Nutritional Neuroscience (Nutr Neurosci )

Publisher: Maney Publishing

Description

Nutritional Neuroscience is an international, interdisciplinary broad-based journal for reporting both basic and clinical research in the field of nutrition that relates to the central and peripheral nervous system. Studies may include the role of different components of normal diet (protein, carbohydrate, fat, moderate use of alcohol, etc.), dietary supplements (minerals, vitamins, hormones, herbs, etc.), and food additives (artificial flavors, colors, sweeteners, etc.) on neurochemistry, neurobiology, and behavioral biology of all vertebrate and invertebrate organisms. Ideally this journal will serve as a forum for neuroscientists, nutritionists, neurologists, psychiatrists, and those interested in preventive medicine.

Impact factor 2.11

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    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    1.83
  • Cited half-life
    7.10
  • Immediacy index
    0.30
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.53
  • Website
    Nutritional Neuroscience website
  • Other titles
    Nutritional neuroscience (Online)
  • ISSN
    1476-8305
  • OCLC
    50166447
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Maney Publishing

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo for STEM (science, technology, engineering and medicine) journals
    • 2 years embargo for HSS (humanities and social science) journals
  • Conditions
    • Authors' pre-print on author's personal website or institutional website, or institutional repository, or subject-based repository
    • Author's post-print on institutional repository, or subject-based repository
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with citation
    • On a non-profit server
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • Meisam Sanoobar, Parvin Dehghan, Mohammad Khalili, Amirreza Azimi, Fatemeh Seifar
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disorder of central nervous system which is accompanied with disability and negative life style changes such as fatigue and depression. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on fatigue and depression in patients with MS. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of CoQ10 supplement (500 mg/day) vs. placebo for 12 weeks. Fatigue symptoms were quantified by means of fatigue severity scale (FSS) and the Beck depression inventory (BDI) was used to assess depressive symptoms. Results A significant decrease of FSS was observed in CoQ10 group during the intervention (P = 0.001) and significant increase of FSS change was observed within placebo group (P = 0.001). Repeated measure analysis of variance showed a significant time-by-treatment interaction for FSS (baseline 41.5 ± 15.6 vs. endpoint 45 ± 13.6; F1,45 = 55.23, P < 0.001, η(2) = 0.56) and BDI (baseline 17.8 ± 12.2 vs. endpoint 20.4 ± 11.4; F1,45 = 40.3, P < 0.001, η(2) = 0.48), indicating significant decrease of FSS and BDI in CoQ10 group compared to placebo group. Conclusion Our study suggests that CoQ10 supplementation (500 mg/day) can improve fatigue and depression in patients with multiple sclerosis.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 01/2015;
  • L K Fischer, J A McGaughy, S E Bradshaw, W J Weissner, A C Amaral, D L Rosene, D J Mokler, G M Fitzmaurice, J R Galler
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    ABSTRACT: Objective This study assessed the effect of varying prenatal protein levels on the development of homing orientation in rat pups. Methods Long-Evans rats were fed one of the four isocaloric diets containing 6% (n = 7 litters), 12% (n = 9), 18% (n = 9), or 25% (n = 10) casein prior to mating and throughout pregnancy. At birth, litters were fostered to well-nourished control mothers fed a 25% casein diet during pregnancy, and an adequate protein diet (25% casein) was provided to weaning. On postnatal days 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13, homing behaviors, including activity levels, rate of successful returns to the nest quadrant and latencies to reach the nest over a 3-minute test period were recorded from two starting positions in the home cage. Adult body and brain weights were obtained at sacrifice (postnatal day 130 or 200). Results Growth was impaired in pups whose mothers were fed a 6% or, to a lesser extent, a 12% casein diet relative to pups whose mothers were fed the 18 and 25% casein diets. The 6 and 12% prenatal protein levels resulted in lower activity levels, with the greatest reduction on postnatal day 13. However, only the 6% pups had reduced success and higher latencies in reaching the nest quadrant when compared with pups from the three other nutrition groups. Latency in reaching the nest quadrant was significantly and negatively associated with adult brain weight. Discussion Home orientation is a sensitive measure of developmental deficits associated with variations in prenatal protein levels, including levels of protein deficiency that do not lead to overt growth failure.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The role of dysbiosis causing leaky gut with xenobiotic production and absorption is increasingly demonstrated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) pathogenesis. Among xenobiotics, we focused on ochratoxin A (one of the major food contaminating mycotoxin), that in vitro and in vivo exerts a male-specific neurotoxicity probably via microRNA modulation of a specific target gene. Among possible targets, we focused on neuroligin4X. Interestingly, this gene carries some SNPs already correlated with the disease and with illegitimate microRNA binding sites and, being located on X-chromosome, could explain the male prevalence. In conclusion, we propose a possible gene-environment interaction triggering ASD explaining the epigenetic neurotoxic mechanism activated by ochratoxin A in genetically predisposed children. This mechanism offers a clue for male prevalence of the disease and may have an important impact on prevention and cure of ASD.