Annals of Occupational Hygiene (Ann Occup Hyg )

Publisher: British Occupational Hygiene Society, Oxford University Press


The Annals of Occupational Hygiene aims to promote a healthy working environment by publishing research papers and reviews on health hazards and risks resulting from work, especially their recognition, quantification, management and control. The journal is interested in basic mechanisms, but also human aspects and technology. It includes papers on broader environmental risks to humans where these risks are closely related to work.Topics covered include (but are not limited) to the following:chemical, physical and biological agents; their mechanisms of formation, emission, exposure, absorption and effectmeasurement, control, process design, ergonomics and protectionoccupational toxicology and epidemiologyassessment and management of risk, education and trainingThe journal includes papers, short communications and letters to the editor. For further details of these, see Instructions to Authors, near the end of each issue.The Annals of Occupational Hygiene is the official journal of the British Occupational Hygiene Society It was founded in 1958 and is edited by Trevor Ogden (Editor in Chief) and Stephen Rappaport (North American Editor).ANNOUNCEMENT: For the second year in succession, the Impact Factor of the Annals of Occupational Hygiene has reached an all-time high. The current Impact Factor (1999) is 1.577.

  • Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
  • Cited half-life
  • Immediacy index
  • Eigenfactor
  • Article influence
  • Website
    Annals of Occupational Hygiene website
  • Other titles
    Annals of occupational hygiene (Online)
  • ISSN
  • OCLC
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Oxford University Press

