Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials


Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials is an Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal focusing on information concerning clinical microbiology, infectious diseases and antimicrobials. The management of infectious disease is dependent on correct diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial treatment, and with this in mind, the journal aims to improve the communication between basic and clinical science in the field of clinical microbiology and antimicrobial treatment. Manuscripts submitted to Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials can report on: any aspect of diagnosis of infectious diseases; case management and antimicrobial treatment; and antibiotic development and antimicrobial resistance. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials has a broad scope, incorporating microbiology and antimicrobials in almost all branches of medicine. Furthermore, the journal has no restrictions on space or access; this ensures that the journal can reach the widest possible audience.

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Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Background In the context of growing health concerns over antibiotic resistance, the evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin for Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) strains resistant to ceftazidime becomes important for guiding health policy makers. The aim of this study was to determine vancomycin MIC of ceftazidime resistant S. pneumoniae strains.Methods Fifty identified serotypes of ceftazidime resistant S. pneumoniae strains were included in the study. The vancomycin MIC of the above mentioned bacteria was determined based on the 0.5 McFarland standards, by using a microdilution broth and the Etest method.ResultsThe results showed that out of 50 ceftazidime resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, 46 strains (92%) have shown a vancomycin MIC ¿0.19¿¿¿0.1.5 ¿g/ml and only four strains (8%) have shown a vancomycin MIC equal to 1.5 ¿g/ml and the related maximum zone of inhibition was of 10 millimeter diameters.Conclusions The results of this investigation point out the emergence of S. pneumoniae strains with a vancomycin MIC ¿1.5 ¿g/ml, which were resistant to ceftazidime. This finding uncovers a major health concern: a vancomycin MIC higher than 1.5 ¿g/ml and maximum zone of inhibition of only 10 millimeter. These findings represent an important warning for health authorities globally, concerning the treatment of patients, as the occurrence of S. pneumoniae strains with decreased vancomycin susceptibility has been demonstrated.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 11/2014; 13(1):53.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are important pathogens in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units, which can cause severe infections in hospitalized children. Detection of the mecA gene and classification of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) permit the characterization of MRSA strains isolated from infections caused by these microorganisms. In contrast, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is used to type MRSA clones. This method is commonly used to analyze the epidemiology of bacteria causing nosocomial infections. The objective of this study was to detect and characterize MRSA isolated from clinical specimens of children hospitalized in the neonatal and pediatric intensive care units of the University Hospital of the Botucatu Medical School.MethodsA total of 119¿S. aureus strains were isolated from clinical specimens and the mecA gene was detected by PCR. SCCmec was detected by multiplex PCR and the clonal profile was analyzed by PFGE.ResultsThe mecA gene was detected in 17.6% (21/119) of the isolates; 42.9% (9/21) of MRSA were characterized as SCCmec type III and 57.1% (12/21) as type IV. Analysis of the clonal profile of these strains revealed three distinct clones, with SCCmec type III being related to the Brazilian endemic clone and type IV to clones JCSC4469 and USA800.Conclusions Replacement of clonal groups occurred in the neonatal and pediatric units over the period studied, a fact highlighting the importance of improving hygiene practices and control measures of nosocomial infections in these units.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 11/2014; 13(1):50.
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    ABSTRACT: Background We report here on 14438 Streptococcus pneumoniae and 14770 Haemophilus influenzae isolates collected from 560 centres globally between 2004 and 2012 as a part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.).MethodsMIC testing was performed using broth microdilution methods as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) using CLSI-approved breakpoints; US Food and Drug Administration breakpoints were used for tigecycline as CLSI breakpoints are not available.ResultsAt least 99% of S. pneumoniae isolates globally were susceptible to levofloxacin, linezolid, tigecycline or vancomycin. Penicillin resistance was observed among 14.8% of S. pneumoniae and was highest in Asia/Pacific Rim (30.1%) and Africa (27.6%); 23.4% of S. pneumoniae isolates were penicillin-intermediate, which were most common in Africa (37.6%). Minocycline susceptibility among S. pneumoniae decreased by 20% between 2004-2008 and 2009-2012. High (>98.5%) susceptibility was reported among H. influenzae to all antimicrobial agents on the T.E.S.T. panel excluding ampicillin, to which only 78.3% were susceptible. ß-lactamase production was observed among 20.2% of H. influenzae isolates; 1.5% of isolates were ß-lactamase negative, ampicillin-resistant.Conclusions S. pneumoniae remained highly susceptible to levofloxacin, linezolid, tigecycline and vancomycin while H. influenzae was susceptible to most antimicrobial agents in the testing panel (excluding ampicillin).