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Walnuts contain numerous selected dietary factors that have an impact on brain functions, especially learning and memory formation in the hippocampus. Hippocampal N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are involved in the formation of cognitive functions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the molecular effects of walnut supplementation on the hippocampal expressions of NMDARs involved in cognitive functions and lipid peroxidation levels in rats. Methods The male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 months old, n = 24) were fed with a walnut-supplemented diet (6% walnut diet, n = 12) and a control diet (rat food, n = 12) as ad libitum for 8 weeks. At the end of this period, NMDAR subunits NR2A and NR2B in the hippocampi were assayed by western blotting. Lipid peroxidation levels were measured using the thiobarbituric acid. Results The expression of NR2A and NR2B was elevated in the walnut-supplemented rats compared with the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the levels of lipid peroxidation in the walnut-supplemented group were significantly decreased compared with the control group. Discussion We suggested that walnut supplementation may have protective effects against the decline of cognitive functions by regulating NMDAR and lipid peroxidation levels in the hippocampus. The study provides evidence that selected dietary factors (polyunsaturated fatty acids, melatonin, vitamin E, and flavonoids) within walnut may help to trigger hippocampal neuronal signal transduction for the formation of learning and memory.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of ferulic acid (FA) in vincristine-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Vincristine (50 µg/kg, i.p. for 10 consecutive days) was administered to induce painful neuropathy in rats. Various pain sensitive tests, viz., pinprick, hot plate, paint-brush, and acetone test were performed on different days (1, 6, 14, and 21) to assess the degree of mechanical hyperalgesia, heat hyperalgesia, mechanical dynamic allodynia, and cold allodynia, respectively. The electrophysiological and histopathological evaluations were also investigated. The tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and total calcium were measured as the markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. FA (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) and gabapentin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered for 11 days. Administration of FA attenuated the vincristine-induced behavioral alteration along with electrophysiological and histopathological changes significantly (P < 0.05). FA also attenuated the vincristine-induced oxidative stress (TBARS, GSH, and total calcium levels) and inflammation (MPO, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10). It may be concluded that FA has ameliorative potential in mitigation of the painful states associated with vincristine-induced painful neuropathy that may further be attributed to anti-inflammatory actions with subsequent reduction in oxidative stress.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Studies investigating mood in vegetarian diets have yielded conflicting results, either demonstrating risk for mental disorders or mood protection. Our objective was to investigate mood, as well as factors that potentially impact mood in vegans (VG), vegetarians (VEG), and omnivores (OMN). Methods We surveyed mood, diet, and lifestyle factors in a broad geographic online sample of adult VG (n = 283), VEG (n = 109), and OMN (n = 228) who were recruited via diet-related social networks. Mood was measured with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Results The sample was mostly female (78.5%), and age was inversely correlated with all DASS scores (P < 0.05). Mean DASS-A (anxiety) and DASS-S (stress) scores differed by group (F(2616) = 4.73, P = 0.009, η(2) = 0.015, and F(2, 615) = 8.23, P < 0.001, η(2) = 0.026, respectively), with VG scores lower than OMN scores, indicating less mood disturbance. Analyses of covariance were conducted by gender, adjusting for age. Anxiety scores were different in males only (F(2128) = 5.39, P = 0.006, ηp(2) = 0.078) and lower anxiety in males was related to a vegan diet and daily fruit and vegetable intake. Mean stress scores were different in females only (F(2476) = 3.82, P = 0.023, ηp(2) = 0.016) and lower stress in females was related to a vegan diet and lower daily intake of sweets. Discussion A strict plant-based diet does not appear to negatively impact mood, in fact reduction of animal food intake may have mood benefits. The improved mood domains were not consistent with those found in other studies, which may be due to methodological differences.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background/aims Global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCIR) may incur neurocognitive impairment. Tea polyphenols (TP) have strong anti-oxidant capacity. This study planned to investigate the protective effect of TP against the neurocognitive impairment caused by GCIR and its mechanism. Methods One-stage anterior approach for cerebral four-vessel occlusion (4VO) was used to construct the GCIR model. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly classified into Sham group, GCIR group, and TP group (n = 50 per group). Besides receiving the same 4VO, the rats in TP group were treated with TP (6.4%) injection from the tail vein 30 minutes before cerebral ischemia. Morris water-maze test was used to evaluate the changes in space recognition and memory and open field activity test to assess the activity and motor function of rats. The cell apoptotic study in hippocampal CA1 region at specified time points (12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery) was carried out by the flow cytometry, histology (hematoxylin and eosin staining), and immunohistochemical (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining) examinations. One-way analysis of variance and least significant difference t-test were used and statistical significance considered at P < 0.05. Results Compared with the GCIR group, the TP group was significantly attenuated in the impairment of space recognition and memory caused by GCIR and so was the neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region (P < 0.05). Conclusion TP may attenuate the impairment of space recognition and memory caused by GCIR via anti-apoptosis.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat-content diet with insufficiency of carbohydrates that induces ketogenesis. Besides its anticonvulsant properties, many studies have shown its neuroprotective effect in central nervous system, but its influence on peripheral nervous system has not been studied yet. We examined the influence of KD on regeneration of peripheral nerves in adult rats. Methods Fifty one rats were divided into three experimental (n = 15) and one control (n = 6) groups. Right sciatic nerve was crushed and animals were kept on standard (ST group) or ketogenic diet, the latter was introduced 3 weeks before (KDB group) or on the day of surgery (KDA group). Functional (CatWalk) tests were performed once a week, and morphometric (fiber density, axon diameter, and myelin thickness) analysis of the nerves was made after 6 weeks. Body weight and blood ketone bodies level were estimated at the beginning and the end of experiment. Results Functional analysis showed no differences between groups. Morphometric evaluation showed most similarities to the healthy (uncrushed) nerves in KDB group. Nerves in ST group differed mostly from all other groups. Ketone bodies were elevated in both KD groups, while post-surgery animals' body weight was lower as compared to ST group. Discussion Regeneration of sciatic nerves was improved in KD - preconditioned rats. These results suggest a neuroprotective effect of KD on peripheral nerves.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The modified Atkins diet (MAD) is a high fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diet used to treat intractable seizures in children and adults. The long-term impact on fasting lipid profiles (FLPs) remains unknown. This study was designed to detect significant lipid changes in adults on MAD. Methods Patients were observed prospectively. A FLP was obtained in all patients at the first visit then serially. Patients were started on a 20 g per day net carbohydrate limit MAD. They were screened for risk for coronary heart disease and counseled to reduce saturated fats by a registered dietitian if deemed at risk. Patients that remained on MAD for 3 or more months with one or more follow-up FLP were included. Results Thirty-seven patients (14 male), mean age 33 years (SD 13, range 18-59) met study criteria. Median diet duration was 16 months (range 3-41). Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) increased significantly over the first 3 months of MAD (P = 0.01 and 0.008, respectively), but were not significantly different from baseline after 1 year of treatment (P = 0.2 and P = 0.5, respectively). High-density lipoprotein levels trended upward in the first 3 months (P = 0.05) and triglycerides remained unchanged (P = 0.5). In 12 patients followed for 3 or more years, no cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events were reported. Discussion Although total cholesterol and LDL increased over the first 3 months of the MAD, these values normalized within a year of treatment, including in patients treated with MAD for more than 3 years.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives In the present study, effects of 3',4'-dihydroxyflavonol (DiOHF) on anxiety-like behavior, and learning and memory were investigated in a model of transient global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Methods The animals were assigned to sham-operated, ischemia, and two DiOHF-treated (10 mg/kg i.p.) groups. DiOHF was administered at 1 hour before and immediately after the ischemia. Male rats were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce acute cerebral ischemia for 20 minutes, followed by reperfusion for 7 days. The openfield, elevated plus maze (EPM), and Morris water maze tests were used to evaluate the effects of DiOHF treatment on ischemia-induced locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior, and spatial and recognition memory impairments, respectively. Results In the open field test, locomotor activity in the ischemic rats was not altered 6 days after the ischemia, nor was anxiety-like behavior, which was evaluated with the EPM (P > 0.05). In the water-maze test, cerebral ischemia significantly decreased the exploration time in the target quadrant, and the platform crossing counts were lower (P < 0.05) in the probe trial test; this memory impairment was significantly improved by DiOHF applied 1 hour before and immediately after ischemia (P < 0.05). Discussion All together, these findings suggest that DiOHF reverses spatial learning and memory deficits resulting from transient global ischemia but has no significant effect on anxiety-like behavior.