Nutritional Neuroscience Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Maney Publishing

Journal description

Nutritional Neuroscience is an international, interdisciplinary broad-based journal for reporting both basic and clinical research in the field of nutrition that relates to the central and peripheral nervous system. Studies may include the role of different components of normal diet (protein, carbohydrate, fat, moderate use of alcohol, etc.), dietary supplements (minerals, vitamins, hormones, herbs, etc.), and food additives (artificial flavors, colors, sweeteners, etc.) on neurochemistry, neurobiology, and behavioral biology of all vertebrate and invertebrate organisms. Ideally this journal will serve as a forum for neuroscientists, nutritionists, neurologists, psychiatrists, and those interested in preventive medicine.

Current impact factor: 2.11

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.114
2012 Impact Factor 1.647
2011 Impact Factor 1.563
2010 Impact Factor 1.301
2009 Impact Factor 1.143
2008 Impact Factor 1.092

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 1.83
Cited half-life 7.10
Immediacy index 0.30
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.53
Website Nutritional Neuroscience website
Other titles Nutritional neuroscience (Online)
ISSN 1476-8305
OCLC 50166447
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Maney Publishing

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo for STEM (science, technology, engineering and medicine) journals
    • 2 years embargo for HSS (humanities and social science) journals
  • Conditions
    • Authors' pre-print on author's personal website or institutional website, or institutional repository, or subject-based repository
    • Author's post-print on institutional repository, or subject-based repository
    • Must link to publisher version with DOI
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with citation
    • On a non-profit server
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypophosphatemia (HP) with or without intracellular depletion of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and adenosine triphosphate has been associated with central and peripheral nervous system complications and can be observed in various diseases and conditions related to respiratory alkalosis, alcoholism (alcohol withdrawal), diabetic ketoacidosis, malnutrition, obesity, and parenteral and enteral nutrition. In addition, HP may explain serious muscular, neurological, and haematological disorders and may cause peripheral neuropathy with paresthesias and metabolic encephalopathy, resulting in confusion and seizures. The neuropathy may be improved quickly after proper phosphate replacement. Phosphate depletion has been corrected using potassium-phosphate infusion, a treatment that can restore consciousness. In severe ataxia and tetra paresis, complete recovery can occur after adequate replacement of phosphate. Patients with multiple risk factors, often with a chronic disease and severe HP that contribute to phosphate depletion, are at risk for neurologic alterations. To predict both risk and optimal phosphate replenishment requires assessing the nutritional status and risk for re-feeding hypophosphatemia. The strategy for correcting HP depends on the severity of the underlying disease and the goal for re-establishing a phosphate balance to limit the consequences of phosphate depletion.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 04/2015; DOI:10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000024
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To isolate the neuroprotective component from Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois. (Convolvulaceae) which can be used as a lead molecule in the treatment of Huntington's disease (HD). Methods The methanolic extract of whole plant was fractionated into four fractions; chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous fraction. The chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions were pooled on the basis of antioxidant activity and TLC profile and charged into silica gel column. Four subfractions were collected from column (FrA, FrB, FrC, and FrD) and further assessed for antioxidant potential by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl in vitro assay. 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) was administered to Wister rats for induction of HD. Different fractions were administered for 14 days. Different behavioral alterations were assessed in between study period. Animals were sacrificed immediately following the last behavioral session, and biochemical parameters were measured. Result and discussion Systemic administration of 3-NP showed marked motor deficits and oxidative damage in rats. Only FrB showed significant antioxidant activity and on further purification gave pure compound (scopoletin). Our study showed that FrB (20 mg/kg) pre-treatment significantly attenuated the loss in body weight, improved the locomotor activity, grip strength, and gait abnormalities. It also has attenuated the increased malondialdehyde and nitrite levels, and restored superoxide dismutase and reduced GSH enzyme activity in the striatum and cortex in 3-NP-treated groups. These results suggest that C. pluricaulis Chois. exhibits a neuroprotective effect by accelerating brain antioxidant defense mechanisms in 3-NP-treated rats.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 04/2015; DOI:10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000022