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 11/2014; 13(1):52.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Plant metabolites have wide applications and have the potential to cure different diseases caused by microorganisms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial, antibiofilm, cytotoxic, antifeedant and larvicidal properties of novel quinine isolated from Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa.MethodsA compound was obtained by eluting the crude extract, using varying concentrations of the solvents by the chromatographic purification. Broth micro dilution method was used to assess the antimicrobial activity and anticancer study was evaluated using MTT assay. Larvicidal activity was studied using leaf disc no-choice method.ResultsBased on the IR, 13C NMR and 1H NMR spectral data, the compounds were identified as quinone related antibiotic. It exhibited significant activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The lowest Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the compound against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus was 100 and 75 ¿g mL¿1 respectively. Against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa it exhibited MIC value of 25 ¿g mL¿1. The MIC of the compound against Aspergillus niger, A. clavatus, Penicillium roqueforti was 20 ¿g mL¿1 and that against Fusarium oxysporum (20 ¿g mL¿1), A. oryzae (40 ¿g mL¿1), and Candida albicans (60 ¿g mL¿1), respectively. It showed effective antibiofilm activity against E. coli, S. typhii and P. aeroginosa at 8 ¿g mL¿1 and did not exhibit considerable cytotoxic activity against Vero and HEP2 cell lines. Additionally, the compound documented significant antifeedant and larvicidal activities against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura at 125, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm concentrations.Conclusion The results concluded that the compound can be evaluated further in industrial applications and also an agent to prepare botanical new pesticide formulations.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 10/2014; 13(1):48.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Rifaximin is a minimally absorbed antibiotic with high luminal activity, used to treat various gastrointestinal diseases. Although rifaximin has been proposed as first line treatment for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), few data are available regarding its efficacy in non-IBS subjects. We aimed to assess the ability of rifaximin to normalize lactulose-H2 breath tests in non-IBS subjects with symptoms suggestive of SIBOMaterials and methodsConsecutive non-IBS patients presenting with bloating and flatulence were prospectively recruited and submitted to lactulose-H2 breath testing (LBT). Patients who had a positive result were offered rifaximin 1200 mg daily for 10 days. Breath testing was repeated two weeks after treatment completion in all patients in order to assess for response.ResultsA total of 19 patients with a positive result received rifaximin and repeated the breath test (7 (36.8%) males, age 56.5¿±¿17.6 years). The mean peak hydrogen excretion was 13.7¿±¿2.8 and 10.3¿±¿7.3 ppm at baseline and following rifaximin treatment, respectively (t¿=¿1.98, p¿=¿0.06). LBT normalized in 8/19 (42.1%) subjects. No patients reported symptom resolution. No adverse events were reported.DiscussionStrengths include the study's prospective design. Limitations include the small sample size and open label design.Conclusion Rifaximin was not effective in normalizing LBT in our cohort of non-IBS subjects with symptoms suggestive of SIBO.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 10/2014; 13(1):49.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Multidrug resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) have emerged as alarming nosocomial pathogens among patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit and burned patients. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility of A. baumannii isolates, the carbapenems resistance patterns bla OXA-23 and also IS Aba elements of A. baumannii isolates among burned and ICU patients in Tehran and Sari, Iran.Methods In this study, 100 A. baumannii isolates from burned and ICU patients in Tehran and Sari (Iran) during 2013 were tested for determination of antimicrobials susceptibility by the disc-diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar recommended by the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), and frequency blaOXA-23 carbapenemase genes, and insertion elements IS Aba genes were studied by PCR method.ResultsThe highest rates of susceptibility were observed with Colistin (88.7%), Tigecycline (82.2%), Imipenem (67%) and ISAba (32.2%). The extensively drug-resistance and pan drug-resistance were observed in 37.1% and 8.1% isolates, respectively.Results indicated among isolates resistant to Aminoglycoside and Carbapenem, the highest resistance was observed to Streptomycin (90%) ¿ and the most sensitivity was to Imipenem (67%).Conclusions This is the most study that attempted to detect Acinetobacter baumanii the insertion elements IS Aba , bla OXA-23 and aminoglycosides resistance in MDR-AB isolates from burned and ICU patients in Iran. In a timely manner, antimicrobial resistance surveillance and strict infection control strategies are still lacking in burn ward and ICU in Iran, despite the alarming emergence of MDR-AB strains, particularly among those isolates that are not susceptible to Colistin. The results of this study are consistent with a recent report in which a number of combinations exhibited potent activity against Multidrug resistant strains of A. baumannii (MDR-AB).
