humans and animals. The journal publishes full-length Research Papers Topical Reviews Brief Reports Book Reports Clinical Case Studies and Letters. Contributions are grouped and published by topic.

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    Depression and Anxiety website
  • Other titles
    Depression and anxiety (Online), Depression and anxiety, Depression
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  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

John Wiley and Sons

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    • 'John Wiley and Sons' is an imprint of 'Wiley'
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    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Depression and Anxiety 11/2014; 31(11).
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    ABSTRACT: Background The present study examines the role of comorbid anxiety on depression outcomes for those receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression by telephone (T-CBT) or face-to-face (FtF-CBT).Methods Three hundred twenty-five participants were randomized to T-CBT or FtF-CBT. Comorbid anxiety was measured using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7. Depression was measured using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Patient Health Questionnaire 9.ResultsA hierarchical model including the two-way interaction of treatment assignment and anxiety status indicated a significant effect for all outcome variables (Ps < .05). Post hoc t tests indicated T-CBT participants with comorbid anxiety disorders had significantly higher symptom severity over time compared to their T-CBT counterparts without anxiety (Ps < .001) and FtF-CBT counterparts with comorbid anxiety (Ps < .003). There were no significant differences in outcomes between those with and without comorbid anxiety disorders receiving FtF-CBT, or between T-CBT and FtF-CBT among those without comorbid anxiety disorders.Conclusions The findings indicate that the presence of baseline anxiety impacts the overall effect of T-CBT for the treatment of depression.
    Depression and Anxiety 11/2014; 31(11).
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    ABSTRACT: Background Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood (objective 1) and whether these impairments were better accounted for by concurrent adolescent confounders (objective 2).Method Eight hundred and sixteen adolescents were assessed using interviews and questionnaires at four time points from adolescence to adulthood. We examined whether lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence (by T2, mean age 17) predicted adult outcomes (by T4, mean age 30) using linear and logistic regressions in unadjusted models (objective 1) and adjusting for sociodemographic background, adolescent psychopathology, and family risk factors (objective 2).ResultsIn unadjusted analyses, adolescent suicide attempts predicted poorer adjustment on all outcomes, except those related to social role status. After adjustment, adolescent attempts remained predictive of axis I and II psychopathology (anxiety disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder symptoms), global and social adjustment, risky sex, and psychiatric treatment utilization. However, adolescent attempts no longer predicted most adult outcomes, notably suicide attempts and major depressive disorder. Secondary analyses indicated that associations did not differ by sex and attempt characteristics (intent, lethality, recurrence).Conclusions Adolescent suicide attempters are at high risk of protracted and wide-ranging impairments, regardless of the characteristics of their attempt. Although attempts specifically predict (and possibly influence) several outcomes, results suggest that most impairments reflect the confounding contributions of other individual and family problems or vulnerabilites in adolescent attempters.
    Depression and Anxiety 11/2014;
  • Depression and Anxiety 11/2014; 31(11).
  • Depression and Anxiety 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past several decades, the diagnosis of mental disorders has been characterized by classifying psychopathology into as many discrete diagnoses as can be reliability identified (e.g., APA, 2013). There is increasing evidence, however, that this approach to diagnosis may come at the expense of validity as trivial symptom-level differences are emphasized with little regard for common core mechanisms. Traditionally, cognitive-behavioral (CBT) approaches to treating psychopathology have followed a diagnosis-specific approach such that unique protocols have been developed for most disorders. Recent advances in CBT have suggested that targeting transdiagnostic mechanisms responsible for the development and maintenance of a wider range of psychopathology may be a more efficient approach to treatment than addressing disorder symptoms themselves. In order to create a more personalized treatment package, we propose establishing a profile for each patient that quantifies dysfunction in terms of empirically-supported underlying mechanisms; we further suggest that data from this profile be used to select CBT modules specific to the core mechanisms maintaining an individual patient's symptoms.
    Depression and Anxiety 11/2014; 31(11).
  • Depression and Anxiety 11/2014; 31(11).
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment is emerging as an important therapeutic target in patients with psychiatric illnesses, including major depressive disorder (MDD). The objective of this general overview is to briefly review the evidence for cognitive impairment in MDD and to summarize a representative sample of cognitive assessment tools currently available to assess cognitive function in depressed patients. Study results in MDD patients with cognitive dysfunction are somewhat inconsistent, likely due to the heterogeneity of the disorder as well as the use of diverse assessment tools. Measuring cognitive changes in this population is challenging. Cognitive symptoms are typically less severe than in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, requiring greater sensitivity than afforded by existing tools. Preliminary evidence suggests antidepressant treatments may improve cognitive functioning as a direct result of ameliorating depressive symptoms; however, any procognitive effects have not been elucidated. To evaluate antidepressant efficacy in MDD patients with cognitive dysfunction, a standardized cognitive battery for use in clinical trials is essential.
