Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie (Can J Surg)

Publisher: Canadian Medical Association, Canadian Medical Association

Journal description

Mission Statement: To contribute to the effective continuing medical education of Canadian surgical specialists, using innovative techniques when feasible, and to provide surgeons with an effective vehicle for the dissemination of observations in the areas of clinical and basic science research.

Current impact factor: 1.27

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.267
2012 Impact Factor 1.631
2011 Impact Factor 1.054
2010 Impact Factor 0.723
2009 Impact Factor 0.85
2008 Impact Factor 0.961

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.31
Cited half-life 7.80
Immediacy index 0.42
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.43
Website Canadian Journal of Surgery / Journal Canadien de Chirurgie website
Other titles Canadian journal of surgery (Online), Canadian journal of surgery, Journal canadien de chirurgie, CJS
ISSN 1488-2310
OCLC 45048853
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Canadian Medical Association

  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Articles are placed in PubMed Central immediately on behalf of authors.
  • Classification
    ​ white

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) is a safer reconstruction than pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ), resulting in lower morbidity, including lower pancreatic leak rates and decreased postoperative mortality. We compared PJ and PG after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). A randomized clinical trial was designed. It was stopped with 50% accrual. Patients underwent either PG or PJ reconstruction. The primary outcome was the pancreatic fistula rate, and the secondary outcomes were overall morbidity and mortality. We used the Student t, Mann-Whitney U and χ;(2) tests for intention to treat analysis. The effect of randomization, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, soft pancreatic texture and use of pancreatic stent on overall complications and fistula rates was calculated using logistic regression. Our trial included 98 patients. The rate of pancreatic fistula formation was 18% in the PJ and 25% in the PG groups (p = 0.40). Postoperative complications occurred in 48% of patients in the PJ and 58% in the PG groups (p = 0.31). There were no significant predictors of overall complications in the multivariate analysis. Only soft pancreatic gland predicted the occurrence of pancreatic fistula (odds ratio 5.89, p = 0.003). There was no difference in the rates of pancreatic leak/fistula, overall complications or mortality between patients undergoing PG and and those undergoing PJ after PD.
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 04/2015; 58(2):010014-10014.
  • Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 04/2015; 58(2):013214-13214.
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    ABSTRACT: Owing to the anatomic complexity of the liver and the risk of hemorrhage, most liver resections are still performed using an open procedure. We evaluated the outcomes of introducing a laparoscopic liver program to a community teaching hospital. We retrospectively reviewed laparoscopic liver resections performed between August 2010 and July 2013 at St. Joseph's Health Centre in Toronto. The primary outcomes were mortality, major morbidity and negative margins. Secondary outcomes included other perioperative outcomes. We used nonparametric tests to compare the outcomes during the first (group A) and second (group B) halves of the study period. Group A included 19 patients and group B had 25 patients; 9 and 4 patients, respectively, had major resections. Group A had the only death due to liver failure. There was no difference in major complications (10.6% v. 16%) or length of stay (4.5 v. 4.6 d) between the groups. One patient in group B had a positive margin. There was a significant decrease in duration of surgery (from 237 to 170 min, p = 0.007), with a trend toward shorter duration for major resections (from 318 to 238 min, p = 0.07). Furthermore, more procedures were performed for malignancy in group B than group A (36.8% v. 84.0%, p = 0.001). Laparoscopic liver resection can be safely introduced into a Canadian community teaching hospital. Average duration of surgery decreased by 67 minutes despite a 2-fold increase in the number of cases performed for malignancy.
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 04/2015; 58(2):012514-12514.
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    ABSTRACT: Self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) are increasingly used in the treatment of malignant large bowel obstruction in the setting of inoperable colorectal cancer. Perforation is a well-known complication associated with these devices. The addition of the vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor bevacizumab is suspected to increase the rate, but the extent of the increase is not known. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients receiving SEMS in tertiary hospitals in Calgary, Alta., between October 2001 and January 2012. We reviewed the records of 87 patients with inoperable colorectal cancer who received SEMS during our study period. Nine perforations occurred in total: 4 of 30 (13%) patients who received no chemotherapy, 3 of 47 (6%) who received chemotherapy but no bevacizumab, and 2 of 10 (20%) who received chemotherapy and bevacizumab. These two patients received bevacizumab with FOLFIRI after SEMS placement, and they had peritoneal disease. Our case series and other studies suggest that bevacizumab may increase the risk of colonic perforation in the setting of SEMS. Caution should be used when combining these therapies.
