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ISSN 1492-9058

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    ABSTRACT: Canadian Biosystems Engineering/Le génie des biosystèmes au Canada 57: 3.9-3.12. Temperature and humidity sensor-cables used in grain bins are currently made of steel or synthetic materials. The potential use of natural fibres as cables was tested. The natural fibres selected for this study were hemp and sisal. The tensile strength and extension of hemp and sisal ropes with diameters of 6, 8, or 10 mm were measured at various temperatures ranging from -40°C to +60°C. The hemp ropes had significantly higher tensile strength than the sisal ropes for all three tested diameters. The tensile strength of the fibres examined was not significantly affected by freezing temperatures but was significantly lowered at 60°C, and did not increase linearly with increase in diameter.
    Canadian Biosystems Engineering / Le Genie des biosystems au Canada 12/2015; 57(1):3.9-3.12. DOI:10.7451/CBE.2015.57.3.9
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    ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to delineate baseflow dominated and rapid response flow dominated watersheds by evaluating six different baseflow separation methods: digital filter, PART, United Kingdom Institute of Hydrology (UKIH), local minima, base fixed and base sliding for one hundred and fifteen watersheds in Southern Ontario (Canada). The streamflow data used were for more than 10 years duration. Frequency analysis of computed annual baseflow indices (BFI) of 115 southern, central, and eastern Ontario reveals that 30 watersheds could be designated as slow response watersheds and 9 as rapid response watersheds. The remaining 78 watersheds that do not lie in these two categories could be named as moderate response watersheds. The high BFI watersheds have more than 80% well drained soil with similar percentage of A and B hydrologic soil groups; in contrast low BFI watersheds are dominated by more than 80% of poorly and imperfectly drained soil dominated by C and D hydrologic soil group.
    Canadian Biosystems Engineering / Le Genie des biosystems au Canada 12/2015; 57(1):1.1-1.11. DOI:10.7451/CBE.2015.57.1.1
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    ABSTRACT: Grains (common term referring to cereal grains, oilseeds, pulses) are usually harvested at high moisture content and then dried to straight grade (dry) or safe storage moisture levels. Grain drying in freestanding, corrugated galvanized steel or welded steel bins using natural air is the most cost effective drying method with optimum grain quality. Adverse weather conditions and inappropriate fan control strategies may result in poor drying, higher drying cost (electricity and fuel), and grain spoilage. Several traditional fan control (continuous ON, only Day ON, only Night ON) and automated fan control (Natural Air Drying (NAD) and Self-Adapting Variable Heat (SAVH)) strategies were investigated using IntegrisPro model software (OPIsystems Inc.
    Canadian Biosystems Engineering / Le Genie des biosystems au Canada 02/2015; 56(1):3.25-3.36. DOI:10.7451/CBE.2014.56.3.25
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    ABSTRACT: Water-quality in many rivers remains poor and needs to be improved. Diffuse pollution continues to cause difficulties. Some instruments are available which can monitor pollution of rivers from land. They allow measurement and sampling of overland flow (OLF), but they do not offer the precision required (proportional sampling and samples 0.1% of OLF). A laboratory unit was constructed to mimic instrument performance in the field. This was used to test three sampler designs. A V-notch weir was used in the first sampler and a Sutro weir in the second and third as this unit possessed a proportional discharge to head ratio, which the V-notch weir did not have. Other parameters investigated included ground slope, sampler slope, pipe size and port location. The remaining issues of nozzle size (0.7, 1.0 and 2.0 mm), the number of 1.0 mm nozzles and the effect of aspiration were investigated. The arrangement with the Sutro weir and three 1.0 mm nozzles in series gave proportional discharge and the target low sampling rate of 0.1%. This will allow the calculation of sediment and chemical losses for the monitored area and will put the loss in context with other losses in a catchment.
    Canadian Biosystems Engineering / Le Genie des biosystems au Canada 02/2015; 56(1):1.1-1.7. DOI:10.7451/CBE.2014.56.1.1

  • Canadian Biosystems Engineering / Le Genie des biosystems au Canada 02/2015; 56(3):3.25-3. 36.
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    ABSTRACT: Quantifying the impact of odour from livestock facilities has been a challenge to researchers and environmental regulators. Physical and sensory odour attributes are commonly used to define the odour impact. However, people's responses (tolerances) to odour may be affected by many other nonphysical factors. The objective of this study was to determine odour impact in broader scopes and domains by considering such factors as quality of life and community values. Face-to-face survey interviews were conducted in five communities to assess the residents' responses to odour from hog operations. Based on the interview data, odour annoyance to residents was quantified and their tolerance to odour was determined. It was found that the annoyance at hog odour was greater than at other odour sources. Some residents (13%) would not tolerate hog odour even if they indicated that they were not annoyed by odour. On the opposite side, about 13% of residents would tolerate hog odour even if they indicated the highest annoyance level (10). Residents living in the rural areas were more tolerant of hog odour if the odour sources (hog operations) had previously been in existence. Very few (<1%) residents identified hog odour as the cause of headaches, waking up at night, and nausea. Five percent of residents indicated that their outdoor enjoyment was disrupted by odour, but only rarely or sometimes.
    Canadian Biosystems Engineering / Le Genie des biosystems au Canada 01/2015; 56(1):6.1-6.11. DOI:10.7451/CBE.2014.56.6.1

