Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials


Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials is an Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal focusing on information concerning clinical microbiology, infectious diseases and antimicrobials. The management of infectious disease is dependent on correct diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial treatment, and with this in mind, the journal aims to improve the communication between basic and clinical science in the field of clinical microbiology and antimicrobial treatment. Manuscripts submitted to Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials can report on: any aspect of diagnosis of infectious diseases; case management and antimicrobial treatment; and antibiotic development and antimicrobial resistance. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials has a broad scope, incorporating microbiology and antimicrobials in almost all branches of medicine. Furthermore, the journal has no restrictions on space or access; this ensures that the journal can reach the widest possible audience.

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  • Omer Y Ld Z, Ahmet Coban, Asl Ener, Seher Co Kuner, Gülçin Bayramo Lu, Hüseyin Güdücüo Lu, Mustafa Ozyurt, Mü Erref Tatman-Otkun, Nihal Karabiber, Nuri Ozkütük, Orhan Aktepe, Serkan Oncü, U Ur Arslan, Bülent Bozdo An
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionMethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most important nosocomial pathogens and is also emerging in Turkish hospitals. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of MRSA isolated from Turkish hospitals.Materials and methodsA total of 397 MRSA strains isolated from 12 hospitals in Turkey were included to present study. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested using agar dilution. Presence of ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA, tetM, tetK, linA and aac-aph genes were studied by PCR.ResultsAll strains were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. The susceptibility rates for fusidic acid, lincomycin, erythromycin, tetracyclin, gentamycin, kanamycin, and, ciprofloxacin were 91.9%, 41.1%, 27.2%, 11.8%, 8.5%, 8.3% and 6.8%, respectively. Lincomycin inactivation was positive for 3 isolates. Of 225 erythromycin resistant isolates 48 had ermA, 20 had ermC, and 128 had ermA-C. PCR was negative for 15 strains. Of 3 isolates with lincomycin inactivation one had linA and msrA. Of 358 gentamycin resistant isolates 334 had aac-aph and 24 were negatives. Among 350 tetracyclin resistant isolates 314 had tetM. Of 36 tetM negative isolates 10 had tetK.ConclusionMRSA isolates from Turkish hospitals were multiresistant to antimicrobials. Quinolone and gentamycin resistance levels were high and macrolide and lincosamide resistance were relatively low. Susceptibility rates for fusidic asid were high. Linezolide and vancomycin resistance are not emerged. The most common resistance genes were ermA, tetM and aac-aph. Evolution of antimicrobial susceptibilities and resistance genes profiles of MRSA isolates should be surveyed at regional and national level for accurate treatment of patients and to control dissemination of resistance genes.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 09/2014; 13(1):44.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Questions remain regarding the use of the cephalosporins to treat infections caused by extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. For example, should ceftazidime or cefepime be used to treat infections with CTX-M ESBL-producing organisms with low MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations), according to the new Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute¿s (CLSI) recommendations for susceptibility testing? Some studies have reported that in vitro MICs of cephalosporins increase as the inoculum increases, which is the inoculum effect; however, most of the enzymes studied were SHV and TEM. In this study, we aimed to investigate the inoculum effect on ceftazidime, cefepime and four other ß¿lactam agents against CTX-M-ESBLs-producing Escherichia coli.Methods Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined using broth microdilution MIC methodology according to the CLSI recommended with standard and 100-fold-higher inocula.ResultsAn inoculum effect on meropenem and cefminox was not detected. The size of the inoculum affected piperacillin/tazobactam activity against only 4 strains, all CTX-M-14 genotypes. The inoculum size affected the activity of ceftazidime, cefepime and cefotaxime against 35%, 85%, 100% of strains, respectively. Among the strains with an inoculum effect, CTX-M-14 was the most common ESBL genotype.Conclusions These findings suggest that meropenem is the most active compound against serious infections caused by Escherichia coli producing ESBLs. Cefminox and piperacillin-tazobactam exhibit strong activity against many strains. Until further studies are performed, clinicians should be aware that third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins (such as ceftazidime and cefepime) are not reliable for serious infections even though in vitro tests indicate susceptibility.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 09/2014; 13(1):45.