American Journal of Human Biology (Am J Hum Biol )

Publisher: Human Biology Council, John Wiley & Sons

Description

The American Journal of Human Biology is a peer-reviewed internationally circulated journal that publishes reports of original research theoretical articles and timely reviews and brief communications in the interdisciplinary field of human biology. The Journal serves as a forum for scientists and health professionals who share common interests in understanding individual and population variation in health and disease. As the official journal of the HUMAN BIOLOGY ASSOCIATION the Journal also publishes abstracts of research presented at its annual scientific meeting. Reviews of books and other publications relevant to human biology are also regularly published. The Journal seeks scholarly manuscripts that address all aspects of the discipline of human biology. The transdisciplinary areas covered by human biology include but are not limited to epidemiology genetic variation population biology and demography physiology anatomy nutrition growth and aging performance and physical fitness exercise science ecology and evolution along with their interactions. The Journal publishes basic applied and methodologically oriented research from all areas including measurement analytical techniques and strategies and computer applications in human biology. Like many other biologically oriented disciplines the field of human biology has undergone considerable growth and diversification in recent years and the expansion of the aims and scope of the Journal is a reflection of this growth and membership diversification. The Journal is committed to prompt review and priority publication is given to manuscripts with novel or timely findings and to manuscripts of unusual interest.

  • Impact factor
    2.34
  • 5-year impact
    2.39
  • Cited half-life
    6.10
  • Immediacy index
    0.49
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.77
  • Website
    American Journal of Human Biology website
  • Other titles
    American journal of human biology (Online), American journal of human biology
  • ISSN
    1520-6300
  • OCLC
    42581120
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

John Wiley & Sons

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
    • On personal web site or secure external website at authors institution
    • Not allowed on institutional repository
    • JASIST authors may deposit in an institutional repository
    • Non-commercial
    • Pre-print must be accompanied with set phrase (see individual journal copyright transfer agreements)
    • Published source must be acknowledged with set phrase (see individual journal copyright transfer agreements)
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'John Wiley and Sons' is an imprint of 'Wiley-Blackwell'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives Studies from developed societies have shown that individuals with short legs relative to height have higher risk of type 2 diabetes. This has been much less explored in less developed populations where influences on relative leg length and diabetes may differ. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (in Portuguese, ELSA-Brasil) allows us to test, in a cohort born (1934–1975) and raised when undernutrition was common, whether short legs relative to height is positively associated with diabetes, independent of early-life factors, including birth weight, age at menarche, and young-adult BMI. Methods We used baseline, cross-sectional data from 15,105 participants aged 35–74 years participating in ELSA-Brasil. We created age-and-sex-specific Z scores for leg length index (leg length/height × 100) according to an external reference. Diabetes was defined by self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, fasting and 2-h post-75-g-load glucose, and A1C. Results A one-unit decrement in leg-length-index Z score was associated with 12% (8–17%) higher prevalence of diabetes in Brazilian adults, after adjustment through Poisson regression for confounders, including race, maternal education, and birth weight. This association persisted after further adjustment for menarche age, BMI (at age 20), buttocks circumference, and waist circumference. It was stronger among women with early menarche (P interaction = 0.02). Leg length index was also inversely associated with fasting glucose, fasting insulin, 2-h glucose, and A1C (P < 0.05). Conclusions In contemporary Brazilian adults, short legs relative to height is positively associated with diabetes independent of measures of intrauterine growth, pubertal timing, and young-adult adiposity. This association is stronger in women with early menarche.
