The British journal of nutrition Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Nutrition Society (Great Britain), Cambridge University Press (CUP)

Journal description

British Journal of Nutrition is a leading international peer-reviewed journal covering research on human and clinical nutrition, animal nutrition and basic science as applied to nutrition. The Journal recognises the multidisciplinary nature of nutritional science and includes material from all of the specialities involved in nutrition research, including molecular and cell biology and the emerging area of nutritional genomics.

Current impact factor: 3.34

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 3.342
2012 Impact Factor 3.302
2011 Impact Factor 3.013
2010 Impact Factor 3.072
2009 Impact Factor 3.446
2008 Impact Factor 2.764
2007 Impact Factor 2.339
2006 Impact Factor 2.708
2005 Impact Factor 2.967
2004 Impact Factor 2.71
2003 Impact Factor 2.616
2002 Impact Factor 2.491
2001 Impact Factor 1.989
2000 Impact Factor 2.415
1999 Impact Factor 1.944
1998 Impact Factor 1.713
1997 Impact Factor 1.737
1996 Impact Factor 1.634
1995 Impact Factor 1.532
1994 Impact Factor 1.199
1993 Impact Factor 1.369
1992 Impact Factor 1.54

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 7.00
Immediacy index 0.53
Eigenfactor 0.03
Article influence 0.96
Website British Journal of Nutrition website
Other titles British journal of nutrition, BJN, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
ISSN 1475-2662
OCLC 1537294
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Cambridge University Press (CUP)

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's Pre-print on author's personal website, departmental website, social media websites, institutional repository, non-commercial subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, Europe PMC or arXiv
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website on acceptance of publication
    • Author's post-print on departmental website, institutional repository, non-commercial subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, Europe PMC or arXiv, after a 6 months embargo
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published abstract may be deposited
    • Pre-print to record acceptance for publication
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with set statement, for deposit of Authors Post-print or Publisher's version/PDF
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher last reviewed on 07/10/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Cambridge University Press (CUP)'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess the effects of betaine on hepatic lipid accumulation and investigate the underlying mechanism, thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100 (sd 2·50) g were divided into four groups, and started on one of four treatments: basal diet, basal diet with betaine administration, high-fat diet and high-fat diet with betaine administration. The results showed that no significant difference of body weight was found among experimental groups. Compared with high-fat diet-fed rats, a betaine supplementation decreased (P< 0·05) hepatic TAG accumulation induced by high-fat diet, which was also supported by hepatic histology results. Additionally, hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase activity as well as its mRNA abundance and lecithin level were found increased (P< 0·05) by betaine supplementation in both basal diet-fed rats and high-fat diet-fed rats. Betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats exhibited a higher (P< 0·05) activity of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) compared with high-fat diet-fed rats. High-fat diet inhibited (P< 0·05) the gene expression of hepatic PPARα and CPT1. However, betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats elevated (P< 0·05) the gene expression of PPARα and CPT1. Moreover, concentration, gene and protein expressions of hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) were increased (P< 0·05) in response to betaine administration in high-fat diet group; meanwhile the gene expression of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase was increased (P< 0·05) as well. The results suggest that betaine administration enhanced hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in high-fat diet-fed rats, thus effectively alleviating fat accumulation in the liver.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0007114515001130
