Neotropical Entomology (NEOTROP ENTOMOL )

Publisher: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil


Publication of the Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil. Mission is to publish results of original research on the several specialties of entomology, like: bionomics, systematics, morphology, physiology, behavior, ecology, biological control, crop protection and on acarology. Extensive reviews or articles concerning current issues in entomology presented in a thought-provoking form are published in the Forum Section, by invitation. Former Title: Anais Da Sociedade Entomologica Do Brasil.

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Laboratory experiments were conducted to find out the efficacy of different crude extracts and fractions of Couroupita guianensis (Lecythidaceae) against Spodoptera litura (Fabricius). Results revealed that hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of C. guianensis showed larvicidal and pupicidal activities against S. litura. Maximum larvicidal activity (68.66%) was observed in hexane extract at 5.0% concentration followed by chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts, and least LC50 value of 2.64% was observed in hexane extract. A 100% pupicidal activity was observed in hexane extract. Based on the efficacy of crude extracts, the effective crude extract (hexane extract) was further fractionated and subjected to screening for biological activities against S. litura. Among the eight fractions isolated from the hexane extract, fraction 8 showed maximum antifeedant activity (81. 8%) and larvicidal activity (76.9%) at 1000-ppm concentration; this fraction showed least LC50 value of 375.92 ppm for larvicidal activity. Cent per cent pupicidal activity was recorded. Reduced midgut and hemolymph protein contents were observed at 1000 ppm of fraction 8. Histopathological studies revealed that fraction 8 severely damaged the midgut cells of S. litura. This fraction could be used to develop botanical formulation to control agricultural pests.
    Neotropical Entomology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Fitness of a single species is often measured in terms of the number of viable offspring produced. We explore the relationship between the number of ovarioles and the size of females in five species of Simuliidae in two páramo regions of Colombia. Individuals of seven species of female blackflies that landed on animals were collected from mules in the Ucumarí Regional Park (RPNU) and from cattle in the Chingaza Natural National Park (ChNNP). The ovarioles of the five most abundant species were dissected out and counted, and a one-factor ANOVA was performed to explore differences in the mean number of ovarioles produced by different female size categories. Simulium ignescens Roubaud and S. ignescens-like species were collected in RPNU and S. ignescens, Simulium muiscorum Bueno et al, Simulium cormonsi Wygodzinsky and Simulium pautense Coscarón & Takaoka, in ChNNP. In addition, we also analyzed the Pearson product-moment correlation between the mean number of ovarioles per blackfly and female size within species using those which more than 20 individuals were collected. Ovarioles were meroistic-polytrophic type. A multiple range test (least significant difference) indicated that the largest size group had the largest mean number of ovarioles per female. In the other size groups, there were approximately equal numbers of ovarioles per female. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was separately measured and indicated a 50% correlation between female size and ovariole number in S. ignescens. Although ovariole number is probably a genetically driven feature, other environmental and physiological conditions, including infections, can influence the number of eggs.
    Neotropical Entomology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Holcocerus hippophaecolus Hua et al (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) is an important boring pest that damages the sea buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides. Larvae of H. hippophaecolus cause major losses of this shrub in Northern China, with severe economic and ecological consequences. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy to investigate the typology, morphology, and distribution of sensilla on the antennae and ovipositor of H. hippophaecolus. In total, seven subtypes of sensilla were found on the antennae, i.e., chaetica, trichodea (two subtypes), basiconica (two subtypes), coeloconica, and Böhm bristles. In addition, three types of sensilla were detected on the ovipositor, i.e., chaetica, trichodea, and basiconica. The identification of these sensilla types could provide morphological evidence to facilitate a better understanding of the host location, mate finding, and oviposition processes of this important species.