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Dietary supplementation of fruits and vegetables has been the main stay for nutritional benefit and overall well-being. GrandFusion(®) is a nutritional supplement that contains the natural nutrients from whole fruits and vegetables that include complex nutrients and phytonutrients that contain anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. Methods In this study, C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet supplemented with GrandFusion(®) for 2 months prior to 1 hour of ischemia induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAo) followed by various times of reperfusion. Mice were subjected to MCAo for 1 hour and then at various times following reperfusion, animals were assessed for behavioral outcomes (open field testing, rotarod, and adhesive test removal), and infarct volumes (cresyl violet and triphenyltetrazolium chloride). In addition, to determine the potential mechanisms associated with treatment, the brain tissue was examined for changes in oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Results The GrandFusion(®) diet was able to show a significant protection from infarct damage in the brain and an improvement in neurological outcomes. The diet did not alter heart rate, blood pressure, pO2, pCO2, or pH. In addition, the diet mitigated inflammation by reducing microglial and astrocytic activation following ischemia and reperfusion and limiting oxidative stress. Discussion The study demonstrates the neuroprotective effect of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables that contain anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory against the impact of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 04/2015; DOI:10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000021
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The aim of this study was to determine effects of probiotic yogurt and multispecies probiotic capsule supplementation on mental health and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in petrochemical workers. Methods The present randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 70 petrochemical workers. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups to receive 100 g/day probiotic yogurt + one placebo capsule (n = 25) or one probiotic capsule daily + 100 g/day conventional yogurt (n = 25) or 100 g/day conventional yogurt + one placebo capsule (n = 20) for 6 weeks. Mental health parameters including general health questionnaire (GHQ) and depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS) scores were measured. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning and 6 weeks after the intervention to quantify hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Results After 6 weeks of intervention, a significant improvement of GHQ was observed in the probiotic yogurt (18.0 ± 1.5 vs. 13.5 ± 1.9, P = 0.007) and in the probiotic capsule group (16.9 ± 1.8 vs. 9.8 ± 1.9, P = 0.001), as well as a significant improvement in DASS scores in the probiotic yogurt (23.3 ± 3.7 vs. 13.0 ± 3.7, P = 0.02) and the probiotic capsule group (18.9 ± 3.2 vs. 9.4 ± 4.0, P = 0.006). However, there was no significant improvement in the conventional yogurt group (P = 0.05 for GHQ and P = 0.08 for DASS). Discussion The consumption of probiotic yogurt or a multispecies probiotic capsule had beneficial effects on mental health parameters in petrochemical workers.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 04/2015; DOI:10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000023
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The polyphenol resveratrol has shown regulatory effects on hippocampal neurogenesis, which according to the neurovascular niche hypothesis, likely to involve stimulation of angiogenesis. In rodents, global cerebral ischemia leads to selective CA1 neuronal damage, spatial memory impairments, lasting changes in corticosterone (CORT) secretion, and increased neurogenesis. This study examined dose-related effects of 21-day RSV treatment on markers associated with neurogenesis (DCX, PSA-NCAM) and angiogenesis (CD31) in the hippocampus at short (7-day) and long-term (85-day) intervals following global ischemia. In parallel, post-ischemic and stress-induced CORT levels and spatial memory in the Morris water maze were determined. Methods Five groups of male Wistar rats were included: sham/saline, ischemia/saline, ischemia/1 mg/kg RSV, ischemia/10 mg/kg RSV, and sham/10 mg/kg RSV. Changes in expression of plasticity markers were paralleled by assessment of basal- and stress-induced CORT secretions, and spatial memory performance. Results Our findings revealed a significant attenuation of ischemia-induced DCX/PSA-NCAM expression in RSV-treated rats, whereas RSV treatment increased angiogenesis in the injured CA1 region. RSV attenuated CORT levels 3 days post-ischemia and a trend toward attenuating CORT secretion in response to 15 minutes restraint stress. Increased swimming latencies in the target quadrant during the MWM probe trial in RSV-treated ischemic rats support beneficial effects of on spatial memory retention. Discussion Our findings uncover time- and dose-related effects of RSV and global ischemia on the regulation of hippocampal plasticity. Changes in neuro- and angiogenesis are consistent with RSV neuroprotective effects, but appear independent of RSV regulatory effects on corticosterone secretion.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 04/2015; DOI:10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000020