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 09/2014; 13(1):38.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Tedizolid is a novel oxazolidinone antibacterial with potent activity against a wide range of Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Although tedizolid is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection, commercial susceptibility testing products for tedizolid are not currently available. This study evaluated the usefulness of applying linezolid susceptibility test results as a surrogate for predicting susceptibility to tedizolid in clinically significant Gram-positive pathogens.Methods Gram-positive isolates (N¿=¿10,702) were obtained from annual surveillance programs conducted between 2009 and 2012, from 3 tedizolid clinical trials, and from a preclinical study of the antibacterial activity of tedizolid. Susceptibility testing of linezolid and tedizolid was performed using the reference broth microdilution method in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods.ResultsThe minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution for tedizolid and linezolid against this set of isolates was consistent with that of previous reports. Scatter plot analysis of relevant subsets of organisms was performed and showed high categorical agreement between linezolid and tedizolid MIC results (>99% for staphylococci and streptococci; >98% for enterococci). Very major error rates (ie, tedizolid false-susceptible errors) were very low and within acceptable limits for a surrogate agent: S. aureus and other staphylococcal species, 0%; Enterococcus spp, 0.2%; and Streptococcus spp, 0%.Conclusions High categorical agreement between MIC values for tedizolid and linezolid and low very major error rates were shown for all organism groups tested, supporting the use of linezolid as a reliable surrogate for tedizolid susceptibility testing.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 09/2014; 13(1):46.
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionMethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most important nosocomial pathogens and is also emerging in Turkish hospitals. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of MRSA isolated from Turkish hospitals.Materials and methodsA total of 397 MRSA strains isolated from 12 hospitals in Turkey were included to present study. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested using agar dilution. Presence of ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA, tetM, tetK, linA and aac-aph genes were studied by PCR.ResultsAll strains were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. The susceptibility rates for fusidic acid, lincomycin, erythromycin, tetracyclin, gentamycin, kanamycin, and, ciprofloxacin were 91.9%, 41.1%, 27.2%, 11.8%, 8.5%, 8.3% and 6.8%, respectively. Lincomycin inactivation was positive for 3 isolates. Of 225 erythromycin resistant isolates 48 had ermA, 20 had ermC, and 128 had ermA-C. PCR was negative for 15 strains. Of 3 isolates with lincomycin inactivation one had linA and msrA. Of 358 gentamycin resistant isolates 334 had aac-aph and 24 were negatives. Among 350 tetracyclin resistant isolates 314 had tetM. Of 36 tetM negative isolates 10 had tetK.ConclusionMRSA isolates from Turkish hospitals were multiresistant to antimicrobials. Quinolone and gentamycin resistance levels were high and macrolide and lincosamide resistance were relatively low. Susceptibility rates for fusidic asid were high. Linezolide and vancomycin resistance are not emerged. The most common resistance genes were ermA, tetM and aac-aph. Evolution of antimicrobial susceptibilities and resistance genes profiles of MRSA isolates should be surveyed at regional and national level for accurate treatment of patients and to control dissemination of resistance genes.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 09/2014; 13(1):44.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Questions remain regarding the use of the cephalosporins to treat infections caused by extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. For example, should ceftazidime or cefepime be used to treat infections with CTX-M ESBL-producing organisms with low MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations), according to the new Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute¿s (CLSI) recommendations for susceptibility testing? Some studies have reported that in vitro MICs of cephalosporins increase as the inoculum increases, which is the inoculum effect; however, most of the enzymes studied were SHV and TEM. In this study, we aimed to investigate the inoculum effect on ceftazidime, cefepime and four other ß¿lactam agents against CTX-M-ESBLs-producing Escherichia coli.Methods Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined using broth microdilution MIC methodology according to the CLSI recommended with standard and 100-fold-higher inocula.ResultsAn inoculum effect on