    Neotropical Entomology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Ruderal species may provide pollen and nectar to maintain the pollinators of crops in periods of floral resource shortage. The knowledge about the floral biology of these plant species and their interaction with insects is important for management strategies of agricultural systems. The study was carried out at an experimental research station in two different periods (August 2010–April 2011 and August 2012–January 2013). Floral biology was studied, and the reproductive system and reproductive efficacy (RE) were analyzed using controlled pollination experiments. Furthermore, floral visitors and pollination were identified and quantified. Reproductive success obtained in the open pollination and cross-pollination experiments was higher than those obtained in spontaneous self, hand self, and wind pollination. Richardia grandiflora bloomed throughout the experimental period, and flowers were visited by Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera, which were observed foraging for pollen and/or nectar. Among the floral visitors, bees were the richest and most frequent group and often contacted anthers and stigmas during visits. Africanized honeybees touched the floral reproductive structures in all visits, and their frequency may be related to changes in the reproductive efficacy between the study periods. Pollinator species of crops cultivated at the experimental research station were frequent bee visitors of R. grandiflora. We demonstrated that R. grandiflora requires cross-pollination and biotic pollen vectors. Among floral visitors, bees are the main pollinators, especially the Africanized honeybees. R. grandiflora can be considered an important ruderal species for maintaining bee pollinator populations at the study site, providing resources during the period that crops are not blooming.
    Neotropical Entomology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Taxonomy of a tetrigid genus Formosatettixoides Zheng is reviewed. Two new species, Formosatettixoides nigellus n. sp. and Formosatettixoides dabieshanensis n. sp. are described. Redescription of the characters of the genus is given, the distribution and an updated key to the now 10 species of the genus are presented.
    Neotropical Entomology 12/2014; 43(6).
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    ABSTRACT: The southern armyworm (SAW) Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) is one of the most common armyworm species defoliating soybeans. Preliminary screening trials have indicated that some soybean genotypes exhibit resistance to SAW. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the development of SAW larvae fed on ten soybean genotypes in order to identify genotypes with antibiosis-type resistance. Neonate SAW larvae were daily fed with young leaves collected from plants at the vegetative growth stages V4–V5. Larval development and survival were recorded. Genotypes PI 227687 and PI 227682 delayed larval, pupal, and larva-adult development and yielded larvae with the lowest weight and survival and pupae with the lowest weight. Genotypes IAC 100 and DM 339 also negatively affected larval and pupal development and larval survival but at a lower level. Based on our results, the soybean lines PI 227687 and PI 227682 could be used as sources of genes for soybean breeding programs aiming to develop high yield, SAW-resistant cultivars. Moreover, further trials must be carried out under field conditions to validate if the commercial cultivars IAC 100 and DM 339, which expressed moderate levels of antibiosis-type resistance in the laboratory, are effective in suppressing SAW larvae populations.
    Neotropical Entomology 12/2014; 43(6).
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    ABSTRACT: The possibility that escape or evasive mimicry evolved in butterflies and other prey insects in a similar fashion to classical Batesian and Müllerian mimicry has long been advanced in the literature. However, there is a general disagreement among lepidopterists and evolutionary biologists on whether or not escape mimicry exists, as well as in which mimicry rings this form of mimicry has evolved. Here, we review some purported cases of escape mimicry in Neotropical butterflies and suggest new mimicry rings involving several species of Archaeoprepona, Prepona, and Doxocopa (the “bright blue bands” ring) and species of Colobura and Hypna (the “creamy bands” ring) where the palatability of butterflies, their ability to escape predator attacks, geographic distribution, relative abundance, and co-occurrence in the same habitats strongly suggest that escape mimicry is involved. In addition, we also indicate other butterfly taxa whose similarities of coloration patterns could be due to escape mimicry and would constitute important case studies for future investigation.
    Neotropical Entomology 10/2014; 43(5):393-398.
  • L S Zha, W A Deng, Z M Zheng, X M Li
    Neotropical Entomology 10/2014; 43(5):429-436.
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    ABSTRACT: The sharpshooter genus Geitogonalia Young was so far known from a single species from Southeastern Brasil—Geitogonalia quatuordecimmaculata (Taschenberg). A new species, Geitogonalia viridis, is described and illustrated in this paper based on males and females from the state of Rio de Janeiro. In addition, the female of G. quatuordecimmaculata is for the first time described and illustrated in detail. Geitogonalia quatuordecimmaculata is a dark species marked with bright orange on the fore wings, whereas the new species has the corium and clavus of the fore wings mostly green. The paraphyses are well developed in G. quatuordecimmaculata, with elongate rami, whereas they are inconspicuous in G. viridis, with the rami modified as a pair of very small sclerites.
    Neotropical Entomology 08/2014; 43(4):373-379.