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Carbapenemase genes are one of the most frequent mechanisms reported in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa; however, description of P. aeruginosa co-harbouring two or more carbapenemases is unusual.Methods In this study we evaluated the presence of carbapenemase genes and the clonality of P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from a hospital over a 12-year period. A total of 127 isolates of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa recovered from 109 patients feces (four samples), rectal swab (three samples), nasal swab (one sample) and anal abscess (one sample), were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the following antibiotics imipenem, meropenem and polymyxin E were determined by broth microdilution. The molecular profile of isolates was evaluated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PCR for the following carbapenemase genes bla IMP; bla SPM; bla VIM; bla SIM; bla NDM; bla KPC; bla GES and nucleotide sequencing to confirm the enzyme gene types were performed and compared with the database available on the Internet (BLAST- isolates were carbapenem-resistant, their MIC50 and MIC90 were respectively 64 ¿g/mL and 256 ¿g/mL to imipenem and 32 ¿g/mL and 256 ¿g/mL to meropenem, all isolates except one (MIC = 8 mg/L) were susceptible to polymyxin E. The most frequent carbapenemase genes identified were bla SPM identified in 41 isolates (32%), followed by 10 with bla kpc and 5 with bla VIM (3.9%). All belonged to the class SPM-1 and VIM-2. In 2011, one isolate harbouring three carbapenemase genes (SPM-1, VIM-2 and KPC-2) that belonged to a new clone was identified in a hematopoietic stem cell transplanted patient. Then, 19 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa were identified in an outbreak that occurred in the bone marrow transplant unit, all positive for SPM-1 gene, and 9 (47.3%) harbored both SPM-1 and KPC.Conclusion Our findings showed that PCR for KPC gene should be performed to evaluate carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa and that this agent can harbor more than one carbapenemase gene. Attention should be focused on the possible rapid spread of KPC in P. aeruginosa isolates and for the fact that P. aeruginosa may become a reservoir of this transmissible resistance mechanism.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 09/2014; 13(1):43.
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    ABSTRACT: Background The use of antimicrobial solutions has been recommended to disinfect demineralized dentin prior to placing the filling material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of several antimicrobials in controlling Streptococcus mutans (SM) biofilm formed in dentin.Methods Antimicrobial activity of 0.2% and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), 0.2% cetrimide (CTR) and 0.2%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% alexidine (ALX) was assayed on 1-week SM biofilm formed on standardized coronal dentin blocks. Results of SM biofilm antimicrobial activity by different protocols were expressed as the kill percentage of biofilm and the term ¿eradication¿ was used to denote the kill of 100% of the bacterial population. To compare the efficacies of the different protocols the Student t test was used, previously subjecting data to the Anscombe transformation.ResultsAll ALX concentrations tested and 0.2% CTR achieved a kill percentage higher than 99%, followed by 2% CHX with percentages above 96% (no statistically significant difference among them). Whereas 2% ALX and 0.2% CTR respectively showed eradication in 10 and 9 of the twelve specimens, 0.2% CHX did not produce eradication in any case.Conclusions The present study shows that, when used for one minute, 2% and 1% alexidine, and 0.2% cetrimide, achieve eradication of Streptococcus mutans biofilm in most specimens when applied to a dentin-volumetric model.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 08/2014; 13(1):41.
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    ABSTRACT: Isolation of mycobacteria in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is increasingly being reported. Because of having long term antimicrobial treatment, CF patients are at risk of pulmonary infection with especially resistant nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) strains. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of mycobacterium spp. and antimicrobial susceptibility in Turkish CF patients.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 08/2014; 13(1):28.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Chitin is the main structural component of cell walls of fungi, exoskeletons of insects and other arthropods and shells of crustaceans. Chitinase enzyme is capable of degrading chitin, and this enzyme can be used as a biological fungicide against phytopathogenic fungi, as well as an insecticide against insect pests.Methods In this study, 158 isolates, which were derived from bacteria cultures isolated from leaves and root rhizospheres of certain plants in Turkey, were selected after confirming that they are not phytopathogenic based on the hypersensitivity test performed on tobacco; and antifungal activity test was performed against Fusarium culmorum, which is a pathogenic fungi that cause decomposition of roots of vegetables. Accordingly, chitinase enzyme activity assay was performed on 31 isolates that have an antifungal activity, and among them the isolate of Bacillus subtilis TV-125 was selected, which has demonstrated the highest activity.ResultsChitinase enzyme was purified by using ammonium sulphate and DEAE-sephadex ion exchange chromatography. Ammonium sulphate precipitation of chitinase enzyme from Bacillus subtilis TV-125 isolate was performed at maximum range of 0-20%, and 28.4-fold purification was obtained with a 13.4% of yield. Optimum activity of the purified enzyme was observed at pH 4.0 and at 50°C of temperature. In addition, it was identified that Bacillus subtilis TV-125A isolate retains 42% of its activity at 80°C temperature.Conclusion In the last phase of the study, chitinase enzyme purified from Bacillus subtilis TV-125A was tested on four fungal agents, although all the results were positive, it was particularly effective on F. culmorum according to the findings.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 08/2014; 13(1):35.