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide. Aim of this study was to investigate short-term effects of espresso coffee on heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of vagal activity, in healthy habitual and non-habitual coffee consumers. Methods Seventy-seven healthy subjects (38 habitual and 39 non-habitual coffee consumers, 74% women, mean age 26.97 ± 6.88 years) took part in three laboratory sessions in a randomized order. In condition 1, subjects consumed espresso; in condition 2, subjects consumed decaffeinated espresso; and in condition 3, subjects consumed warm water. HRV and blood pressure were assessed at rest before and after ingestion of the respective beverage. Results HRV was significantly increased after consumption of caffeinated espresso, decaffeinated espresso, or water, indicating increased vagal activity in the course of the experiments. In the habitual coffee consumers, the increase in vagally mediated HRV was significantly lower after consumption of decaffeinated espresso compared to caffeinated espresso. Increases of systolic blood pressure were only found in the non-habitual consumers. Conclusion We found no evidence for specific short-term effects of caffeinated espresso on vagal activity in healthy subjects. Instead, consumption of decaffeinated espresso inhibited vagal activity in habitual consumers. This may be explained by an attempt of the organism to establish a sympathovagal equilibrium comparable to that after caffeine consumption. In the absence of caffeine-induced sympathetic activation, this may have been achieved by relative vagal withdrawal.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 04/2015; DOI:10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000018
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    ABSTRACT: Background/aims Emblica officinalis is mentioned as a maharasayana in many Ayurvedic texts and promotes intelligence, memory, freedom from disease, longevity, and strength of the senses. The present study has been designed to explore the memory-enhancing effect of the tannoid principles of E. officinalis (EoT) at the biochemical, anatomical, behavioral, and molecular levels against aluminum chloride (AlCl3) induced Alzheimer's disease (AD) in rats. Aluminum is reported to have an important role in the etiology, pathogenesis, and development of AD. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into control, AlCl3 treated, AlCl3 and EoT (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg bw) co-treated, and EoT (200 mg/kg bw) alone treated groups. In control and experimental rats, behavior tests including water maze and open field test, estimation of aluminum, assay of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and expression of amyloidogenic proteins were performed. Results Intraperitonial injection of AlCl3 (100 mg/kg bw) for 60 days significantly elevated the concentration of aluminum (Al), activity of AChE and protein expressions of amyloid precursor protein, A-beta1-42, beta-, and gamma-secretases as compared to control group in hippocampus and cortex. Co-administration of EoT orally to AlCl3 rats for 60 days significantly revert back the Al concentration, AChE activity, and A-beta synthesis-related molecules in the studied brain regions. The spatial learning, memory, and locomotor impairments observed in AlCl3 treated rats were significantly attenuated by EoT. Conclusion Therefore, EoT may be a promising therapy in ameliorating neurotoxicity of aluminum, however further studies are warranted to elucidate the exact mechanism of action of EoT.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 04/2015; DOI:10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000016
