Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science

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  • ISSN
    1476-3567

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: This study was attempted to assess the extent of toxicity contributed by Na+ and/or Cl− ions individually, besides their possible additive effects under NaCl using physiological and biochemical parameters. Despite the fact that most annual plants accumulate both Na+ and Cl− under saline conditions and each ion deserves equal considerations, most research has been focused on Na+ toxicity. Consequently, Cl− toxicity mechanisms including its accumulation/exclusion in plants are poorly understood. To address these issues, effects of equimolar (100 mM) concentrations of Na+, Cl− and NaCl (EC ≈ 10 dS m−1) were studied on 15-day-old seedlings of two rice cultivars, Panvel-3 (tolerant) and Sahyadri-3 (sensitive), using in vitro cultures. All three treatments induced substantial reductions in germination rate and plant growth with greater impacts under NaCl than Na+ and Cl− separately. Apparently, salt tolerance of Panvel-3 was due to its ability to exclude Na+ and Cl− from its shoots and maintaining low (<1.0) Na+/K+ ratios. Panvel-3 exhibited better vigour and membrane stability indices coupled with lower reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation levels, besides stimulated synthesis of proline, glycine betaine and ascorbic acid. Overall, the magnitude of toxicity was observed in NaCl > Na+ > Cl− manner. Though Cl− was relatively less toxic than its countercation, its effect cannot be totally diminished. Keywords: rice; salinity; ion-specific toxicity; chloride; sodium
    Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Seasonal wetland (dambo) cultivation in smallholder farming areas is important because it improves household food security. However, most farming practices, such as burning of vegetation and conventional tillage in dambo gardens, may reduce soil organic carbon (SOC) and nutrient dynamics. We evaluated the effects of simulated burning, vegetation clearing and clipping, and conventional tillage in dambo gardens 15 on SOC, nutrient contents and biomass production over a 3-year period. The results showed that clearing and clipping of vegetation and conventional tillage reduced SOC, soil nutrient contents and biomass yields, while burning increased SOC and soil nutrient contents. For the 0–10 cm depth, conventional tillage, clearing and clipping resulted in a 37%, 34% and 18% decrease in SOC, respectively, after three seasons, 20 burning resulted in a 25% increase in SOC, while there were no changes in the control after 3 years. For the 0–40 cm depth, the average change in SOC was 32%, 25% and 16% for conventional tillage, clearing and clipping, respectively. Locally and regionally, conventional tillage, clearing and clipping reduce SOC, nutrient contents and biomass production in dambos. Though annual burning increased SOC and nutrient 25 contents in the short term, the long-term effects are uncertain, hence there is a need for long-term studies.
    Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 02/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Seasonal wetland (dambo) cultivation in smallholder farming areas is important because it improves household food security. However, most farming practices, such as burning of vegetation and conventional tillage in dambo gardens, may reduce soil organic carbon (SOC) and nutrient dynamics. We evaluated the effects of simulated burning, vegetation clearing and clipping, and conventional tillage in dambo gardens on SOC, nutrient contents and biomass production over a 3-year period. The results showed that clearing and clipping of vegetation and conventional tillage reduced SOC, soil nutrient contents and biomass yields, while burning increased SOC and soil nutrient contents. For the 0–10 cm depth, conventional tillage, clearing and clipping resulted in a 37%, 34% and 18% decrease in SOC, respectively, after three seasons, burning resulted in a 25% increase in SOC, while there were no changes in the control after 3 years. For the 0–40 cm depth, the average change in SOC was 32%, 25% and 16% for conventional tillage, clearing and clipping, respectively. Locally and regionally, conventional tillage, clearing and clipping reduce SOC, nutrient contents and biomass production in dambos. Though annual burning increased SOC and nutrient contents in the short term, the long-term effects are uncertain, hence there is a need for long-term studies.
    Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 02/2014;
  • Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Different amounts of nitrogen (N) and copper (Cu) in the forms of urea and copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) were applied and their effects on diosgenin production and dry matter yield in fenugreek were investigated under farm cultivation conditions. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to analyze diosgenin content. Diosgenin contents were measured in 25, 45 and 65 day-old leaves and in leaves at flowering stage and in fruits. The maximum diosgenin content was obtained in 45 day-old leaves. The results showed that simultaneous addition of Cu and N and the level of supply had significant effects on diosgenin production in leaves, fruits and dry matter yield. Simultaneous use of urea (100 kg ha−1) and copper sulfate (30 kg ha−1) increased diosgenin production and dry matter yield in 45 day-old leaves for 7.72 and 1.32 times, respectively, compared to unfertilized control group. But, the use of higher amounts of urea and copper showed a decrease in diosgenin production.
    Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of three sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) residue-management plans on nitrogen losses in surface runoff and sub-surface leachate was studied for 3 years. The three management plans evaluated were conventional burning (CB), compost application with burning (COMB), and remaining green cane trash blanketing (GCTB) treatment. In the CB treatment, sugarcane residue was burned after harvest. The COMB treatment consisted of compost applied at ‘off bar’ with sugarcane residue burned immediately after harvest. Compost was applied in the amount of 13.4 Mg ha−1 annually. Surface runoff was collected with automatic refrigerated samplers and sub-surface leachate was collected with pan lysimeters over a period of 3 years. Total nitrogen (TN), NO3/NO2–N, and NH4–N were measured. The mean losses of nitrogen (TN, NO3/NO2–N, and NH4–N) from the COMB treatment after the burning procedure (post-harvest, years 2 and 3) were on average 2.7 times higher than those before harvest and burning (pre-harvest, year 1). Mean leaching losses of NO3/NO2–N were 0.36, 0.82, and 0.10 kg ha−1 for the CB, COMB, and GCTB treatment, respectively. The losses of NO3/NO2–N from the GCTB treatment in surface runoff and sub-surface leachate were significantly reduced compared to the CB and COMB treatment.
    Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 02/2013; http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03650340.2013.771813.

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