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims In patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement under sedation often causes apnea or hypoventilation. The aim of the present study was to assess whether unsedated PEG placement in ALS patients using ultrathin endoscopy (UTE) via the transoral route can improve safety. Methods Between 2003 and 2013, PEG placement was identified and reviewed in 45 patients with ALS. PEG was performed in 14 patients using transoral UTE without sedation (UTE group), 17 patients using conventional normal-diameter esophagogastroduodenoscopy (C-EGD) without sedation (unsedated C-EGD group) and 14 patients using C-EGD with sedation (sedated C-EGD group). We compared the clinical features, cardiopulmonary data before and during PEG placement, and complications related to PEG placement among the three groups. Results There were no significant differences in age, male/female ratio, forced vital capacity, blood pressure, oxygen saturation before and during PEG, or major complications among the three groups. No minor complications were observed in the UTE group, whereas apnea and/or hypoventilation were observed in the sedated C-EGD group and aspiration pneumonia was observed in the unsedated C-EGD group. Conclusions Unsedated PEG placement using transoral UTE in ALS patients is a safe method.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To analyze the effect of weight on psychological and functional outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, including self-perception, depression, functional level, fatigue, and self-rated health status. Methods One hundred and one (n = 101) patients with MS participated in this cross-sectional study. Outcomes were scores in the Beck Depression Inventory, NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEOFFI), Functional Assessment of Multiple Sclerosis (FAMS), Fatigue Impact Scale, and Quality Short-Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36). Patients were classified as normal weight (18.5 < BMI < 24.9 kg/m(2)) or overweight (25.0 > BMI > 29.9 kg/m(2)). One-way analysis of covariance was conducted with gender, age, and years with disease as covariates. Results Depression levels were significantly higher in overweight versus normal-weight MS patients (F = 6.381; P = 0.013). NEOFFI scores were significantly higher in overweight versus normal-weight MS patients for extraversion (F = 6.331; P = 0.014), conscientiousness (F = 4.794; P = 0.034), and neuroticism (F = 5.422; P = 0.022) but not for openness (F = 2.174; P = 0.109) or agreeableness (F = 0.047; P = 0.829). The two groups did not significantly differ in fatigue (P > 00.5). Scores in general (F = 4.708; P = 0.032) and mental health (F = 4.583; P = 0.035) SF-36 domains were significantly lower in overweight versus normal-weight patients. Scores for FAMS domains of emotional well-being (F = 8.050; P = 0.006), general contentment (F = 7.967; P = 0.006), and family/social well-being (F = 7.662; P = 0.007) were significantly lower in overweight versus normal-weight patients. Conclusions Overweight MS patients evidenced higher depression levels, lower functional capacity, and worse self-rated health status in comparison to normal-weight MS patients. These results suggest that weight control programs should be incorporated into the management of patients with MS.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Folic acid (FA) is physiologically important in mammals and is a common vitamin supplement used during pregnancy and lactation. Numerous studies have reported that FA significantly improves endothelial function. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in maintaining the microenvironment required for neuronal function, but its unique structure is damaged by epileptic seizures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective role of FA on BBB leakage, as well as on the reactive astrogliosis in pregnant rats and their prepubertal offspring during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced epileptic seizure. Methods Pregnant rats were treated with FA (5 mg/kg) and PTZ on gestational days 0-19 and 19, respectively. The pups were treated with PTZ at puberty. Evans blue was used to evaluate BBB integrity. Reactive astrogliosis was defined using immunohistochemical analysis for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was measured at the femoral artery. Results A moderate decrease in BBB leakage was observed in FA-treated pregnant and prepubertal animals (P < 0.05). MABP was decreased significantly in pregnant rats (P < 0.05). The epilepsy-induced increase in MABP was less prominent in pregnant animals (P < 0.05). GFAP intensity decreased in PTZ-treated pregnant animals (P < 0.01) and FA-treated prepubertal rats. Discussion Our findings suggest that FA, which is used as a maternal vitamin to promote normal fetus development, may be beneficial against seizure-induced neuronal damage by decreasing BBB leakage and reactive astrogliosis in pregnant and prepubertal rats.