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    ABSTRACT: Various foods are associated with effects against metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; however, their mechanisms of action are mostly unclear. Fatty acids may contribute by acting as precursors of signalling molecules or by direct activity on receptors. The medium- and long-chain NEFA receptor FFA1 (free fatty acid receptor 1, previously known as GPR40) has been linked to enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, whereas FFA4 (free fatty acid receptor 4, previously known as GPR120) has been associated with insulin-sensitising and anti-inflammatory effects, and both receptors are reported to protect pancreatic islets and promote secretion of appetite and glucose-regulating hormones. Hypothesising that FFA1 and FFA4 mediate therapeutic effects of dietary components, we screened a broad selection of NEFA on FFA1 and FFA4 and characterised active compounds in concentration-response curves. Of the screened compounds, pinolenic acid, a constituent of pine nut oil, was identified as a relatively potent and efficacious dual FFA1/FFA4 agonist, and its suitability for further studies was confirmed by additional in vitro characterisation. Pine nut oil and free and esterified pure pinolenic acid were tested in an acute glucose tolerance test in mice. Pine nut oil showed a moderately but significantly improved glucose tolerance compared with maize oil. Pure pinolenic acid or ethyl ester gave robust and highly significant improvements of glucose tolerance. In conclusion, the present results indicate that pinolenic acid is a comparatively potent and efficacious dual FFA1/FFA4 agonist that exerts antidiabetic effects in an acute mouse model. The compound thus deserves attention as a potential active dietary ingredient to prevent or counteract metabolic diseases.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1017/S000711451500118X
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    ABSTRACT: Serum and erythrocyte (RBC) total folate are indicators of folate status. No nationally representative population data exist for folate forms. We measured the serum folate forms (5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF), unmetabolised folic acid (UMFA), non-methyl folate (sum of tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-formylTHF), 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (5,10-methenylTHF)) and MeFox (5-methylTHF oxidation product)) by HPLC-MS/MS and RBC total folate by microbiologic assay in US population ≥ 1 year (n approximately 7500) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2. Data analysis for serum total folate was conducted including and excluding MeFox. Concentrations (geometric mean; detection rate) of 5-methylTHF (37·5 nmol/l; 100 %), UMFA (1·21 nmol/l; 99·9 %), MeFox (1·53 nmol/l; 98·8 %), and THF (1·01 nmol/l; 85·2 %) were mostly detectable. 5-FormylTHF (3·6 %) and 5,10-methenylTHF (4·4 %) were rarely detected. The biggest contributor to serum total folate was 5-methylTHF (86·7 %); UMFA (4·0 %), non-methyl folate (4·7 %) and MeFox (4·5 %) contributed smaller amounts. Age was positively related to MeFox, but showed a U-shaped pattern for other folates. We generally noted sex and race/ethnic biomarker differences and weak (Spearman's r< 0·4) but significant (P< 0·05) correlations with physiological and lifestyle variables. Fasting, kidney function, smoking and alcohol intake showed negative associations. BMI and body surface area showed positive associations with MeFox but negative associations with other folates. All biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations with recent folic acid-containing dietary supplement use. These first-time population data for serum folate forms generally show similar associations with demographic, physiological and lifestyle variables as serum total folate. Patterns observed for MeFox may suggest altered folate metabolism dependent on biological characteristics.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0007114515001142
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    ABSTRACT: Eating out has been linked to the current obesity epidemic, but the evaluation of the extent to which out of home (OH) dietary intakes are different from those at home (AH) is limited. Data collected among 8849 men and 14 277 women aged 35-64 years from the general population of eleven European countries through 24-h dietary recalls or food diaries were analysed to: (1) compare food consumption OH to those AH; (2) describe the characteristics of substantial OH eaters, defined as those who consumed 25 % or more of their total daily energy intake at OH locations. Logistic regression models were fit to identify personal characteristics associated with eating out. In both sexes, beverages, sugar, desserts, sweet and savoury bakery products were consumed more OH than AH. In some countries, men reported higher intakes of fish OH than AH. Overall, substantial OH eating was more common among men, the younger and the more educated participants, but was weakly associated with total energy intake. The substantial OH eaters reported similar dietary intakes OH and AH. Individuals who were not identified as substantial OH eaters reported consuming proportionally higher quantities of sweet and savoury bakery products, soft drinks, juices and other non-alcoholic beverages OH than AH. The OH intakes were different from the AH ones, only among individuals who reported a relatively small contribution of OH eating to their daily intakes and this may partly explain the inconsistent findings relating eating out to the current obesity epidemic.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0007114515000963