meropenem and cefminox was not detected. The size of the inoculum affected piperacillin/tazobactam activity against only 4 strains, all CTX-M-14 genotypes. The inoculum size affected the activity of ceftazidime, cefepime and cefotaxime against 35%, 85%, 100% of strains, respectively. Among the strains with an inoculum effect, CTX-M-14 was the most common ESBL genotype.Conclusions These findings suggest that meropenem is the most active compound against serious infections caused by Escherichia coli producing ESBLs. Cefminox and piperacillin-tazobactam exhibit strong activity against many strains. Until further studies are performed, clinicians should be aware that third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins (such as ceftazidime and cefepime) are not reliable for serious infections even though in vitro tests indicate susceptibility.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 09/2014; 13(1):45.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Carbapenemase genes are one of the most frequent mechanisms reported in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa; however, description of P. aeruginosa co-harbouring two or more carbapenemases is unusual.Methods In this study we evaluated the presence of carbapenemase genes and the clonality of P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from a hospital over a 12-year period. A total of 127 isolates of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa recovered from 109 patients feces (four samples), rectal swab (three samples), nasal swab (one sample) and anal abscess (one sample), were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the following antibiotics imipenem, meropenem and polymyxin E were determined by broth microdilution. The molecular profile of isolates was evaluated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PCR for the following carbapenemase genes bla IMP; bla SPM; bla VIM; bla SIM; bla NDM; bla KPC; bla GES and nucleotide sequencing to confirm the enzyme gene types were performed and compared with the database available on the Internet (BLAST- isolates were carbapenem-resistant, their MIC50 and MIC90 were respectively 64 ¿g/mL and 256 ¿g/mL to imipenem and 32 ¿g/mL and 256 ¿g/mL to meropenem, all isolates except one (MIC = 8 mg/L) were susceptible to polymyxin E. The most frequent carbapenemase genes identified were bla SPM identified in 41 isolates (32%), followed by 10 with bla kpc and 5 with bla VIM (3.9%). All belonged to the class SPM-1 and VIM-2. In 2011, one isolate harbouring three carbapenemase genes (SPM-1, VIM-2 and KPC-2) that belonged to a new clone was identified in a hematopoietic stem cell transplanted patient. Then, 19 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa were identified in an outbreak that occurred in the bone marrow transplant unit, all positive for SPM-1 gene, and 9 (47.3%) harbored both SPM-1 and KPC.Conclusion Our findings showed that PCR for KPC gene should be performed to evaluate carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa and that this agent can harbor more than one carbapenemase gene. Attention should be focused on the possible rapid spread of KPC in P. aeruginosa isolates and for the fact that P. aeruginosa may become a reservoir of this transmissible resistance mechanism.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 09/2014; 13(1):43.
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    ABSTRACT: Background The use of antimicrobial solutions has been recommended to disinfect demineralized dentin prior to placing the filling material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of several antimicrobials in controlling Streptococcus mutans (SM) biofilm formed in dentin.Methods Antimicrobial activity of 0.2% and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), 0.2% cetrimide (CTR) and 0.2%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% alexidine (ALX) was assayed on 1-week SM biofilm formed on standardized coronal dentin blocks. Results of SM biofilm antimicrobial activity by different protocols were expressed as the kill percentage of biofilm and the term ¿eradication¿ was used to denote the kill of 100% of the bacterial population. To compare the efficacies of the different protocols the Student t test was used, previously subjecting data to the Anscombe transformation.ResultsAll ALX concentrations tested and 0.2% CTR achieved a kill percentage higher than 99%, followed by 2% CHX with percentages above 96% (no statistically significant difference among them). Whereas 2% ALX and 0.2% CTR respectively showed eradication in 10 and 9 of the twelve specimens, 0.2% CHX did not produce eradication in any case.Conclusions The present study shows that, when used for one minute, 2% and 1% alexidine, and 0.2% cetrimide, achieve eradication of Streptococcus mutans biofilm in most specimens when applied to a dentin-volumetric model.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 08/2014; 13(1):41.