  • Canadian Biosystems Engineering / Le Genie des biosystems au Canada 01/2015; 56(1):6.13-6.20. DOI:10.7451/CBE.2014.56.6.13
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    ABSTRACT: The production of biofuels (e.g., ethanol and biodiesel) requires a significant amount of water during feedstock production, transportation, and its conversion into biofuels. Therefore present study devoted to study the impact of biofuel production on water demand in Alberta. In scenario # 1, it is assumed that ethanol is produced from both wheat and wheat straw and that biodiesel is produced from rapeseed. Scenario #2 proposes ethanol production from wheat only and biodiesel production from rapeseed. The water requirements for biofuel production in both scenarios are calculated for Alberta for the year 2025. Data on the current availability of water in Alberta indicate that the Athabasca, North Saskatchewan, and Peace River basins of northern Alberta have enough water to grow crops for the production of biofuels. In 2025, Alberta will have to produce 3,754 million liters of ethanol and 270 million liters of biodiesel to meet the projected levels. If biofuels are produced from the crops grown in the abovementioned northern river basins, the province of Alberta should be able to meet biofuel demand in 2025 sustainably. The water requirement from these river basins for biofuel production will increase to 5.2%, 0.6%, and 11.6%, respectively, of the natural flow in scenario # 1 whereas, for scenario #2, the water requirement from these rivers basins will increase to 5.2%, 2.3%, and 16.1%, respectively, of natural flow. These increases in the requirements are much lower than the possible allowed withdrawal levels.
    Canadian Biosystems Engineering / Le Genie des biosystems au Canada 01/2015; 56(1):8.11-8.22. DOI:10.7451/CBE.2014.56.8.11

  • Canadian Biosystems Engineering / Le Genie des biosystems au Canada 01/2015; 56(1):7.1-7.10. DOI:10.7451/CBE.2014.56.7.1
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    ABSTRACT: An experimental study was conducted to compare two localized heating methods, namely heat pads and heat lamps, in a commercial swine farrowing facility. Two farrowing rooms each with 44 crates were instrumented for monitoring room environmental conditions (temperature and relative humidity) and energy consumption. One room was equipped with 175W (per crate) heat lamps and the other room with 65W (per crate) heat pads. The piglet mortality and weight gain were recorded. The air temperature in the two rooms was maintained at the same level using environmental controllers (set at the same setpoint). However, the relative humidity in the lamp room was found to be lower than that in the heat pad room probably due to more ventilation required to remove more sensible heat produced by the lamps. There were no significant differences in the mortality rate and weight gain between heat pads and heat lamps. The daily energy consumption by heat pads was 2.9 kWh less than that by heat lamps per crate. This represents a 73% saving of energy required for localized heating.
    Canadian Biosystems Engineering / Le Genie des biosystems au Canada 12/2014; 56(1):5.1-5.6. DOI:10.7451/CBE.2014.56.5.1
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    ABSTRACT: The sensitivities of LODM to its input source and surface parameters were analyzed using averaged change of odour concentration and odour frequency and a defined elasticity. The three source parameters (stack height, stack diameter, and exit velocity) have the similar medium impact on concentrations and low impact on frequencies. Emission rate and exit temperature has high sensitivity for LODM predicted odour concentration and medium sensitivity to odour frequency. Among the three surface parameters, LODM has low sensitivity to surface roughness while its sensitivity to albedo and Bowen ratio is negligible.
    Canadian Biosystems Engineering / Le Genie des biosystems au Canada 12/2013; 55(1):6.1-6.11. DOI:10.7451/CBE.2013.55.6.1
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    ABSTRACT: Tests of the 3D vibratory separator were conducted to remove the chaff from the processed hemp material. The results showed that the separation efficiency of the separator varied with different vibration settings. The highest separation efficiency was found to be 86.2%. In simulations of the separation process of the 3D vibratory separator, hemp fibre and core can be defined as PFC3D clusters. Different compositions of virtual processed hemp can be formed with those clusters having different sizes. Varying the composition of the virtual sample altered the simulated separation rate with the virtual sample containing more chaff particles having higher separation rate. Regardless of the composition of the virtual sample, sufficient separation efficiency could be achieved at approximately 1 minute after separation starts. Longer separation duration will have slower separation rate and cause some losses of non-chaff particles as well. The model developed in this study can simulate the general behaviour of hemp fibre, core, and chaff particles in the separation process using the 3D vibratory separator. However, the model did not address the fibre entanglement nature. As the result, the model over predicted the separation rate of processed hemp material, when compared to the measurements.
    Canadian Biosystems Engineering / Le Genie des biosystems au Canada 12/2013; 55(1):2.23-2.31. DOI:10.7451/CBE.2013.55.2.23