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is characterised by low-grade inflammation, which increases the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risks. The aim of the present study was to verify the role of multicomponent therapy in controlling the MetS, inflammation and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in obese adolescents. The second aim was to investigate the relationships between adipokines, the MetS parameters and cIMT. A total of sixty-nine obese adolescents participated in the present study and completed 1 year of multicomponent therapy (a combination of strategies involving nutrition, psychology, physical exercise and clinical therapy), and were divided according to their MetS diagnosis as follows: MetS (n 19); non-MetS (n 50). Blood analyses of glucose, lipid and adipokine concentrations (adiponectin, leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and C-reactive protein) were collected. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment-adiponectin. cIMT and visceral and subcutaneous fat were estimated using ultrasonography. At baseline, the MetS group presented higher waist circumference, glucose and insulin levels, and systolic and median blood pressures compared with the non-MetS group. After therapy, both groups showed improvements in the anthropometric profile, body composition, insulin level, insulin resistance, insulin sensibility, TAG and VLDL-cholesterol, adiponectin, leptin and PAI-1 levels, blood pressure and cIMT. The prevalence of the MetS was reduced from 27·5 to 13·0 %. Metabolic syndrome patients showed resistance in the attenuation of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and leptin:adiponectin and adiponectin:leptin ratios. In the MetS group, the variation in the adiponectin:leptin ratio was correlated with variations in glucose, insulin sensibility, total cholesterol, LDL-c and systolic blood pressure. Additionally, the number of MetS parameters was correlated with the carotid measurement. Moreover, the variation in cIMT was correlated with the variations in insulin sensibility, total cholesterol and LDL-c. For the entire group, the number of MetS alterations was correlated with the leptin level and leptin:adiponectin ratio and adiponectin:leptin ratio after therapy. In conclusion, multicomponent therapy was effective in controlling the MetS, inflammation and cIMT in the obese adolescents. However, the MetS patients showed resistance in the attenuation of the atherogenic lipid profile and leptin:adiponectin ratio and adiponectin:leptin ratio. These results suggest that the MetS patients have increased cardiovascular risks, and that it is important to attempt to control the inflammatory process that occurs due to obesity in clinical practice in order to improve the health of adolescents.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0007114515001129
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    ABSTRACT: Choline demands during lactation are high; however, detailed knowledge is lacking regarding the optimal dietary intake during this critical period. The present study was designed to determine the effects of varying intakes of choline on maternal immune function during lactation. Primiparous Sprague-Dawley rats (n 42) were randomised 24-48 h before birth and fed the following diets for 21 d: choline-devoid (0 g choline/kg diet; D, n 10); 1·0 g choline/kg diet (C1, n 11); 2·5 g choline/kg diet (C2·5, n 10); 6·2 g choline/kg diet (C6, n 11). Splenocytes were isolated and stimulated ex vivo with concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or CD3/CD28. D and C6 dams had lower final body weight, spleen weight and average pup weight than C1 dams (P< 0·05). There was a linear relationship between free choline concentration in pup stomach contents with maternal dietary choline content (P< 0·001, r 2 0·415). Compared with C1 and C2·5, D spleens had a lower proportion of mature T cells and activated suppressor cells, and this resulted in reduced cytokine production after stimulation (P< 0·05). Feeding 6·2 g choline/kg diet resulted in a higher cytokine production after stimulation with CD3/CD28 (P< 0·05). Except for a higher IL-6 production after LPS stimulation with cells from the C2·5 dams (P< 0·05), there were no differences between the C1 and C2·5 dams. For the first time, we show that feeding lactating mothers a diet free of choline has substantial effects on their immune function and on offspring growth. Additionally, excess dietary choline had adverse effects on maternal and offspring body weight but only minimal effects on maternal immune function.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0007114515001221
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    ABSTRACT: Meat/meat alternatives (M/MA) are key sources of Fe, Zn and protein, but intake tends to be low in young children. Australian recommendations state that Fe-rich foods, including M/MA, should be the first complementary foods offered to infants. The present paper reports M/MA consumption of Australian infants and toddlers, compares intake with guidelines, and suggests strategies to enhance adherence to those guidelines. Mother-infant dyads recruited as part of the NOURISH and South Australian Infants Dietary Intake studies provided 3 d of intake data at three time points: Time 1 (T1) (n 482, mean age 5·5 (sd 1·1) months), Time 2 (T2) (n 600, mean age 14·0 (sd 1·2) months) and Time 3 (T3) (n 533, mean age 24 (sd 0·7) months). Of 170 infants consuming solids and aged greater than 6 months at T1, 50 (29 %) consumed beef, lamb, veal (BLV) or pork on at least one of 3 d. Commercial infant foods containing BLV or poultry were the most common form of M/MA consumed at T1, whilst by T2 BLV mixed dishes (including pasta bolognaise) became more popular and remained so at T3. The processed M/MA increased in popularity over time, led by pork (including ham). The present study shows that M/MA are not being eaten by Australian infants or toddlers regularly enough; or in adequate quantities to meet recommendations; and that the form in which these foods are eaten can lead to smaller M/MA serve sizes and greater Na intake. Parents should be encouraged to offer M/MA in a recognisable form, as one of the first complementary foods, in order to increase acceptance at a later age.