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Sesamin is known for its role in antioxidant, antiproliferative, antihypertensive, and neuroprotective activities. However, little is known about the role of sesamin in the development of emotional disorders. Here we investigated persistent inflammatory pain hypersensitivity and anxiety-like behaviors in the mouse suffering chronic pain. Methods Chronic inflammatory pain was induced by hind paw injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Levels of protein were detected by Western blot. Results Administration of sesamin could induce anxiolytic activities but had no effect on analgesia. In the basolateral amygdala, a structure involving the anxiety development, sesamin attenuated the up-regulation of NR2B-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, GluR1 subunit of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor as well as phosphorylation of GluR1 at Ser831 (p-GluR1-Ser831), and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII-alpha) in the hind paw CFA-injected mice. In the same model, we found that the sesamin blocked the down-regulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA-alpha-2) receptors. Conclusion Our findings show that sesamin reduces anxiety-like behaviors induced by chronic pain at least partially through regulating the GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission in the amygdala of mice.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 03/2015; DOI:10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000015
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a highly prevalent neurodegenerative disease that imposes a prodigious burden on the society. Docosahexaenoic acids (DHAs) are known to be beneficial in AD, in part, through their anti-inflammatory properties. MicroRNAs (miRs) are important regulators of brain functions and this regulation becomes disrupted in AD. The purpose of this article is to propose the involvement of miRs in the anti-inflammatory effects of DHA on AD. Methods The literature surrounding this topic is extensively researched: miR involvement in the pathophysiology of AD, the mechanism of action of DHA, the effects of DHA on miRs, and potential future therapeutic strategies for AD involving miRs. Results AD results in a disrupted miR network that relates to inflammation, but the altered miRs vary between studies. The effects of DHA on AD are generally positive, but the mechanism remains enigmatic. Emerging studies demonstrate that one of the potential mechanisms of action of DHA is modulation of miRs. The miR mechanism offers possible future strategies against AD. Discussion Future AD studies investigating miRs needs to set experimental standards to enable valid comparisons. For DHA effects on AD, thorough considerations on the properties of the DHA and the population involved is necessary. Validation is required to verify miR involvement in the anti-inflammatory properties of DHA in the context of AD. The proposed miR-related strategies against AD remain to be substantiated.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 03/2015; DOI:10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000014
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Undernutrition during development alters the expression of peptides that control energy expenditure and feeding behavior. Estrogens can also modulate these peptides. Here, we analyze whether the early postnatal administration of estradiol modulates the effects of undernutrition on neuroendocrine parameters in adult female Wistar rats. Methods Control rats were fed a control diet. Undernourished pups were submitted to a restricted diet with half of the undernourished rats receiving 0.4 mg/kg s.c. of estradiol benzoate (EB) from postnatal day (P) 6 until P13. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine expression in the hypothalamus of agouti-related peptide (AgRP), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript. Plasma estradiol, testosterone, and adiponectin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Total and acylated ghrelin levels were measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay. Results Undernourishment decreased body weight, fat mass, plasma leptin and insulin levels, and hypothalamic POMC mRNA levels. An increase in orexigenic signals AgRP and NPY mRNA levels, and in plasma adiponectin levels were found in undernourished animals. Early postnatal treatment with EB to undernourished female rats reversed the effects of undernutrition on adult hypothalamic POMC mRNA levels. In addition, neonatal EB treatment to undernourished females significantly decreased adult plasma testosterone, estradiol, and acylated ghrelin levels. Discussion Our results suggest that increased estradiol during a critical period of development has the capacity to modulate the alterations that undernutrition produces on energy metabolism.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 03/2015; DOI:10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000012
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives This study aimed to compare the effects of environmental enrichment in nourished (on a diet containing 16% protein) and malnourished (on a diet containing 6% protein) rats during the critical period of brain development, specifically focusing on the optic nerve. Methods By means of morphologic and morphometric assessment of the optic nerve, we analyzed the changes caused by diet and stimulation (environmental enrichment) on postnatal day 35, a time point ideal for such morphological analysis since developmental processes are considered complete at this age. Results Malnourished animals presented low body and brain weights and high body-to-brain weight ratio compared to well-nourished rats. Furthermore, malnourished animals showed morphological changes in the optic nerve such as edema and