  • M D Silva, M Ramalho, D Monteiro
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    ABSTRACT: As most stingless bee species depend on preexisting cavities, principally tree hollows, nesting site availability may represent an important restriction in the structuring of their forest communities. The present study examined the spatial dynamics of stingless bee communities in an area of Atlantic Forest by evaluating their swarming to trap-nests. The field work was performed in the Michelin Ecological Reserve (MER) on the southeastern coast of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Seven hundred and twenty trap-nests were distributed within two forest habitats in advanced and initial stages of regeneration. The trap-nests were monitored between September 2009 and March 2011. Twenty-five trap-nests were occupied by five bee species, resulting in a capture ratio of 0.035 swarms/trap (approximately 0.14 swarms/ha), corresponding to 10 swarms/year (0.056 swarms/ha/year). According to previous study at MER, the most abundant species in natural nests were also the most common in trap-nests in the two forest habitats examined, with the exception of Melipona scutellaris Latreille. Swarms of higher numbers of species were captured in initial regeneration stage forests than in advanced regeneration stage areas, and differences in species compositions were significant between both habitats (p = 0.03); these apparent differences were not consistent, however, when considering richness (p = 0.14) and total abundance (p = 0.08). The present study suggests the existence of a minimum cavity size threshold of approximately 1 L for most local species of stingless bees and sustains the hypothesis of a mass effect of Tetragonisca angustula Latreille populations from surrounding disturbed habitats on the MER forest community in terms of propagule (swarm) pressure. Examining swarm densities with trap-nests can be a promising technique for comparative analyses of the carrying capacities of forest habitats for stingless bee colonies, as long as size thresholds of cavities for nesting are taken into consideration.
    Neotropical Entomology 08/2014; 43(4):307-313.
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    ABSTRACT: Characters of the tetrigid genus Alulatettix Liang are redescribed. Three new species, Alulatettix nigromarginalis n. sp., Alulatettix flavotibialis n. sp., and Alulatettix tianzhushanensis n. sp., are described. An updated key to the species of this genus is provided.
    Neotropical Entomology 06/2014; 43(3).
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    ABSTRACT: The domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori L. is currently found only in germplasm banks. Therefore, characterization and conservation of this genetic resource is crucial. Based on previous studies that revealed nucleotide differences in silkworm strains, the intron of the fibroin heavy chain gene (H-fib) can be used for molecular silkworm characterization. The H-fib gene has two exons and a unique intron, and encodes the principal component of the silk fiber, the fibroin heavy chain. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the genetic variability of the unique intron of H-fib gene of 20 silkworm strains maintained at the Universidade Estadual de Maringá Brazilian Germplasm Bank (UBGB) by conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) and nucleotide sequencing. Genomic DNA extracted from silkworm moths was PCR amplified. CSGE revealed that most of the analyzed silkworm strains had only homoduplex molecules. However, DNA from the Japanese strains B106, B82, and M12-2 had two extra DNA fragments produced by heteroduplex molecules, revealing variation between alleles. Sequencing of the H-fib intron was used to confirm the variation previously detected by CSGE and detected a significant polymorphism characterized by a 17-base pair (bp) deletion, a 2-bp insertion, and eight nucleotide substitutions. Although genetic and allelic variability was detected in some silkworm strains, the intron of the H-fib gene revealed not to be the best molecular marker for the characterization of B. mori strains from UBGB.
    Neotropical Entomology 06/2014; 43(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Records in the literature with regard to the influence of freezing of pentatomid eggs on parasitism by microhymenopterans are scarce. In this research, we compared the storage of Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) eggs in liquid nitrogen for different periods with the objective of optimizing the multiplication of Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in the laboratory. Fresh eggs of E. heros were exposed (S3, S6) or not (NS3, NS6) to UV light for 30 min and stored in 1.5-mL plastic vials in liquid nitrogen either for 3 (S3, NS3) or 6 months (S6, NS6), and egg suitability to parasitoid development was compared to control eggs exposed (SC) or not (NSC) to UV treatment. Global data analysis showed that E. heros eggs stored in liquid nitrogen with or without UV treatment, for 3 or 6 months, were suitable for T. podisi parasitization.
    Neotropical Entomology 06/2014; 43(3).