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 04/2015; 58(2):013014-13014.
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    ABSTRACT: Currently there is no clinical consensus on how to treat occult pneumothoraces in adults, and even less research has been done in children. We sought to understand the outcomes of severely injured, ventilated children with occult pneumothoraces. Using the Alberta Trauma Registry, we retrospectively reviewed the charts of all ventilated pediatric patients at a children's hospital from 2001 to 2011 who had an injury severity score greater than 12 and a diagnosis of occult pneumothorax (seen on computed tomography scan but not on supine chest radiograph). There were 1689 severely injured children, with 496 admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and ventilated. A total of 130 children were found to have pneumothoraces, and of those, 96 were admitted to the PICU. Of those, 15 children had a total of 19 occult pneumothoraces, and all were successfully treated without chest tubes. The average age was 13.4 (range 2.0-17.0) years, and 54% of these children were male. The average time spent on the ventilator was 2.3 (range 0-13) days, and 7 children had at least 1 operation. In our institution, occult pneumothoraces occur in very few severely injured, ventilated pediatric trauma patients. Our study adds to the increasing evidence in the adult and pediatric literature suggesting that occult pneumothoraces may be safely observed even while under positive-pressure ventilation.
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 04/2015; 58(2):009314-9314.
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a cross-sectional study of primary total joint replacement (TJR) patients to determine predictors for prolonged length of stay (LOS) in hospital to identify patient characteristics that may inform resource allocation, accounting for patient complexity. Preoperative demographics, medical comorbidities and acute hospital LOS from a consecutive series of primary TJR patients from an academic arthroplasty centre were abstracted. We categorized patients as LOS of 3 or fewer days, 4 days, or 5 or more days to align results with varying LOS benchmarks. To identify predictors for LOS, we used a generalized logistic regression model fitted on an LOS ternary outcome, using LOS of 3 or fewer days as a reference category. The sample included 1459 patients: 61.7% total knee and 38.3% total hip. Male sex was predictive of an LOS of 3 or fewer days (4 d: odds ratio [OR] 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.364-0.631; ≥ 5 d: OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.435-0.758), as was current smoking status (4 d: OR 0.425, 95% CI 0.274-0.659; ≥ 5 d: OR 0.489, 95% CI 0.314-0.762). Strong predictors of prolonged LOS included total hip versus total knee arthroplasty, age 75 years or older, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification of 3 and 4 and number of cardiovascular comorbidities. Not all patients undergoing TJR are equal. The goal should be individual patient-focused care rather than a predetermined LOS that is not achievable for all patients. Hospital resource planning must account for patient complexity when planning future bed management.
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 04/2015; 58(2):008214-8214.
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    ABSTRACT: Removal of instrumentation is often recommended as part of treatment for spinal infections, but studies have reported eradication of infection even with instrumentation retention by using serial débridements and adjuvant antibiotic pharmacotherapy. We sought to determine the effect of instrumentation retention or removal on outcomes in children with spinal infections. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of patients who experienced early (< 3 mo) or late (≥ 3 mo) infected spinal fusions. Patients were evaluated at least 2 years after eradication of the infection using the following protocol outcomes: follow-up Cobb angle, curve progression and nonunion rates. Our sample included 35 patients. The mean age at surgery was 15.1 ± 6.0 years, 65.7% were girls, and mean follow-up was 41.7 ± 26.9 months. The mean Cobb angle was 63.6° ± 14.5° preoperatively, 29.4° ± 16.5° immediately after surgery and 37.2° ± 19.6° at follow-up. Patients in the implant removal group (n = 21) were more likely than those in the implant retention group (n = 14) to have a lower ASA score (71.4% v. 28.6%, p = 0.03), fewer comorbidities (66.7% v. 21.4%, p = 0.03), late infections (81.0% v. 14.3%, p = 0.01) and deep infections (95.2% v. 64.3%, p = 0.03). Implants were retained in 12 of 16 (75.0%) patients with early infections and 2 of 19 (10.5%) with late infections. Patients with implant removal had a higher pseudarthrosis rate (38.1% v. 0%, p = 0.02) and a faster curve progression rate (5.8 ± 9.8° per year v. 0.2 ± 4.7° per year, p = 0.04). Implant retention should be considered, irrespective of the timing or depth of the infection.
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 02/2015; 58(1):006014-6014. DOI:10.1503/cjs.006014