    Depression and Anxiety 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Anxiety control beliefs have emerged as a trans-diagnostic risk factor for anxiety disorders and a potential mechanism of change in cognitive and behavioral therapies. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between anxiety control beliefs and anxiety disorder symptoms following exposure to hurricanes in youth and test a developmental hypothesis about those associations.MethodsA large school-based sample of (N = 1048) children and adolescents with a history of exposure to natural disaster were assessed with the short form of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire for Children (ACQ-C), symptom measures (PTSD and generalized anxiety disorder symptoms) and level of disaster exposure. Developmental differences in the association between ACQ-C scores and symptoms were tested, as well as the ACQ-C's ability to assess symptoms beyond level of exposure.ResultsACQ-C scores were associated with symptoms beyond level of exposure, but age moderated the strength of the association. Modeling the interaction suggested that the ACQ-C short had incremental validity beyond hurricane exposure in youth over 12 years.Conclusions Findings extend previous work to a novel population of youth and add to the developmental understanding of the role of anxiety control beliefs in anxiety regulation. Age differences in the linkages between anxiety control and symptoms is consistent with a developmental model where low perceived control exhibited by younger children may be less indicative of problems with anxiety but may instead be related to normal cognitive development.
    Depression and Anxiety 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) was developed to overcome some of the barriers in accessing best practice face-to-face CBT. iCBT affords many benefits, such as high fidelity, greater accessibility, convenience, and reduced cost to patients and health-care systems. Recent meta-analyses of iCBT for depressive and anxiety disorders demonstrate large effect size for superiority of iCBT over control conditions (ES>.95; number needed to treat (NNT) = 2) and data collected in routine practice supports the effectiveness of these programs. Tailoring treatment to match patient variables may be one means to increase adherence and optimize clinical outcomes. However, we propose that a “personalized medicine” approach will require looking beyond patient characteristics and comorbidities to consideration of the cognitive processes that subserve depression and anxiety symptomatology.
    Depression and Anxiety 11/2014; 31(11).
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    ABSTRACT: Functional neuroimaging has led to significant gains in understanding the biological bases of anxiety and depressive disorders. However, the ability of functional neuroimaging to directly impact clinical practice is unclear. One important method by which neuroimaging could impact clinical care is to generate single patient level predictions that can guide clinical decision-making. The present review summarizes published functional neuroimaging studies of predictors of medication or psychotherapy outcome in major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder. In major depressive disorder and OCD, there is converging evidence of specific brain circuitry that has both been implicated in the disordered state itself, and where pretreatment activation levels have been predictive of treatment response. Specifically, in major depressive disorder, greater pretreatment ventral and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activation may predict better antidepressant medication outcome but poorer psychotherapy outcome. In OCD, activation in the ACC and orbitofrontal cortex has been inversely associated with pharmacological treatment response. In other anxiety disorders, research in this area is just beginning, with the ACC potentially implicated. However, the question of whether these results can directly translate to clinical practice remains open. In order to achieve the goal of single patient level prediction and individualized treatment, future research should strive to establish replicable models with good predictive performance and clear incremental validity.
    Depression and Anxiety 11/2014; 31(11).
  • Depression and Anxiety 11/2014; 31(11).
  • Depression and Anxiety 11/2014; 31(11).
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    ABSTRACT: Background Chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can result in significant social and physical impairments. Despite the Department of Veterans Affairs’ (VA) expansion of mental health services into primary care clinics to reach larger numbers of Veterans with PTSD, many do not receive sufficient treatment to clinically benefit. This study explored whether the odds of premature mental health treatment termination varies by patient race/ethnicity and, if so, whether such variation is associated with differential access to services or beliefs about mental health treatments.Methods Prospective national cohort study of VA patients who were recently diagnosed with PTSD (n = 6,788). Self-administered surveys and electronic VA databases were utilized to examine mental health treatment retention across racial/ethnic groups in the 6 months following the PTSD diagnosis controlling for treatment need, access factors, age, gender, treatment beliefs, and facility factors.ResultsAfrican American and Latino Veterans were less likely to receive a minimal trial of pharmacotherapy and African American Veterans were less likely to receive a minimal trial of any treatment in the 6 months after being diagnosed with PTSD. Controlling for beliefs about mental health treatments diminished the lower odds of pharmacotherapy retention among Latino but not African American Veterans. Access factors did not contribute to treatment retention disparities.Conclusions Even in safety-net healthcare systems like VA, racial and ethnic disparities in mental health treatment occur. To improve treatment equity, clinicians may need to more directly address patients’ treatment beliefs. More understanding is needed to address the treatment disparity for African American Veterans.