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    ABSTRACT: Background The rapid emergence and dissemination of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae complicates the treatment of infections caused by these organisms.Methods We collected clinical isolates with meropenem inhibition zones of¿¿¿22 mm from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2010. We attempted to amplify the NDM-1 gene from these isolates and conducted the modified Hodge test (MHT). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the MHT-positive strains was determined by the agar disk dilution method. The carbapenemase-encoding resistance genes of these strains were examined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and a sequencing strategy to characterize these enzymes. The clonal relationship among isolates was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).ResultsAmong the 158 Enterobacteriaceae isolates that were collected, there were no NDM-1-positive strains and 26 MHT-positive strains. Among the latter, 18 strains were IMP-4-positive, and 1 was KPC-2-positive. In addition, 15 of the IMP-4-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae strains belonged to 4 PFGE genotypes, with 8 strains having the same genotype.Conclusion These results suggest that nosocomial infections are one of the main reasons for the spread of these resistant strains.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 08/2014; 13(1):42.
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe aim of this study was to show the emergence of the qnrD gene among fluoroquinolone-resistant¿Morganella morganii¿isolate. The occurrence of mutations in DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC,parE) genes was also investigated in this strain.Methodology95 clinical Enterobacteria were screened for harbouring the qnrD gene. The clinical isolate of M. morganii was recovered from urine from a patient hospitalized in the urology unit at Fattouma Bourguiba Hospital, Tunisia. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested with the agar disk diffusion method. Quinolone susceptibility was studied with microbroth dilution technique. The investigations of plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and topoisomerases mutations were performed by polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing.ResultsThis isolate showed high level of resistance to quinolones. The MIC with microbroth dilution technique was 512 ¿g/ml for norfloxacin, 256 ¿g/ml for ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin and 64¿g/ml for levofloxacin.This strain was found to harbour the quinolone resistance determinant qnrD. In addition, this strain harboured two new gyrB mutations (S463A, S464Y) and one parC mutation (S80I).Conclusions This is the first report in Tunisia of qnrD determinant and tow new gyrB muations in M. morganii. The nosocomial infection due to this proteeae invites further study of its epidemiologic evolution.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 08/2014; 13(1):34.
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    ABSTRACT: Background The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been increasing in the general population, and there is concern that close or physical contact, such as in professional and collegiate sports, may increase spread of MRSA. We sought to determine the prevalence of MRSA colonization of male and female athletes from 9 different sports at a major, Division I University during a 12-week period, and determine the USA and SCCmec type from select isolates.Methods Swabs for culture of MRSA were obtained from nasal, axillary, and inguinal sites from healthy, asymptomatic student athletes and support staff each week for 12 weeks. Select MRSA isolates were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the genes encoding for MecA, cassette chromosome recombinase (Ccr), and several toxins were determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Discrepant results were clarified by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing.ResultsThirty-five percent (78/223) of test subjects were positive for MRSA during the study period, resulting in isolation of 139 MRSA isolates. However, 47% (37/78) of MRSA-positive participants carried MRSA in axillary or inguinal sites, but not in the anterior nares. There was significant correlation between MRSA carriage and participation in wrestling (76%, 19/25; adjusted odds ratio 29.7, 95% CI 5.8-151.5) and baseball (44%, 17/39; adjusted odds ratio 4.4, 95% CI 1.1- 17.4), compared with a staff prevalence of 18.1% (4/22), but other factors were not examined. Multiplex PCR analysis indicated that of the 32 isolates examined 26 could be typed, and all of these carried the SCCmec type IV cassette. PFGE typing identified USA types 300, 400, 500, 700, and 800. However, one isolate was not a known USA type, but was identified as a novel ST951 by MLST, and as spa type t216. Of the strains typed from the same individual, there was consistency, but also variation and alternation of the SCCmec and spa types isolated from individual subjects. Various staphylococcal toxin genes were identified in 31 of the 32 isolates analyzed.Conclusions Colonization by MRSA was greater in some student athletes than the average carriage rate for the general population, and only 53% of MRSA carriers were identified by nasal cultures. Carriage of MRSA clones on the same individual and transmission to contacts could vary over time, indicating colonization can be a dynamic process that may be difficult to control.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 08/2014; 13(1):33.