vacuolization characterized by increased interstitial space. The malnourished-stimulated group presented lesions characteristic of early protein malnutrition but were milder than lesions exhibited by malnourished-non-stimulated group. The morphometric analysis revealed no difference in glial cell density between groups, but there was significantly higher blood vessel density in the stimulated rats, independent of their nutritional condition. Discussion Our data indicate that protein malnutrition imposed during the critical period of brain development alters the cytoarchitecture of the optic nerve. In addition, we affirm that a 1-hour exposure to an enriched environment everyday was sufficient for tissue preservation in rats maintained on a low-protein diet. This protective effect might be related to angiogenesis, as confirmed by the increased vascular density observed in morphometric analyses.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 03/2015; DOI:10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000013
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Malnourishment (M) produces permanent alterations during the development of the CNS and might modify the aging process. In pyramidal neurons (PN) of the hippocampus, which are associated with learning and memory performance, few studies have focused on changes at the subcellular level under chronic malnutrition (ChM) in young (Y, 2 months old) and aged (A, 22 months old) rats. The present work evaluated the extent to which ChM disrupts organelles in PN of the dorsal hippocampus CA1 as compared to controls (C). Methods Ultrastructural analysis was performed at 8000× and 20 000× magnification: Nucleus eccentricity and somatic, cytoplasmic, and nuclear areas were measured; and in the PN perikaryon, density indices (number of organelles/cytoplasmic area) of Golgi membrane systems (GMS, normal, and swollen), mitochondria (normal and abnormal), and vacuolated organelles (lysosomes, lipofuscin granules, and multivesicular bodies (MVB)) were determined. Results The density of abnormal mitochondria, swollen GMS, and MVB increased significantly in the AChM group compared to the other groups. The amount of lipofuscin was significantly greater in the AChM than in the YChM groups - a sign of oxidative stress due to malnutrition and aging; however, in Y animals, ChM showed no effect on organelle density or the cytoplasmic area. An increased density of lysosomes as well as nucleus eccentricity was observed in the AC group, which also showed an increase in the cytoplasmic area. Discussion Malnutrition produces subcellular alterations in vulnerable hippocampal pyramidal cells, and these alterations may provide an explanation for the previously reported deficient performance of malnourished animals in a spatial memory task in which aging and malnutrition were shown to impede the maintenance of long-term memory.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 02/2015; DOI:10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000009
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Tea has been associated with many mental benefits, such as attention enhancement, clarity of mind, and relaxation. These psychosomatic states can be measured in terms of brain activity using an electroencephalogram (EEG). Brain activity can be assessed either during a state of passive activity or when performing attention tasks and it can provide useful information about the brain's state. This study investigated the effects of green and black consumption on brain activity as measured by a simplified EEG, during passive activity. Methods Eight healthy volunteers participated in the study. The EEG measurements were performed using a two channel EEG brain mapping instrument - HeadCoach™. Fast Fourier transform algorithm and EEGLAB toolbox using the Matlab software were used for data processing and analysis. Results Alpha, theta, and beta wave activities were all found to increase after 1 hour of green and black tea consumption, albeit, with very considerable inter-individual variations. Discussion Our findings provide further evidence for the putative beneficial effects of tea. The highly significant increase in theta waves (P < 0.004) between 30 minutes and 1 hour post-consumption of green tea may be an indication of its putative role in cognitive function, specifically alertness and attention. There were considerable inter-individual variations in response to the two teas which may be due genetic polymorphisms in metabolism and/or influence of variety/blend, dose and content of the selected products whose chemistry and therefore efficacy will have been influenced by 'from field to shelf practices'.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 02/2015; DOI:10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000008