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0007114515000719
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    ABSTRACT: Increased whole grain intake has been shown to reduce the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Countries including the USA, Canada, Denmark and Australia have specific dietary guidelines on whole grain intake but others, including the UK, do not. Data from 1986/87 and 2000/01 have shown that whole grain intake is low and declining in British adults. The aim of the present study was to describe whole grain intakes in the most current dietary assessment of UK households using data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme 2008-11. In the present study, 4 d diet diaries were completed by 3073 individuals between 2008 and 2011, along with details of socio-economic status (SES). The median daily whole grain intake, calculated for each individual on a dry weight basis, was 20 g/d for adults and 13 g/d for children/teenagers. The corresponding energy-adjusted whole grain intake was 27 g/10 MJ per d for adults and 20 g/10 MJ per d for children/teenagers. Whole grain intake (absolute and energy-adjusted) increased with age, but was lowest in teenagers (13-17 years) and younger adults up to the age of 34 years. Of the total study population, 18 % of adults and 15 % of children/teenagers did not consume any whole-grain foods. Individuals from lower SES groups had a significantly lower whole grain intake than those from more advantaged classifications. The whole grain intake in the UK, although higher than in 2000/01, remains low and below that in the US and Danish recommendations in all age classes. Favourable pricing with increased availability of whole-grain foods and education may help to increase whole grain intake in countries without whole-grain recommendations. Teenagers and younger adults may need targeting to help increase whole grain consumption.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0007114515000422
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    ABSTRACT: During the past decades, a rapid nutritional transition has been observed along with economic growth in the Republic of Korea. Since this dramatic change in diet has been frequently associated with cancer and other non-communicable diseases, dietary monitoring is essential to understand the association. Benefiting from pre-existing standardised dietary methodologies, the present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and describe the development of a Korean version of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (GloboDiet software) and its complementary tools, developed at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), WHO. Following established international Standard Operating Procedures and guidelines, about seventy common and country-specific databases on foods, recipes, dietary supplements, quantification methods and coefficients were customised and translated. The main results of the present study highlight the specific adaptations made to adapt the GloboDiet software for research and dietary surveillance in Korea. New (sub-) subgroups were added into the existing common food classification, and new descriptors were added to the facets to classify and describe specific Korean foods. Quantification methods were critically evaluated and adapted considering the foods and food packages available in the Korean market. Furthermore, a picture book of foods/dishes was prepared including new pictures and food portion sizes relevant to Korean diet. The development of the Korean version of GloboDiet demonstrated that it was possible to adapt the IARC-WHO international dietary tool to an Asian context without compromising its concept of standardisation and software structure. It, thus, confirms that this international dietary methodology, used so far only in Europe, is flexible and robust enough to be customised for other regions worldwide.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0007114515000987