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    ABSTRACT: Background The rapid emergence and dissemination of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae complicates the treatment of infections caused by these organisms.Methods We collected clinical isolates with meropenem inhibition zones of¿¿¿22 mm from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2010. We attempted to amplify the NDM-1 gene from these isolates and conducted the modified Hodge test (MHT). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the MHT-positive strains was determined by the agar disk dilution method. The carbapenemase-encoding resistance genes of these strains were examined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and a sequencing strategy to characterize these enzymes. The clonal relationship among isolates was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).ResultsAmong the 158 Enterobacteriaceae isolates that were collected, there were no NDM-1-positive strains and 26 MHT-positive strains. Among the latter, 18 strains were IMP-4-positive, and 1 was KPC-2-positive. In addition, 15 of the IMP-4-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae strains belonged to 4 PFGE genotypes, with 8 strains having the same genotype.Conclusion These results suggest that nosocomial infections are one of the main reasons for the spread of these resistant strains.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 08/2014; 13(1):42.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Chitin is the main structural component of cell walls of fungi, exoskeletons of insects and other arthropods and shells of crustaceans. Chitinase enzyme is capable of degrading chitin, and this enzyme can be used as a biological fungicide against phytopathogenic fungi, as well as an insecticide against insect pests.Methods In this study, 158 isolates, which were derived from bacteria cultures isolated from leaves and root rhizospheres of certain plants in Turkey, were selected after confirming that they are not phytopathogenic based on the hypersensitivity test performed on tobacco; and antifungal activity test was performed against Fusarium culmorum, which is a pathogenic fungi that cause decomposition of roots of vegetables. Accordingly, chitinase enzyme activity assay was performed on 31 isolates that have an antifungal activity, and among them the isolate of Bacillus subtilis TV-125 was selected, which has demonstrated the highest activity.ResultsChitinase enzyme was purified by using ammonium sulphate and DEAE-sephadex ion exchange chromatography. Ammonium sulphate precipitation of chitinase enzyme from Bacillus subtilis TV-125 isolate was performed at maximum range of 0-20%, and 28.4-fold purification was obtained with a 13.4% of yield. Optimum activity of the purified enzyme was observed at pH 4.0 and at 50°C of temperature. In addition, it was identified that Bacillus subtilis TV-125A isolate retains 42% of its activity at 80°C temperature.Conclusion In the last phase of the study, chitinase enzyme purified from Bacillus subtilis TV-125A was tested on four fungal agents, although all the results were positive, it was particularly effective on F. culmorum according to the findings.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 08/2014; 13(1):35.
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe aim of this study was to show the emergence of the qnrD gene among fluoroquinolone-resistant¿Morganella morganii¿isolate. The occurrence of mutations in DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC,parE) genes was also investigated in this strain.Methodology95 clinical Enterobacteria were screened for harbouring the qnrD gene. The clinical isolate of M. morganii was recovered from urine from a patient hospitalized in the urology unit at Fattouma Bourguiba Hospital, Tunisia. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested with the agar disk diffusion method. Quinolone susceptibility was studied with microbroth dilution technique. The investigations of plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and topoisomerases mutations were performed by polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing.ResultsThis isolate showed high level of resistance to quinolones. The MIC with microbroth dilution technique was 512 ¿g/ml for norfloxacin, 256 ¿g/ml for ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin and 64¿g/ml for levofloxacin.This strain was found to harbour the quinolone resistance determinant qnrD. In addition, this strain harboured two new gyrB mutations (S463A, S464Y) and one parC mutation (S80I).Conclusions This is the first report in Tunisia of qnrD determinant and tow new gyrB muations in M. morganii. The nosocomial infection due to this proteeae invites further study of its epidemiologic evolution.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 08/2014; 13(1):34.
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    ABSTRACT: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an in vitro technique for the nucleic acid amplification, which is commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases. The use of PCR for pathogens detection, genotyping and quantification has some advantages, such as high sensitivity, high specificity, reproducibility and technical ease. Brucellosis is a common zoonosis caused by Brucella spp., which still remains as a major health problem in many developing countries around the world. The direct culture and immunohistochemistry can be used for detecting infection with Brucella spp. However, PCR has the potential to address limitations of these methods. PCR are now one of the most useful assays for the diagnosis in human brucellosis. The aim of this review was to summarize the main PCR techniques and their applications for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with brucellosis. Moreover, advantages or limitation of the different PCR methods as well as the evaluation of PCR results for treatment and follow-up of human brucellosis were also discussed.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 08/2014; 13(1):31.
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    ABSTRACT: Background This study was conducted to explore new approaches of animal biocontrol via biological control feed.Method White rats were subjected to 140 highly lytic designed phages specific against E. coli. Phages were fed via drinking water, oral injection, and vegetable capsules. Phage feeding was applied by 24 h feeding with 11d monitoring and 20d phage feeding and monitoring. Group of rats received external pathogenic E. coli and another group did not, namely groups A and B.ResultsPhage feeding for 20d via vegetable capsules yielded the highest reduction of fecal E. coli, 3.02 and 4.62 log, in rats group A and B respectively. Second best, feeding for 20d via drinking water with alkali yielded 2.78 and 4.08 log in rats groups A and B respectively. The peak reduction in E. coli output was 5¿10 d after phage feeding. Phage control declined after 10th day of feeding.Conclusions The use of cocktail of designed phages succeeded in suppressing flora or external E. coli. The phage feed biocontrol is efficient in controlling E. coli at the pre-harvest period, precisely at the 6th-8th day of phage feeding when the lowest E. coli output found.
    Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 07/2014; 13(1):39.