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    ABSTRACT: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an in vitro technique for the nucleic acid amplification, which is commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases. The use of PCR for pathogens detection, genotyping and quantification has some advantages, such as high sensitivity, high specificity, reproducibility and technical ease. Brucellosis is a common zoonosis caused by Brucella spp., which still remains as a major health problem in many developing countries around the world. The direct culture and immunohistochemistry can be used for detecting infection with Brucella spp. However, PCR has the potential to address limitations of these methods. PCR are now one of the most useful assays for the diagnosis in human brucellosis. The aim of this review was to summarize the main PCR techniques and their applications for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with brucellosis. Moreover, advantages or limitation of the different PCR methods as well as the evaluation of PCR results for treatment and follow-up of human brucellosis were also discussed.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 08/2014; 13(1):31.
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    ABSTRACT: Background This study was conducted to explore new approaches of animal biocontrol via biological control feed.Method White rats were subjected to 140 highly lytic designed phages specific against E. coli. Phages were fed via drinking water, oral injection, and vegetable capsules. Phage feeding was applied by 24 h feeding with 11d monitoring and 20d phage feeding and monitoring. Group of rats received external pathogenic E. coli and another group did not, namely groups A and B.ResultsPhage feeding for 20d via vegetable capsules yielded the highest reduction of fecal E. coli, 3.02 and 4.62 log, in rats group A and B respectively. Second best, feeding for 20d via drinking water with alkali yielded 2.78 and 4.08 log in rats groups A and B respectively. The peak reduction in E. coli output was 5¿10 d after phage feeding. Phage control declined after 10th day of feeding.Conclusions The use of cocktail of designed phages succeeded in suppressing flora or external E. coli. The phage feed biocontrol is efficient in controlling E. coli at the pre-harvest period, precisely at the 6th-8th day of phage feeding when the lowest E. coli output found.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 07/2014; 13(1):39.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Listeriosis is a fatal disease caused by pathogenic Listeria bacteria and it is most prevalent in immune-compromised individuals. The increase in numbers of immune-compromised individuals against a background of Listeria antibiotic resistance, limits listeriosis treatment options. This therefore calls for research into substitute treatments, of which, medicinal plants derived compounds offer a viable alternative.Methods The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of three plant triterpenes namely 3ß-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oic acid, methyl-3ß-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oate and 3ß-acetylursolic acid, against Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii and Listeria grayi species. The chequerboard method was used to assess the interactions between the triterpenes and conventional antibiotics: ampicillin, neomycin, gentamicin and penicillin G. The lactate dehydrogenase membrane damage method was used to assess the triterpenes¿ membrane damaging potentials against the Listeria bacteria.ResultsThe triterpenes¿ MIC values were found to range from 0.185 to 1.67 mg/ml while, the MBC determination assay results revealed that the test triterpenes were bacteriostatic against the Listeria bacteria. The interactions involving 3ß-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oic acid were mainly additive with ampicillin and synergistic with neomycin, gentamicin and penicillin G. The interactions involving methyl-3ß-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oate were mainly antagonistic with ampicillin, indifferent with neomycin, ranging from synergistic to indifference with gentamicin and synergistic with penicillin G. The interactions involving 3ß-acetylursolic acid were mainly indifferent with ampicillin, synergistic with neomycin and gentamicin while ranging between synergistic and additive with penicillin G. The low levels of cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase released from the cells treated with 4× MIC concentration of the triterpenes in comparison to that of cells treated with 3%Triton X-100 proved that membrane damage was not the mode of action of the triterpenes.Conclusion This study therefore shows the potential that these plant triterpenes have in listeriosis chemotherapy especially as shown by the favourable interactions they had with penicillin G, one of the antibiotics of choice in listeriosis treatment.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 07/2014; 13(1):37.