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of metabolic abnormalities, such as hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia. We investigated whether polyphenol-rich blackcurrant extract (BCE) can prevent high fat/high cholesterol (HF/HC) diet-induced metabolic disturbances in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a modified AIN-93M diet containing HF/HC (16 % fat, 0·25 % cholesterol, w/w) or the same diet supplemented with 0·1 % BCE (w/w) for 12 weeks. There were no differences in total body weight and liver weight between groups. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and glucose levels were significantly lower in BCE group than in controls, while plasma TAG levels were not significantly different. There was a decreasing trend in hepatic TAG levels, and histological evaluation of steatosis grade was markedly lower in the livers of mice fed BCE. Although the mRNA levels of major regulators of hepatic cholesterol metabolism, i.e. 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and LDL receptor (LDLR), were not significantly altered by BCE supplementation, protein expression of mature sterol-regulatory element-binding protein and LDLR was significantly increased with no change in HMGR protein. The expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 that facilitates LDLR protein degradation, as well as one of its transcriptional regulators, i.e. hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, was significantly decreased in the livers of mice fed BCE. Taken together, BCE supplementation decreased plasma TC and glucose, and inhibited liver steatosis, suggesting that this berry may be consumed to prevent metabolic dysfunctions induced by diets high in fat and cholesterol.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0007114515001105
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological evidence suggests an inverse association between whole grain consumption and the risk of non-communicable diseases, such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, obesity and some cancers. A recent analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme (NDNS-RP) has shown lower intake of whole grain in the UK. It is important to understand whether the health benefits associated with whole grain intake are present at low levels of consumption. The present study aimed to investigate the association of whole grain intake with intakes of other foods, nutrients and markers of health (anthropometric and blood measures) in the NDNS-RP 2008���11, a representative dietary survey of UK households. A 4-d diet diary was completed by 3073 individuals. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure levels, and blood and urine samples were collected after diary completion. Individual whole grain intake was calculated with consumers categorised into tertiles of intake. Higher intake of whole grain was associated with significantly decreased leucocyte counts. Significantly higher concentrations of C-reactive protein were seen in adults in the lowest tertile of whole grain intake. No associations with the remaining health markers were seen, after adjustments for sex and age. Over 70��% of this population did not consume the minimum recommend intake associated with disease risk reduction, which may explain small variation across health markers. Nutrient intakes in consumers compared with non-consumers were closer to dietary reference values, such as higher intakes of fibre, Mg and Fe, and lower intakes of Na, suggesting that higher intake of whole grain is associated with improved diet quality.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0007114515000525
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between intake of five common antioxidative nutrients from supplements and medications (vitamin E, vitamin C, carotenoids, Se, and Zn) and levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in the general population. For this purpose, a total of 2924 participants of the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 study (2006-8) were investigated cross-sectionally. Intake of dietary supplements and medication during the last 7 d was recorded in a personal interview, when participants were asked to show product packages of ingested preparations. Linear regression models were calculated; first, the exposure to regular nutrient intake was treated with a binary response (yes/no); then regularly ingested amounts were divided into quartiles to examine dose-response relationships. Effect of single v. combined supplementation of antioxidants was assessed through the inclusion of interaction terms into the models. Regular intake of any of the five investigated antioxidants per se was not associated with hs-CRP levels. However, dose-response analyses revealed that participants who regularly ingested more than 78 mg vitamin E/d, which corresponds to the upper quartile, had 22 % lower hs-CRP levels (95 % CI 0·63, 0·97) compared to those of persons who were not exposed to any vitamin E supplementation. Stratified analyses showed that this association was found only in persons who took vitamin E in combination with other antioxidants. The combined supplementation of vitamin E with other antioxidants could thus be a promising strategy for the prevention of inflammation-related diseases in the general population, if further studies could confirm that the proposed association is causal.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0007114515000902