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 month embargo on science, technology, medicine articles
    • 24 month embargo on arts and humanities articles
    • Some titles may have different embargoes
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print can only be posted prior to acceptance
    • Pre-print must be accompanied by set statement (see link)
    • Pre-print must not be replaced with post-print, instead a link to published version with amended set statement should be made
    • Pre-print on personal website, employer website, free public server or pre-prints in subject area
    • Post-print on Institutional or Central repositories
    • Publisher version cannot be used except for Nucleic Acids Research articles
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany archived copy (see policy)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • Eligible UK authors may deposit in OpenDepot
    • Publisher will deposit on behalf of NIH funded authors to PubMed Central, Nucleic Acids Research authors must pay their fee first
    • Some titles may use different policies
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Iron is the major metal found in welding fumes, and although it is an essential trace element, its overload causes toxicity due to Fenton reactions. To avoid oxidative damage, excess iron is bound to ferritin, and as a result, serum ferritin (SF) is a recognized biomarker for iron stores, with high concentrations linked to inflammation and potentially also cancer. However, little is known about iron overload in welders. Within this study, we assessed the iron status and quantitative associations between airborne iron, body iron stores, and iron homeostasis in 192 welders not wearing dust masks. Welders were equipped with personal samplers in order to determine the levels of respirable iron in the breathing zone during a working shift. SF, prohepcidin and other markers of iron status were determined in blood samples collected after shift. The impact of iron exposure and other factors on SF and prohepcidin were estimated using multiple regression models. Our results indicate that respirable iron is a significant predictor of SF and prohepcidin. Concentrations of SF varied according to the welding technique and respiratory protection used, with a median of 103 μg l-1 in tungsten inert gas welders, 125 μg l-1 in those wearing air-purifying respirators, and 161 μg l-1 in other welders. Compared to welders with low iron stores (SF < 25 μg l-1), those with excess body iron (SF ≥ 400 μg l-1) worked under a higher median concentration of airborne iron (60 μg m(-3) versus 148 μg m(-3)). Even though air concentrations of respirable iron and manganese were highly correlated, and low iron stores have been reported to increase manganese uptake in the gastrointestinal tract, no correlation was seen between SF and manganese in blood. In conclusion, monitoring SF may be a reasonable method for health surveillance of welders. Respiratory protection with air-purifying respirators can decrease iron exposure and avoid chronically higher SF in welders working with high-emission technologies.
    Annals of Occupational Hygiene 09/2014;
  • Annals of Occupational Hygiene 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The electrostatic dust collector (EDC) is a passive dust sampling device for exposure assessment of airborne endotoxin and possibly allergens. EDCs consist of a non-conducting plastic folder holding two or four electrostatic cloths of defined area. The sampling time needed to achieve detectable and reproducible loading for bioaerosols has not been systematically evaluated. Thus, in 15 Iowa farm homes EDCs were deployed for 7-, 14-, and 28-day sampling periods to determine if endotoxin and allergens could be quantified and if loading rates were uniform over time, i.e. if loads doubled from 7 to 14 days or 14 to 28 days and quadrupled from 7 to 28 days. Loadings between left and right paired EDC cloths were not significantly different and were highly correlated for endotoxin, total protein, and cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f1), and mouse (Mus m1) allergens (P < 0.001). EDCs performed especially well for endotoxin sampling with close agreement between paired samples (Pearson r = 0.96, P < 0.001). Endotoxin loading of the EDCs doubled from 7- to 14-day deployments as hypothesized although the loading rate decreased from 14 to 28 days of sampling with only a 1.38-fold increase. Allergen exposure assessment using EDCs was overall less satisfactory. Although there was reasonable agreement between paired samples, only exposures to cat, dog, and mouse allergens were reliable and these only at the longer deployment times.
    Annals of Occupational Hygiene 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In a respirator fit test, a subject is required to perform a series of exercises that include moving the head up and down and rotating the head left and right. These head movements could affect respirator sealing properties during the fit test and consequently affect fit factors. In a model-based system, it is desirable to have similar capability to predict newly designed respirators. In our previous work, finite element modeling (FEM)-based contact simulation between a headform and a filtering facepiece respirator was carried out. However, the headform was assumed to be static or fixed. This paper presents the first part of a series study on the effect of headform movement on contact pressures-a new headform with the capability to move down (flexion), up (extension), and rotate left and right-and validation. The newly developed headforms were validated for movement by comparing the simulated cervical vertebrae rotation angles with experimental results from the literature.
    Annals of Occupational Hygiene 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Finite element (FE) filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) were developed and mated to the new headforms with a cervical spine model. The FFRs from three manufacturers included three sizing systems: (i) a single one-size-fits all, (ii) an FFR with two sizes (S/M and M/L), and (iii) an FFR with three sizes (S, L/M, XL). Finite element method (FEM) simulations of 16 headform and respirator combinations (5 headforms and 6 respirators) were used to examine maximum contact pressure changes for five cases: static head, flexion, extension, left rotation, and right rotation. For each of the 16 headform and respirator combinations, maximum contact pressures of the static headform and motile headforms were compared using t-tests. Significant differences on the maximum contact pressures were found in the extension, left rotation and right rotation at the nose (P < 0.005), the left rotation at the top of right cheek (P = 0.03), and the extension at the bottom of left/right cheek (P = 0.01). When separately considering each headform and each FFR manufacturer, the effects of the four head movement cases on the nose maximum contact pressure changes were observed in the simulations with all five headforms and all FFR manufacturers. The effects of the left and right rotations on the chin maximum contact pressure changes were observed in the simulations with the small headform. It was also found that the use of a nose clip could reduce the impact of the head left/right rotations on nose maximum contact pressure changes. In addition, head movements changed pressure contours of the key nose area. Caused by the head movements, the maximum contact pressure changes may affect seal quality, and the increase of the maximum contact pressures could reduce the facial comfort level.
    Annals of Occupational Hygiene 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a carcinogen that has been linked to kidney cancer and possibly other cancer sites including non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Its use in China has increased since the early 1990s with China's growing metal, electronic, and telecommunications industries. We examined historical occupational TCE air concentration patterns in a database of TCE inspection measurements collected in Shanghai, China to identify temporal trends and broad contrasts among occupations and industries.
    Annals of Occupational Hygiene 09/2014;