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundA nosocomial outbreak of Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) infections occurred among intensive care units (ICU) (surgery, medical, cardiovascular surgery, coronary unit) of Recep Tayyip Erdogan University Medical School (Rize, Turkey) between January 2011 and May 2012. The identification of isolates and clonal relation among them were investigated by molecular techniques.MethodsA total of 109 AB isolates were obtained from 64 clinical materials from 54 ICU patients and 3 from the hands of healthcare workers (HCWs) of 42 environmental samples. The isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and OXA- specific PCR. The clonal relation between isolates was investigated by PFGE methods using ApaI restriction enzyme.ResultsAll isolates were determined as AB by 16S rDNA sequencing and OXA-spesific PCR. While the bla OXA-51-like gene was amplified in all isolates, the bla OXA-23-like gene was amplified from 103 isolates. The PFGE pattern generated 9 pulsotypes and showed that the isolates from patients, HCWs, and the environment were genetically related. In 7 of these pulsotypes, there were 107 strains (98%) showing similar PFGE profiles that cannot be distinguished from each other, ranging from 2 to 53. The remaining 2 pulsotypes were comprised of strains closely associated with the main cluster. Two major groups were discovered with similarity coefficient of 85% and above. The first group consisted of 97 strains that are similar to each other at 92.7% rate, and the second group consisted of 12 strains that are 100% identical.Conclusions The common utilization of the blood gas device among ICU was the reason for the contamination. AB strains can remain stable for a long period of time, although due to the disinfection procedures applied in hospitals, there is a small chance that the same clone might reappear and cause another epidemic. For that reason, the resistance profiles of the strains must be continuously followed with amplification-based methods, and these methods should be used to support the PFGE method in the short term.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 07/2014; 13(1):36.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC), including Enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC), Enteroaggregative E.coli (EAEC), Enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC), Enterohemolysin E.coli (EHEC) and Enteroinvasive E.coli (EIEC) causes diarrhea or hemolytic uremic syndromes among infants and travelers around the world. A rapid, reliable and repeatable method is urgent for identifying DEC so as to provide the reference for responding to diarrheal disease outbreak and the treatment of the diarrheal patients associated with DEC.Methods In this study, specific primers and modified molecular beacon probes of nine specific virulence genes, whose 5¿end were added with homo tail sequence, were designed; and a two-tube modified molecular beacon based multiplex real¿time PCR (rtPCR) assay for the identification of five Escherichia coli pathotypes, including ETEC, EAEC, EPEC, EHEC and EIEC was developed and optimized. Totally 102 bacterial strains, including 52 reference bacterial strains and 50 clinical strains were detected to confirm whether the target genes selected were specific. Then detection limits of the assay were tested. Lastly, the assay was applied to the detection of 11860 clinical samples to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the developed assay compared with the conventional PCR.ResultsThe target genes were 100% specific as assessed on 102 bacterial strains since no cross-reactions were observed. The detection limits ranged from 88 CFU/mL (EHEC) to 880 CFU/mL (EPEC). Compared with the conventional PCR, the specificity and sensitivity of the multiplex rtPCR was 100% and over 99%, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) for each target gene ranged from 0.45% to 1.53%. 171 positive clinical samples were mostly identified as ETEC (n¿=¿111, 64.9%) and EPEC (n¿=¿38, 22.2%), which were the dominating pathotypes of DEC strains.Conclusion The developed multiplex rtPCR assay for the identification of DEC was high sensitive and specific and could be applied to the rapid identification of DEC in clinical and public health laboratories.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 07/2014; 13(1):30.
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the antifungal activities of synthetic naphthoquinones against opportunistic and dermatophytic fungi and their preliminary mechanisms of action. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of four synthetic naphthoquinones for 89 microorganisms, including opportunistic yeast agents, dermatophytes and opportunistic filamentous fungi, were determined. The compound that exhibited the best activity was assessed for its action against the cell wall (sorbitol test), for interference associated with ergosterol interaction, for osmotic balance (K+ efflux) and for membrane leakage of substances that absorb at the wavelength of 260 nm. All tested naphthoquinones exhibited antifungal activity, and compound IVS320 (3a,10b-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta [b] naphtho [2,3-d] furan-5,10-dione)-dione) demonstrated the lowest MICs across the tested species. The MIC of IVS320 was particularly low for dermatophytes (values ranging from 5-28 mug/mL) and Cryptococcus spp. (3-5 mug/mL). In preliminary mechanism-of-action tests, IVS320 did not alter the fungal cell wall but did cause problems in terms of cell membrane permeability (efflux of K+ and leakage of substances that absorb at 260 nm). This last effect was unrelated to ergosterol interactions with the membrane.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 07/2014; 13(1):26.
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies report high prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization among imprisoned populations. However, there are no data on that prevalence in Brazilian correctional institutions.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 07/2014; 13(1):25.

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