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness are early predictors of CVD. Intervention studies have suggested that diet is related to vascular health, but most prior studies have tested individual foods or nutrients and relied on small samples of younger adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and vascular health in a large cross-sectional analysis. In 5887 adults in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts, diet quality was quantified with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Adherence Index (DGAI-2010). Endothelial function was assessed via brachial artery ultrasound and arterial stiffness via arterial tonometry. In age-, sex- and cohort-adjusted analyses, a higher DGAI-2010 score (greater adherence) was modestly associated with a lower resting flow velocity, hyperaemic response, mean arterial pressure, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), and augmentation index, but not associated with resting arterial diameter or flow-mediated dilation (FMD). In multivariable models adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, only the association of a higher DGAI-2010 score with a lower baseline flow velocity and augmentation index persisted (β = - 0·002, P= 0·003 and β = - 0·05 ± 0·02, P< 0·001, respectively). Age-stratified multivariate-adjusted analyses suggested that the relationship of higher DGAI-2010 scores with lower mean arterial pressure, PWV and augmentation index was more pronounced among adults younger than 50 years. Better adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, particularly in younger adults, is associated with a lower peripheral blood flow velocity and arterial wave reflection, but not FMD. The present results suggest a link between adherence to the Dietary Guidelines and favourable vascular health.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0007114515000859
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    ABSTRACT: Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a major polyphenolic compound found in olive oil with reported anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the neuroprotective effect of HT on type 2 diabetes remains unknown. In the present study, db/db mice and SH-SY-5Y neuroblastoma cells were used to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of HT. After 8 weeks of HT administration at doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg, expression levels of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I/II/IV and the activity of complex I were significantly elevated in the brain of db/db mice. Likewise, targets of the antioxidative transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 including p62 (sequestosome-1), haeme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), and superoxide dismutases 1 and 2 increased, and protein oxidation significantly decreased. HT treatment was also found to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), sirtuin 1 and PPARγ coactivator-1α, which constitute an energy-sensing protein network known to regulate mitochondrial function and oxidative stress responses. Meanwhile, neuronal survival indicated by neuron marker expression levels including activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor and nerve growth factor was significantly improved by HT administration. Additionally, in a high glucose-induced neuronal cell damage model, HT effectively increased mitochondrial complex IV and HO-1 expression through activating AMPK pathway, followed by the prevention of high glucose-induced production of reactive oxygen species and declines of cell viability and VO2 capacity. Our observations suggest that HT improves mitochondrial function and reduces oxidative stress potentially through activation of the AMPK pathway in the brain of db/db mice.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0007114515000884
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    ABSTRACT: This study assesses the levels of fats, including trans-fatty acids, and salt in common takeaway fast foods in a deprived urban municipality in the West Midlands, England, and implications in the context of the spatial distribution of fast food takeaways. The results of the compositional analysis of over 250 take-out foods were compared with established and derived standards. About 70 % of products exceeded the recommendation that a meal should contain less than 30 % of a Guideline Daily Amount (GDA). More than half of them exceeded 50 % GDA for at least one metric, including 81 % of all analyses for SFA. And 17 % of samples exceeded the GDA for SFA, including each of two meals that contained about twice the GDA. Over 30 % samples exceeded the children's GDA for total fat or SFA. 27 % of salt analyses exceeded the GDA. People in Sandwell are exposed to large portion sizes and high levels of fats and salt in takeaway foods, with levels in some foods having increased since 2010. Given this population's limited options to break out of a highly compromising environment of living simultaneously in a 'swamp' of unhealthy, readily accessible and cheap takeaways, and a 'desert' of healthy options, an immediate and innovative package of interventions is required.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0007114515001063