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    ABSTRACT: Recognition of tissue planes during surgery appears to be a skill acquired with experience. We conducted a pilot study to test this hypothesis using a novel method for evaluating this skill in a simulated environment. Twelve surgeons of varying levels of experience were shown 16 captured images from a mesorectal excision. For each image, they were asked to draw the ideal dissection plane with a stylus on a tablet computer. We used a novel metric for comparing agreement between lines to determine the level of precision observed between junior and senior trainees and consultant surgeons and measure the accuracy of junior and senior trainees compared with consultant surgeons. We observed significant differences in precision for 9 of 16 images; 7 of these followed the predicted stepwise pattern associated with level of experience. Using consultant surgeons as the reference standard, we observed significant differences in accuracy between senior and junior trainees for 11 images, with senior trainees being more accurate in 10 of them. Only 2 images failed to contribute significant findings to our analysis. The findings of this pilot evaluation of a novel method for measuring a surgeon's ability to recognize tissue planes in a simulated model show that skill improves with experience. Further evaluation of this method will reveal its utility as an assessment tool and possibly as a training instrument.
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 04/2014; 58(2):87-91.
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    ABSTRACT: A greater incidence of persistent pain after inguinal herniorrhaphy is suspected with the open mesh procedure than with laparoscopy (transabdominal preperitoneal), but the involvement of neuropathy needs to be clarified. We examined the cumulative incidence of neuropathic persistent pain, defined as self-report of pain at the surgical site with neuropathic aspects, within 6 months after surgery in 2 prospective subcohorts of a multicentre study. We compared open mesh with laparoscopy using different analysis, including a propensity-matched analysis with the propensity score built from a multivariable analysis using a generalized linear model. Considering the full patient sample (242 open mesh v. 126 laparoscopy), the raw odds ratio for neuropathic persistent pain after inguinal herniorrhaphy was 4.3. It reached 6.8 with the propensity-matched analysis conducted on pooled subgroups of 194 patients undergoing open mesh and 125 undergoing laparoscopy (95% confidence interval 1.5-30.4, p = 0.012). A risk factor analysis of these pooled subgroups revealed that history of peripheral neuropathy was an independent risk factor for persistent neuropathic pain, while older age was protective. We found a greater risk of persistent pain with open mesh than with laparoscopy that may be explained by direct or indirect lesion of nerve terminations. Strategies to identify and preserve nerve terminations with the open mesh procedure are needed.
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 04/2014; 58(2):114-120.
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    ABSTRACT: Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to understand and manage emotions in oneself and others. It was originally popularized in the business literature as a key attribute for success that was distinct from cognitive intelligence. Increasing focus is being placed on EI in medicine to improve clinical and academic performance. Despite the proposed benefits, to our knowledge, there have been no previous studies on the role of EI in orthopedic surgery. We evaluated baseline data on EI in a cohort of orthopedic surgery residents. We asked all orthopedic surgery residents at a single institution to complete an electronic version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We used completed questionnaires to calculate total EI scores and 4 branch scores. Data were analyzed according to a priori cutoff values to determine the proportion of residents who were considered competent on the test. Data were also analyzed for possible associations with age, sex, race and level of training. Thirty-nine residents (100%) completed the MSCEIT. The mean total EI score was 86 (maximum score 145). Only 4 (10%) respondents demonstrated competence in EI. Junior residents (p = 0.026), Caucasian residents (p = 0.009) and those younger than 30 years (p = 0.008) had significantly higher EI scores. Our findings suggest that orthopedic residents score low on EI based on the MSCEIT. Optimizing resident competency in noncognitive skills may be enhanced by dedicated EI education, training and testing.
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 04/2014; 57(2):89-93. DOI:10.1503/cjs.022512
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    ABSTRACT: Delirium is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in injured patients. Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is delirium linked to malnutrition and chronic alcoholism. It is prevented with administration of thiamine. Our primary goal was to evaluate current blood alcohol level (BAL) testing and thiamine prophylaxis in severely injured patients. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 1000 consecutive severely injured patients admitted to hospital between Mar. 1, 2009, and Dec. 31, 2009. We used the patients' medical records and the Alberta Trauma Registry. Among 1000 patients (mean age 48 yr, male sex 70%, mean injury severity score 23, mortality 10%), 627 underwent BAL testing at admission; 221 (35%) had a BAL greater than 0 mmol/L, and 189 (30%) had a BAL above the legal limit of 17.4 mmol/L. The mean positive BAL was 41.9 mmol/L. More than 4% had a known history of alcohol abuse. More patients were assaulted (20% v. 9%) or hit by motor vehicles (10% v. 6%) when intoxicated (both p < 0.05). Most injuries occurred after falls (37%) and motor vehicle collisions (33%). Overall, 17% of patients received thiamine prophylaxis. Of the 221 patients with elevated BAL, 44% received thiamine prophylaxis. Of those with a history of alcohol abuse, 77% received thiamine prophylaxis. Despite the strong link between alcohol abuse, trauma and WE, more than one-third of patients were not screened for alcohol use. Furthermore, a minority of intoxicated patients received adequate prophylaxis against WE. Given the low risk and cost of BAL testing and thiamine prophylaxis and the high cost of delirium, standard protocols for prophylaxis are essential.