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Gumiganghwal-tang (GT) is a traditional herbal medicine that is widely used for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic actions. Fermented GT has been reported to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and to exert a neuroprotective effect. In this study, we investigated the effect of fermented GT against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. The results of the Morris water maze test indicated that fermented GT significantly decreased escape latency, as compared with that observed in the scopolamine-treated group. In the prove test, fermented GT attenuated the decreased time spent in the target quadrant observed after scopolamine treatment. The results of the passive avoidance test indicated that the treatment with fermented GT increased latency time when compared with the scopolamine-treated group. Moreover, fermented GT inhibited AChE activity in the hippocampi of the treated mice. These results suggest that fermented GT reduced scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice through AChE inhibition. Therefore, we hypothesize that fermented GT may be a useful therapeutic agent for the prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To observe the effect of taurine treatment in rats with monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity. Methods Rats with MSG-induced obesity were administered taurine for five weeks. The Lee's index, food intake, blood pressure, body temperature, body mass index (BMI), fat weight, and triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were compared. The PGC-1α expression levels in white and brown adipose were measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, and pathological changes in the arcuate nucleus and liver were examined. Results Compared with the model group, BMI, TG, and LDL in the high and low taurine dose groups were significantly lower, while HDL was higher. Body temperature in the taurine treatment groups was higher, and blood pressure was lower. The weight of brown fat in the taurine treatment groups was significantly higher than in the model group, while the white fat weight was significantly lower. Compared with the control group, the PGC-1α levels in white and brown adipose were higher in the taurine treatment groups and more significantly up-regulated in brown adipose. Discussion This study suggests that taurine prevents obesity in MSG-treated rats and may be closely associated with energy metabolism.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background/objectives Nervous system damage is one of the consequences of oral exposure to waterborne inorganic arsenic. In this work, the role of oxidative status in the neurotoxicity of arsenic and the possible role of two foodborne antioxidants in ameliorating arsenic-related oxidative stress were investigated. Methods Male Wistar rats were given 10 mg/kg b.w. of trivalent inorganic arsenic (in the form of NaAsO2), 5 day/week for 6 weeks by gavage, combined with vitamin C solution (1 g/l) or green tea infusion (2.5 g in 500 ml boiled water) as antioxidants given in the drinking fluid. Results Body weight gain was reduced by arsenic from the second week and the antioxidants had no effect on that. Cortical-evoked potentials had increased latency, tail nerve conduction velocity was reduced, and this latter effect was counteracted by the antioxidants. The effect of green tea was stronger than that of vitamin C, and green tea also diminished lipid peroxidation induced by As. There was fair correlation between brain As levels, electrophysiological changes, and lipid peroxidation, suggesting a causal relationship. Discussion Natural antioxidants might be useful in the protection of the central nervous system against the toxicity of oral As.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Seed oils are used as cosmetics or topical treatment for wounds, allergy, dandruff and other purposes. Natural antioxidants from plants were recently reported to delay the onset or progress of various neurodegenerative conditions. Over one thousand cultivars of Punica granatum (Punicaceae) are known and some are traditionally used to treat various ailments. Aim: The effect of pomegranate oil on 3-nitro propionic acid (3-NP) induced cytotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) neuronal cells were analyzed in this study. Further, the analysis of unsaturated fatty acid composition of the seed oil of pomegranate by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was done. Results: GC-MS study showed the presence of 6,9-octadecadiynoic acid (C18:2(6,9)) as a major component (60%) as 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivative. The total extractable oil with light petroleum ether by Soxhlet from the dry seed of P. granatum was 4-6%. The oil analyzed for 48.90  1.50 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of oil, and demonstrated radical scavenging-linked antioxidant activities in various in vitro assays like the DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl, % IP = 35.2  0.9%), ABTS (2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylene benzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid, % IP 2.2  0.1%) and -carotene bleaching assay, % IP = 26  3%), respectively, which could be due the possible role of one methylene interrupted diynoic acid system for its radical-scavenging/antioxidant properties of oil. The oil also reduced lipid peroxidation, suppressed reactive oxygen species, extracellular nitric oxide, lactate/pyruvate ratio and lactase dehydrogenase generated by 3-nitropropionic acid (100 mM) induced neurotoxicity in PC 12 cells, and enhanced the levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants at 40 μg of gallic acid equivalents. Conclusion: The protective effect of pomegranate seed oil might be due to the ability of an oil to neutralize ROS or enhance the expression of antioxidant gene.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 09/2014; 2014:In Press.