    American Journal of Human Biology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Several empirical studies point out the relevance of individuals’ physical attributes – such as height, weight, beauty – in the labor market. In the same way, physical characteristics may affect lifetime prospects through their impact on the selection of a partner in the marriage market. We analyze to what extent individual’s height and weight (arguably affecting physical attractiveness, as documented in many studies) are related to lifetime economic outcomes through the marriage market, investigating whether individual height and weight affect the probability of marrying with a “high quality partner”, measuring quality with the partner’s educational attainment or with the partner’s prospective labor income. Using a large Italian dataset of married (and cohabiting) couples – the 2005 Italian Health Conditions Survey which provides information on health conditions, individual characteristics and socio-economic variables – we estimate separate OLS and Ordered Probit regressions for females and males. Since weight might be endogenously determined, to avoid any estimation bias we also estimate a reduced form equation in which predetermined height affects directly and indirectly (through BMI) physical attractiveness and, as a consequence, the choice of a partner with a given educational attainment. Our findings suggest that height is a desirable trait in mating selection affecting the partner’s socio-economic characteristics: we find that taller individuals tend to mate with more educated partners, controlling for the own educational level – to take into account the tendency for assortative mating for education – and for other personal traits such as age, geographical residence, city size, the presence of health problems. On the other hand, we show that individuals with higher BMI are married with partners with lower levels of education. The results also provide evidence of non-linearity in the relationship between height and educational attainment of the partner. These findings are confirmed for both males and females but being taller seems to be more relevant for males, while being thinner is more important for females. We have also found that taller and thinner females and males tend to be married with partners earnings higher labor incomes. These findings are robust to a number of checks. Our findings confirm that the physical characteristics that an individual brings to the marriage market influences the outcome on this market: physical attractiveness is exchanged in the marriage market for a higher educational attainment and the ability to earn a higher labor income.
    American Journal of Human Biology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Cortisol levels exhibit a diurnal rhythm in healthy men, with peaks in the morning and troughs in the evening. Throughout age, however, this rhythm tends to flatten. This diurnal flattening has been demonstrated in a majority of industrialized populations, although the results have not been unanimous. Regardless, little attention has been paid to nonindustrialized, foraging populations such as the Ache Amerindians of Paraguay. As testosterone levels had previously been shown to diminish with age in this population (Bribiescas and Hill [2010]: Am J Hum Biol 22: 216–220), we hypothesized that cortisol levels would behave similarly, flattening in rhythmicity over age.Methods We examined morning and evening salivary cortisol samples in Ache Amerindian men in association with age (n = 40, age range 20–64 years).ResultsMen in the first age class (<20–29 years) exhibited significantly different morning (AM) and evening (PM) values as did men in the second age class (30–39 years). However, men in the third and fourth age classes (40–49 years, and >50 years, respectively) did not exhibit a significant difference between AM and PM values.Conclusion Ache Amerindian men exhibit a flattening of the diurnal rhythm across age classes. Our results were able to capture both within- and between-individual variations in cortisol levels, and reflected age-related contrasts in daily cortisol fluctuations. The flattening of the diurnal rhythm with age among the Ache may reflect a common and shared aspect of male senescence across ecological contexts and lifestyles. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Human Biology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To explore the 2D:4D in China (mainland and Taiwan) and to analyze the influences of ethnicity, digit measurement methods, age, and latitude on Chinese 2D:4D.Methods We here conducted a meta-analysis of the results of 28 studies. A total of 112 independent samples and 19,093 participants were included.ResultsThe sex difference in left 2D:4D only approached significance when outliers were removed (P = 0.078), whereas the right 2D:4D was significantly lower in males compared to females, showing that the magnitude of sex difference was greater for the right hand than for the left hand. No significant differences were found in the 2D:4D between Han and ethnic minorities. The 2D:4D of samples measured using indirect digit measurement tended to be lower than in samples measured using direct digit measurement. Moreover, there were no effects of age and latitude on the 2D:4D in China.Conclusions We concluded that the sex differences in Chinese 2D:4D are consistent with the results from western studies, and that genetic pool differences rather than latitude-related environmental variables affect the 2D:4D in China. In addition, 2D:4D measurements obtained by different digit measurement techniques should not be combined within one study, or used together in comparative studies. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Human Biology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective While indexes have been proposed to estimate total and abdominal adiposity in adults, the assessment of adiposity among obese adolescents remains difficult in clinical setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical applicability of total and visceral and fat mass indexes in obese adolescents.Methods One hundred and thirty, 12–16 year old obese adolescents were enrolled in the study. Anthropometric characteristics [Height, weight, waist (WC), and hip (HC) circumferences] were measured and body composition assessed by Dual X-Ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessed. High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C) and Triglycerides (TG) plasma concentrations were assessed from fasting blood samples. Body Adiposity indexes (BAI) were calculated from formulas taking into account, height, weight, and WC, and for the Visceral Adiposity indexes, a formula including WC, HDL-C, and TG.ResultsBoth the BAI and Pediatric Body Adiposity Index (BAIp) were significantly correlated to the percentage of total body fat assessed by DXA (DXA %FM; P < 0.001; r = 0.67 and r = 0.64, respectively). The best concordance with DXA %FM was found using BAI. The Visceral Adiposity Index was only weakly associated with abdominal fat mass assessed by DXA (r = 0.27, P < 0.01) and only significantly in boys (r = 0.41, P < 0.01) when the analysis was performed by gender.Conclusion The BAI initially developed in adults presented a better but still weak association with DXA-%FM when compared with the BAIw and BAIp. The three indices thus do not provide better estimate of obese adolescents' adiposity than the widely used Body Mass Index. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Human Biology 10/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives Studies from developed societies have shown that individuals with short legs relative to height have higher risk of type 2 diabetes. This has been much less explored in less developed populations where influences on relative leg length and diabetes may differ. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (in Portuguese, ELSA-Brasil) allows us to test, in a cohort born (1934–1975) and raised when undernutrition was common, whether short legs relative to height is positively associated with diabetes, independent of early-life factors, including birth weight, age at menarche, and young-adult BMI.Methods We used baseline, cross-sectional data from 15,105 participants aged 35–74 years participating in ELSA-Brasil. We created age-and-sex-specific Z scores for leg length index (leg length/height × 100) according to an external reference. Diabetes was defined by self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, fasting and 2-h post-75-g-load glucose, and A1C.ResultsA one-unit decrement in leg-length-index Z score was associated with 12% (8–17%) higher prevalence of diabetes in Brazilian adults, after adjustment through Poisson regression for confounders, including race, maternal education, and birth weight. This association persisted after further adjustment for menarche age, BMI (at age 20), buttocks circumference, and waist circumference. It was stronger among women with early menarche (P interaction = 0.02). Leg length index was also inversely associated with fasting glucose, fasting insulin, 2-h glucose, and A1C (P < 0.05).Conclusions In contemporary Brazilian adults, short legs relative to height is positively associated with diabetes independent of measures of intrauterine growth, pubertal timing, and young-adult adiposity. This association is stronger in women with early menarche. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2014. © 2014 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Human Biology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective This study presents information about secular trends in physical fitness (PF) levels among Mozambican youth.Methods The sample comprises 3,851 subjects (1,791 boys; 2,060 girls) aged 8–15 years who were evaluated at three time points (1992, 1999, 2012). PF tests included handgrip strength, 10 m × 5 m shuttle-run, sit-and-reach, and 1-mile run/walk. Biological maturity was assessed by sexual characteristics, and percentage body fat was predicted using triceps and subscapular skinfolds. ANCOVA (controlling for age, maturity status, and percentage body fat) was used to compare mean differences in PF tests among the three time points, by sex.ResultsChildren in 1992 were more flexible than those from 2012; boys handgrip strength increased from 1992 to 2012, while girls decreased their handgrip strength; youth in 1992 were faster and more agile than their 2012 peers; and a decrease was observed in cardiorespiratory fitness between 1992 and 1999 and between 1992 and 2012 for both sexes.ConclusionsA negative secular trend among Mozambican children's PF was observed over the last two decades, suggesting that socio-political, educational, and economical changes occurring during this period had a relevant effect on their PF. This negative trend suggests that development of intervention programs/strategies to improve PF among youth is warranted. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Human Biology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Skinfold thicknesses (SFT) have long been considered important and valid measurements of subcutaneous fat. The present study reported the percentiles and regional distribution of SFT among children and adolescents in Shandong, China.Methods Data for this study were obtained from a large cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren. A total of 42,268 students (21,200 boys and 21,068 girls) aged 7–18 years from 16 districts participated in this study. Triceps, subscapular, and abdomen SFT of all subjects were measured.ResultsShandong children and adolescents had a high SFT level and substantial regional disparities in SFT were observed. Boys and girls resident in high socioeconomic status (SES) districts had higher SFT level than those living in moderate and low SES districts.Conclusion The SFT level of children and adolescents is associated with regional SES in Shandong, China. This may be interpreted as a result of geographic variation between the districts in the process of urbanization, living standards, nutritional conditions, dietary patterns, and public health. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Human Biology 10/2014;