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    ABSTRACT: Human depression is a major burden, both on the individuals who suffer from the disease and on society at large. Traditionally, depression has been linked to psychological and biological causes, but there has been increasing interest in the gut-brain axis. In this regard, we have recently shown that specific bacteria are correlated with human depression, and we hypothesize that volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are mediators. Here, we analyzed the direct correlation between VFAs, depression and cortisol in a cohort consisting of 34 depressed patients and 17 controls. We found statistically significant correlations between depression and the VFA isovaleric acid, as well as between isovaleric acid and cortisol. Furthermore, bacteria that previously have been identified as being correlated with depression were also correlated with isovaleric acid. Isovaleric acid showed a bimodal distribution in which the depressed patients were overrepresented in the high level group (P < 0.00005, binominal test). It has recently been shown that gut-derived VFAs can cross the blood-brain barrier, where isovaleric acid interferes with synaptic neurotransmitter release. The multiple correlation patterns, in addition to a potential mechanistic model, point towards a potential causal relationship between depression and isovaleric acid.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 02/2015; DOI:10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000007
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Neuropathies often accompany vitamin B12 deficiency. Since many neuropathies are linked to oxidative stress and since B12 has both antioxidant and neurotrophic properties, B12 may also be effective treatment in non-deficient subjects. Thus, the characteristics and predictors of B12-responsive neuropathies and their relationship to disorders associated with increased oxidative stress (oxidant risks) were examined. Methods Retrospective review of 78 subjects with neurological abnormalities treated with B12 and evaluated by the measurement of B12 and the B12-dependent metabolites, methylmalonic acid (MMA), and homocysteine. Results Sixty-five subjects had neurological improvement (83%), including 35 with other known causes of neuropathy. Only two responders had B12-responsive macrocytosis. Pretherapy B12, MMA, and homocysteine values were normal in 72, 33 and 54% of responders, with all three normal in 23%. Moreover, B12 therapy did not significantly decrease elevated MMA and homocysteine levels in 20 and 37%, respectively, of responders tested but did decrease both metabolites in 75% of evaluable non-responders. At least one oxidant risk was present in 41 of the 46 responders with normal B12 levels (89%). Oral therapy was effective, but parenteral B12 improved responses in four subjects. Discussion B12-responsive neuropathies are thus (1) common even when confounding disorders are present; (2) dissociated from the presence of hematological abnormalities; (3) dissociated from the presence of B12-responsive metabolical abnormalities; and (4) associated with the presence of oxidant risks when B12 levels are normal. Since no predictors of responses to B12 therapy were identified, empiric trials with parenteral B12 should be considered in appropriate subjects.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 02/2015; DOI:10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000006
  • Nutritional Neuroscience 02/2015; DOI:10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000005
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Prenatal malnutrition (M) and lead intoxication (Pb) have adverse effects on neuronal development; one of the cellular mechanisms involved is a disruption of the pro- and anti-oxidant balance. In the developing brain, the vulnerability of neuronal membrane phospholipids is variable across the different brain areas is variable. This study assesses the susceptibility of different brain regions to damage by tissue oxidative stress and lead concentrations to determine whether the combined effect of prenatal malnutrition (M) and lead (Pb) intoxication is worse than the effect of either of them individually. Methods M was induced with an isocaloric and hypoproteinic (6% casein) diet 4 weeks before pregnancy. Intoxication was produced with lead acetate in drinking water, from the first gestational day. Both the M and Pb models were continued until the day of birth. Four brain regions (hippocampus, cortex, striatum, and cerebellum) were dissected out to analyze the lipid peroxidation (LP) levels in four groups: normally nourished (C); normally nourished but intoxicated with lead (CPb); malnourished (M); and M intoxicated with lead (MPb). Results Dam body and brain weights were significantly reduced in the fourth gestational week in the MPb group. Their pups had significantly lower body weights than those in the C and CPb groups. The PbM group exhibited significant increases of lead concentration and LP in all areas evaluated. A potentiation effect of Pb and M on LP was found in the cerebellum. Discussion This study provides information on how environmental conditions (intoxication and malnutrition) during the intrauterine period could differentially affect the development of neuronal plasticity and, in consequence, alter adult brain functions such as learning and memory.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 02/2015; DOI:10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000003