  • Annals of Occupational Hygiene 08/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A hierarchical Bayesian framework has been developed for exposure assessment that makes use of statistical sampling-based techniques to estimate the posterior probability of the 95th percentile or arithmetic mean of the exposure distribution being located in one of several exposure categories. The framework can synthesize professional judgment and monitoring data to yield an updated posterior exposure assignment for routine exposure management. The framework is versatile enough that it can be modified for use in epidemiological studies for classifying the arithmetic mean instead of the 95th percentile into several exposure categories. Various physico-chemical exposure models have also been incorporated in the hierarchical framework. The use of the framework in three settings has been illustrated. First, subjective judgments about exposure magnitude obtained from industrial hygienists for five tasks were treated as priors in the Bayesian framework. Monitoring data for each task were used to create a likelihood function in the hierarchical framework and the posterior was predicted in terms of the 95th percentile being located in each of the four AIHA exposure categories. The accuracy of the exposure judgments was then evaluated. Second, we illustrate the use of exposure models to develop priors in this framework and compare with monitoring data in an iron foundry. Finally, we illustrate the use of this approach for retrospective exposure assessment in a chemical manufacturing facility, to categorize exposures based on arithmetic mean instead of 95th percentile.
    Annals of Occupational Hygiene 08/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A Markov chain model previously applied to the simulation of advection and diffusion process of gaseous contaminants is extended to three-dimensional transport of particulates in indoor environments. The model framework and assumptions are described. The performance of the Markov model is benchmarked against simple conventional models of contaminant transport. The Markov model is able to replicate elutriation predictions of particle deposition with distance from a point source, and the stirred settling of respirable particles. Comparisons with turbulent eddy diffusion models indicate that the Markov model exhibits numerical diffusion in the first seconds after release, but over time accurately predicts mean lateral dispersion. The Markov model exhibits some instability with grid length aspect when turbulence is incorporated by way of the turbulent diffusion coefficient, and advection is present. However, the magnitude of prediction error may be tolerable for some applications and can be avoided by incorporating turbulence by way of fluctuating velocity (e.g. turbulence intensity).
    Annals of Occupational Hygiene 08/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fabric-based protective clothing is widely used for occupational safety of firefighters/industrial workers. The aim of this paper is to study thermal protective performance provided by fabric systems and to propose an effective model for predicting the thermal protective performance under various thermal exposures. Different fabric systems that are commonly used to manufacture thermal protective clothing were selected. Laboratory simulations of the various thermal exposures were created to evaluate the protective performance of the selected fabric systems in terms of time required to generate second-degree burns. Through the characterization of selected fabric systems in a particular thermal exposure, various factors affecting the performances were statistically analyzed. The key factors for a particular thermal exposure were recognized based on the t-test analysis. Using these key factors, the performance predictive multiple linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) models were developed and compared. The identified best-fit ANN models provide a basic tool to study thermal protective performance of a fabric.
    Annals of Occupational Hygiene 08/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The cost and complexity of commercially available whole-body vibration measurement devices is a barrier to the systematic collection of the information required to manage this hazard. The potential for a consumer electronic device to be used to estimate whole-body vibration was assessed by collecting 58 simultaneous pairs of acceleration measurements in three dimensions from a fifth-generation iPod Touch and gold standard whole-body vibration measurement devices, while a range of heavy mining equipment was operated at three surface coal mines. The results suggest that accelerometer data gathered from a consumer electronic device are able to be used to measure whole-body vibration amplitude with 95% confidence of ±0.06 m s(-2) root mean square for the vertical direction (1.96 × standard deviation of the constant error).
    Annals of Occupational Hygiene 08/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lee et al. (Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: part I. Pulsation measurements. Ann Occup Hyg 2014a;58:60-73) introduced an approach to measure pump pulsation (PP) using a real-world sampling train, while the European Standards (EN) (EN 1232-1997 and EN 12919-1999) suggest measuring PP using a resistor in place of the sampler. The goal of this study is to characterize PP according to both EN methods and to determine the relationship of PP between the published method (Lee et al., 2014a) and the EN methods. Additional test parameters were investigated to determine whether the test conditions suggested by the EN methods were appropriate for measuring pulsations. Experiments were conducted using a factorial combination of personal sampling pumps (six medium- and two high-volumetric flow rate pumps), back pressures (six medium- and seven high-flow rate pumps), resistors (two types), tubing lengths between a pump and resistor (60 and 90cm), and different flow rates (2 and 2.5 l min(-1) for the medium- and 4.4, 10, and 11.2 l min(-1) for the high-flow rate pumps). The selection of sampling pumps and the ranges of back pressure were based on measurements obtained in the previous study (Lee et al., 2014a). Among six medium-flow rate pumps, only the Gilian5000 and the Apex IS conformed to the 10% criterion specified in EN 1232-1997. Although the AirChek XR5000 exceeded the 10% limit, the average PP (10.9%) was close to the criterion. One high-flow rate pump, the Legacy (PP = 8.1%), conformed to the 10% criterion in EN 12919-1999, while the Elite12 did not (PP = 18.3%). Conducting supplemental tests with additional test parameters beyond those used in the two subject EN standards did not strengthen the characterization of PPs. For the selected test conditions, a linear regression model [PPEN = 0.014 + 0.375 × PPNIOSH (adjusted R (2) = 0.871)] was developed to determine the PP relationship between the published method (Lee et al., 2014a) and the EN methods. The 25% PP criterion recommended by Lee et al. (2014a), average value derived from repetitive measurements, corresponds to 11% PPEN. The 10% pass/fail criterion in the EN Standards is not based on extensive laboratory evaluation and would unreasonably exclude at least one pump (i.e. AirChek XR5000 in this study) and, therefore, the more accurate criterion of average 11% from repetitive measurements should be substituted. This study suggests that users can measure PP using either a real-world sampling train or a resistor setup and obtain equivalent findings by applying the model herein derived. The findings of this study will be delivered to the consensus committees to be considered when those standards, including the EN 1232-1997, EN 12919-1999, and ISO 13137-2013, are revised.
    Annals of Occupational Hygiene 07/2014;
  • Annals of Occupational Hygiene 07/2014; 58(6):782-3.
  • Annals of Occupational Hygiene 06/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The problem of modeling respiratory protection is well known and has been dealt with extensively in the literature. Often the efficiency of respiratory protection is quantified in terms of penetration, defined as the proportion of an ambient contaminant concentration that penetrates the respiratory protection equipment. Typically, the penetration modeling framework in the literature is based on the assumption that penetration measurements follow the lognormal distribution. However, the analysis in this study leads to the conclusion that the lognormal assumption is not always valid, making it less adequate for analyzing respiratory protection measurements. This work presents a formulation of the problem from first principles, leading to a stochastic differential equation whose solution is the probability density function of the beta distribution. The data of respiratory protection experiments were reexamined, and indeed the beta distribution was found to provide the data a better fit than the lognormal. We conclude with a suggestion for a new theoretical framework for modeling respiratory protection.
    Annals of Occupational Hygiene 06/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The requirements of the European Union Regulation on the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), including the preparation of exposure scenarios for the communication of safe use, are focused on single substances. Since the chemical products used at workplaces are typically mixtures, it is important to ensure that accurate information is available regarding their safe use. The focus of the present study was on the methods for consolidating (combining) the information presented in the exposure scenarios of the individual components of a mixture.
    Annals of Occupational Hygiene 05/2014;

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