  • American Journal of Human Biology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Digit ratio (2D:4D), a measure of prenatal testosterone exposure, is weakly-to-moderately associated with increased physical performance, although the evidence is far stronger for males than females.Objective To examine the relationship between 2D:4D and measured on-water rowing performance in young females competing at the Australian Rowing Championships.Methods Using an observational, cross-sectional design, female rowers (n = 69, aged 12–30 years) who competed in single sculls events at the Australian Rowing Championships in 2007 and 2008 had numerous physical and digital anthropometric measurements taken, including 2D:4D measurements. Relationships between 2D:4Ds and race times were examined using Pearson's correlations, partial correlations and multiple regression. Partial Least Squares regression analysis determined the strength of the 2D:4D as a predictor of race time relative to 78 body dimensions plus age.ResultsOverall, weak to strong positive correlations between 2D:4D and race time were found; that is, females with smaller 2D:4Ds had faster race times than females with larger 2D:4Ds. Relationships were weak to moderate for all females (r = 0.29–0.32), moderate-to-strong for senior rowers (aged ≥20 years; r = 0.42–0.55), and weak for junior rowers (aged <20 years; r = 0.13–0.18), with all relationships persisting following adjustment for age. Partial Least Squares regression analysis showed that 2D:4Ds had high predictive importance relative to other body dimensions.Conclusions Females with smaller 2D:4Ds rowed substantially faster than females with larger 2D:4Ds, with the 2D:4D possibly linked to underlying characteristics that have been optimized over time resulting in better rowing performance. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Human Biology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The Extended Mechanistic Growth Function (EMGF) method (Clementi et al. [1999]: Am J Med Genet 87:317–323) is a possible alternative to the Cole and Green LMS method ([1992] Stat Med 11:1305-1319) to construct cross-sectional anthropometric charts. It differs from the technique used by Kuczmarski et al. ([2002]: Vital Health Stat 11:1–190) to trace the CDC growth charts in that all centiles are simultaneously fitted with a single function. The aim of this study is to show how an EMGF model can be designed.Methods To illustrate the structure and properties of the EMGF method, the data of the Italian Neonatal Study (Bertino et al. [2010]: J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 51:353–361) were analyzed. The dataset included the birth weight of 45,272 single liveborn babies with gestational ages ranging from 23 to 42 weeks. The EMGF method consists of three steps. In the preliminary step, selected age-dependent raw centiles of the anthropometric trait are computed. In the smoothing step, all centiles are simultaneously fitted with a growth function extended with the inclusion of a few extra parameters. In the transformation step, estimates of the age-dependent L (skewness), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) parameters are derived.ResultsA four-parameter generalized logistic function, extended with five parameters to model between-sex differences, distance between centiles and their slope, was found to fit the raw centiles of birth weight distribution with a residual standard deviation of 51.3 g.Conclusions The EMGF method represents a bridge to link cross-sectional and longitudinal studies and allows us to identify milestones of the median growth in a population in the same way used for individual profiles. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Human Biology 09/2014;
  • American Journal of Human Biology 09/2014;
  • American Journal of Human Biology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives This multi-center study was conducted to objectively evaluate energy expenditure and physical activity (PA) patterns on school days and weekends in urban 11-year-olds.Methods The sample consisted of 241 children from three cities: Zagreb, Ljubljana (both in Central Europe) and Ann Arbor (United States). Energy expenditure and PA were assessed during two school days and two weekend days using a multiple-sensor body monitor.ResultsDifferences between the cities were observed for all PA variables. The highest level of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was noted in Ljubljana boys [284 (98) min/day] and the lowest in Zagreb girls [179 (95) min/day]. In Zagreb and Ljubljana, boys were more physically active than girls, while in Ann Arbor the opposite was observed. In contrast, no gender difference in sedentary behavior was observed in any of the cities. A decline in PA from school days to weekends was noted in all city groups in both genders. However, the magnitude of the reduction in daily energy expenditure differed between the cities, with the largest differences being observed in Ljubljana and the smallest in Ann Arbor. In all three city groups, the great majority of boys and girls achieved current recommendations of 60 min of MVPA either during school days or weekends.Conclusions Weekends seem to be an appropriate target when promoting PA in 11-year-olds in all the cities included in the study. Increasing vigorous activity on weekends seems to be of particular importance in Zagreb and Ljubljana. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Human Biology 09/2014;
  • American Journal of Human Biology 09/2014;