    Depression and Anxiety 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with abnormal functioning of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis; however, limited research has examined whether cortisol levels change following successful PTSD treatment. The current study examined the impact of successful PTSD treatment on the cortisol awakening response (CAR).Method Twenty-nine adults participating in a treatment trial for chronic PTSD provided saliva samples (upon waking, and 30-, 45-, and 60 min postwaking) before and after receiving either prolonged exposure therapy or sertraline. PTSD responder status (i.e., loss or retention of a PTSD diagnosis) served as the predictor variable. Outcome measures included area under the curve with respect to ground and increase, reflecting total cortisol output and HPA axis reactivity, respectively.ResultsA series of hierarchical regressions revealed no significant main effects of PTSD responder status for either CAR outcome. However, a significant gender by treatment response interaction for cortisol reactivity revealed that female treatment nonresponders displayed higher cortisol reactivity following treatment than female responders, whereas cortisol reactivity did not change pre- to posttreatment for male responders. Findings remained after controlling for age, trauma history, baseline medication status, baseline PTSD, and baseline depressive symptoms.Conclusion Loss of a PTSD diagnosis may contribute to decreased cortisol reactivity in females. Neuroendocrine changes following treatment may emerge only for specific subgroups, highlighting the importance of exploring treatment moderators.
    Depression and Anxiety 10/2014; 31(10).
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The prevalence of suicide among U.S. Army soldiers has risen dramatically in recent years. Prior studies suggest that most soldiers with suicidal behaviors (i.e., ideation, plans, and attempts) had first onsets prior to enlistment. However, those data are based on retrospective self-reports of soldiers later in their Army careers. Unbiased examination of this issue requires investigation of suicidality among new soldiers. Method: The New Soldier Study (NSS) of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) used fully structured self-administered measures to estimate preenlistment histories of suicide ideation, plans, and attempts among new soldiers reporting for Basic Combat Training in 2011–2012. Survival models examined sociodemographic correlates of each suicidal outcome. Results: Lifetime prevalence estimates of preenlistment suicide ideation, plans, and attempts were 14.1, 2.3, and 1.9%, respectively. Most reported onsets of suicide plans and attempts (73.3–81.5%) occurred within the first year after onset of ideation. Odds of these lifetime suicidal behaviors among new soldiers were positively, but weakly associated with being female, unmarried, religion other than Protestant or Catholic, and a race/ethnicity other than non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, or Hispanic. Conclusions: Lifetime prevalence estimates of suicidal behaviors among new soldiers are consistent with retrospective reports of preenlistment prevalence obtained from soldiers later in their Army careers. Given that prior suicidal behaviors are among the strongest predictors of later suicides, consideration should be given to developingmethods of obtaining valid reports of preenlistment suicidality from new soldiers to facilitate targeting of preventive interventions.
    Depression and Anxiety 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The prevalence of 30-day mental disorders with retrospectively reported early onsets is significantly higher in the U.S. Army than among sociodemographically matched civilians. This difference could reflect high prevalence of preenlistment disorders and/or high persistence of these disorders in the context of the stresses associated with military service. These alternatives can to some extent be distinguished by estimating lifetime disorder prevalence among new Army recruits. Methods: The New Soldier Study (NSS) in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) used fully structured measures to estimate lifetime prevalence of 10 DSM-IV disorders in new soldiers reporting for Basic Combat Training in 2011–2012 (n = 38,507). Prevalence was compared to estimates from a matched civilian sample. Multivariate regression models examined socio-demographic correlates of disorder prevalence and persistence among new soldiers. Results: Lifetime prevalence of having at least one internalizing, externalizing, or either type of disorder did not differ significantly between new soldiers and civilians, although three specific disorders (generalized anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and conduct disorders) and multimorbidity were significantly more common among new soldiers than civilians. Although several socio-demographic characteristics were significantly associated with disorder prevalence and persistence, these associations were uniformly weak. Conclusions: New soldiers differ somewhat, but not consistently, from civilians in lifetime preenlistment mental disorders. This suggests that prior findings of higher prevalence of current disorders with preenlistment onsets among soldiers than civilians are likely due primarily to a more persistent course of early-onset disorders in the context of the special stresses experienced by Army personnel.
    Depression and Anxiety 10/2014;
  • Depression and Anxiety 10/2014;