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity and type 2 diabetes lead to dramatically increased risks of atherosclerosis and CHD. Multiple mechanisms converge to promote atherosclerosis by increasing endothelial oxidative stress and up-regulating expression of pro-inflammatory molecules. Microvesicles (MV) are small ( < 1 μm) circulating particles that transport proteins and genetic material, through which they are able to mediate cell-cell communication and influence gene expression. Since MV are increased in plasma of obese, insulin-resistant and diabetic individuals, who often exhibit chronic vascular inflammation, and long-term feeding of a high-fat diet (HFD) to rats is a well-described model of obesity and insulin resistance, we hypothesised that this may be a useful model to study the impact of MV on endothelial inflammation. The number and cellular origin of MV from HFD-fed obese rats were characterised by flow cytometry. Total MV were significantly increased after feeding HFD compared to feeding chow (P< 0·001), with significantly elevated numbers of MV derived from leucocyte, endothelial and platelet compartments (P< 0·01 for each cell type). MV were isolated from plasma and their ability to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 expression was measured in primary rat cardiac endothelial cells in vitro. MV from HFD-fed rats induced significant ROS (P< 0·001) and VCAM-1 expression (P= 0·0275), indicative of a pro-inflammatory MV phenotype in this model of obesity. These findings confirm that this is a useful model to further study the mechanisms by which diet can influence MV release and subsequent effects on cardio-metabolic health.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0007114515001117
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in the US population and is associated with numerous diseases, including those characterised by inflammatory processes. We aimed to investigate the link between vitamin D status and anaemia, hypothesising that lower vitamin D status would be associated with increased odds of anaemia, particularly anaemia with inflammation. A secondary aim was to examine the effects of race in the association between vitamin D status and anaemia. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in a cohort of generally healthy adults in Atlanta, GA (n 638). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and anaemia. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) < 50 nmol/l (compared to 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l) was associated with anaemia in bivariate analysis (OR 2·64, 95 % CI 1·43, 4·86). There was significant effect modification by race (P= 0·003), such that blacks with 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l had increased odds of anaemia (OR 6·42, 95 % CI 1·88, 21·99), v. blacks with 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l, controlling for potential confounders; this association was not apparent in whites. When categorised by subtype of anaemia, blacks with 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l had significantly increased odds of anaemia with inflammation than blacks with serum 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l (OR 8·42, 95 % CI 1·96, 36·23); there was no association with anaemia without inflammation. In conclusion, serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l was significantly associated with anaemia, particularly anaemia with inflammation, among blacks in a generally healthy adult US cohort.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0007114515000999
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    ABSTRACT: The long-term adherence to the dietary guidelines has not been evaluated against emergence of cardiometabolic risks in adolescents with increasing rates of obesity. The present study aimed to (1) determine the level of adherence to the guidelines using the Australian Dietary Guideline Index for Children and Adolescents (DGI-CA) in adolescents of age 14 and 17 years and to (2) examine the relationship between their assessed diet quality and concurrently measured cardiometabolic risk factors over time. Data were analysed from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The DGI-CA was determined from a FFQ. Anthropometry and fasting biochemical measures were taken using standard procedures. Hierarchical linear mixed models examined associations between cardiometabolic risk factors and DGI-CA, adjusting for socio-economic status, physical activity, BMI, and sex, and examining for interactions. The mean DGI-CA scores were 47·1 (sd 10·2) at 14 years (n 1419) and 47·7 (sd 11·0) at 17 years (n 843), and were not different between sex. There was a significant inverse association between DGI-CA and insulin, homeostasis model assessment score and heart rate. The DGI-CA was positively associated with BMI (P= 0·029) but negatively with waist:hip ratio (P= 0·026). It was not associated with lipids or blood pressure, with the exception of a negative association with TAG (P= 0·011). The degree of adherence in the Raine Study adolescents was suboptimal but similar to the Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. The present study shows that, at any particular time, better diet quality was associated with better insulin sensitivity and TAG levels and decreased abdominal fatness.
    The British journal of nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0007114515001026