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 04/2014; 57(2):78-81. DOI:10.1503/cjs.006413
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    ABSTRACT: A highly organized approach to the evaluation and treatment of penetrating torso injuries based on regional anatomy provides rapid diagnostic and therapeutic consistency. It also minimizes delays in diagnosis, missed injuries and nontherapeutic laparotomies. This review discusses an optimal sequence of structured rapid assessments that allow the clinician to rapidly proceed to gold standard therapies with a minimal risk of associated morbidity.
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 04/2014; 57(2):E36-E43. DOI:10.1503/cjs.026012
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    ABSTRACT: Dislocation may complicate revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). We examined the correlation between the components revised during hip arthroplasty (femur only, acetabulum only and both components) to the rates of dislocation in the first and multiple revision THA. We obtained data from consecutive revision THAs performed between January 1982 and December 2005. Patients were grouped into femur-only revision, acetabulum-only revision and revision THA for both components. A total of 749 revision THAs performed during the study period met our inclusion criteria: 369 first-time revisions and 380 repeated revisions. Dislocation rates in patients undergoing first-time revisions (5.69%) were significantly lower than in those undergoing repeated revisions (10.47%; p = 0.022). Within the group of first-time revisions, dislocation rates for acetabulum-only revisions (10.28%) were significantly higher than those for both components (4.61%) and femur-only (0%) reconstructions (p = 0.025). Although patients undergoing first-time revisions had lower rates of dislocations than those undergoing repeated revisions, acetabulum-only reconstructions performed at first-time revision arthroplasty entailed an increased risk for instability.
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 04/2014; 57(2):E15-8. DOI:10.1503/cjs.000913
  • Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 04/2014; 57(2):E54. DOI:10.1503/cjs.032713
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    ABSTRACT: Laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) surgery may have perceived benefits of reduced visible scarring compared to conventional laparoscopic (LAP) totally extraperitoneal (TEP) hernia repairs. We reviewed the literature to compare LESS TEP inguinal hernia repairs with LAP TEP repairs. We searched electronic databases for research published between January 2008 and January 2012. A total of 13 studies reported on 325 patients. The duration of surgery was 40-98 minutes for unilateral hernia and 41-121 minutes for bilateral repairs. Three studies involving 287 patients compared LESS TEP (n = 128) with LAP TEP (n = 159). There were no significant differences in operative duration for unilateral hernias (p = 0.63) or bilateral repairs (p = 0.29), and there were no significant differences in hospital stay (p > 0.99), intraoperative complications (p = 0.82) or early recurrence rates (p = 0.82). There was a trend toward earlier return to activity in the LESS TEP group (p = 0.07). Laparoendoscopic single site surgery TEP hernia repair is a relatively new technique and appears to be safe and effective. Advantages, such as less visible scarring, mean patients may opt for LESS TEP over LAP TEP. Further studies with clear definitions of outcome measures and robust follow-up to assess patient satisfaction, return to normal daily activities and recurrence are needed to strengthen the evidence.
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 04/2014; 57(2):116-126. DOI:10.1503/cjs.010612
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    ABSTRACT: The increased use of information technology supports a resident- centred educational approach that promotes autonomy, flexibility and time management and helps residents to assess their competence, promoting self-awareness. We established a web-based e-learning tool to introduce general surgery residents to bariatric surgery and evaluate them to determine the most appropriate implementation strategy for Internet-based interactive modules (iBIM) in surgical teaching. Usernames and passwords were assigned to general surgery residents at the University of Alberta. They were directed to the Obesity101 website and prompted to complete a multiple-choice precourse test. Afterwards, they were able to access the interactive modules. Residents could review the course material as often as they wanted before completing a multiple-choice postcourse test and exit survey. We used paired t tests to assess the difference between pre- and postcourse scores. Out of 34 residents who agreed to participate in the project, 12 completed the project (35.3%). For these 12 residents, the precourse mean score was 50 ± 17.3 and the postcourse mean score was 67 ± 14 (p = 0.020). Most residents who participated in this study recommended using the iBIMs as a study tool for bariatric surgery. Course evaluation scores suggest this novel approach was successful in transferring knowledge to surgical trainees. Further development of this tool and assessment of implementation strategies will determine how iBIM in bariatric surgery may be integrated into the curriculum.
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 04/2014; 57(2):E31-5. DOI:10.1503/cjs.004513