Nature reviews. Immunology (NAT REV IMMUNOL )

Publisher: Nature Publishing Group


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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Originally described over a decade ago as a T cell transcription factor regulating T helper 1 cell lineage commitment, T-bet is now recognized as having an important role in many cells of the adaptive and innate immune system. T-bet has a fundamental role in coordinating type 1 immune responses by controlling a network of genetic programmes that regulate the development of certain immune cells and the effector functions of others. Many of these transcriptional networks are conserved across innate and adaptive immune cells and these shared mechanisms highlight the biological functions that are regulated by T-bet.
    Nature reviews. Immunology 10/2013; 13:777.
  • Nature reviews. Immunology 03/2009; 9(4):223-223.
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    ABSTRACT: Research on the biological function of nuclear factor-B (NF-B), a key mediator of inducible transcription in the immune system, has traditionally focused on its role in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses. These studies have largely concentrated on the mechanisms of signalling that lead to NF-B activation and on the positive role of NF-B in both physiological immunity and pathological inflammation. More recently, there has been growing interest in the mechanisms that directly regulate the NF-B transcriptional programmes. As a result, several new NF-B regulatory components have been identified and some of the known components have been assigned new roles. In this Review, we discuss these new insights into the regulation of NF-B.
    Nature reviews. Immunology 10/2008; 8(11):837-848.
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    ABSTRACT: Despite accumulating evidence in support of sex-based differences in innate and adaptive immune responses, in the susceptibility to infectious diseases and in the prevalence of autoimmune diseases, health research and clinical practice do not address these distinctions, and most research studies of immune responses do not stratify by sex. X-linked genes, hormones and societal context are among the many factors that contribute to disparate immune responses in males and females. It is crucial to address sex-based differences in disease pathogenesis and in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of therapeutic medications to provide optimal disease management for both sexes.
    Nature reviews. Immunology 10/2008; 8(9):737-44.
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    ABSTRACT: The T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling machinery is central in determining the response of a T cell (establishing immunity or tolerance) following exposure to antigen. This process is made difficult by the narrow margin of self and non-self discrimination, and by the complexity of the genetic programmes that are induced for each outcome. Recent studies have identified novel negative feedback mechanisms that are rapidly induced by TCR engagement and that have key roles in the regulation of signal triggering and propagation. In vitro and in vivo data suggest that they are important in determining ligand discrimination by the TCR and in regulating signal output in response to antigen.
    Nature reviews. Immunology 10/2008; 8(9):699-712.
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    ABSTRACT: Interactions between T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) in the lymph nodes are crucial for initiating cell-mediated adaptive immune responses. With the help of two-photon imaging, the complexity of these cellular contacts in vivo has recently been captured in time-lapse movies in several immunological contexts. Well beyond the satisfaction of seeing a T-cell response as it happens, these experiments provide fundamental insights into the regulation and the biological meaning of T-cell-DC contact dynamics. This Review focuses on how this emerging field is changing our perception of T-cell activation by DCs.
    Nature reviews. Immunology 10/2008; 8(9):675-84.
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    ABSTRACT: Many exogenous sources of stress can lead to cell death. In recent years, endogenous cellular sources of stress have also been identified, including the stress that arises from the accumulation of unfolded proteins within a cell's endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To counterbalance this type of ER stress, higher eukaryotic cells possess a three-pronged signal-transduction pathway termed the unfolded-protein response (UPR). This Review focuses on the role of the UPR in the mammalian immune system and how manipulation of this complex signalling pathway may be of therapeutic benefit in human disease.
    Nature reviews. Immunology 10/2008; 8(9):663-74.
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    ABSTRACT: The natural killer (NK)-cell immunological synapse is the dynamic interface formed between an NK cell and its target cell. Formation of the NK-cell immunological synapse involves several distinct stages, from the initiation of contact with a target cell to the directed delivery of lytic-granule contents for target-cell lysis. Progression through the individual stages is regulated, and this tight regulation underlies the precision with which NK cells select and kill susceptible target cells (including virally infected cells and cancerous cells) that they encounter during their routine surveillance of the body.
    Nature reviews. Immunology 10/2008; 8(9):713-25.
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamins are essential constituents of our diet that have long been known to influence the immune system. Vitamins A and D have received particular attention in recent years as these vitamins have been shown to have an unexpected and crucial effect on the immune response. We present and discuss our current understanding of the essential roles of vitamins in modulating a broad range of immune processes, such as lymphocyte activation and proliferation, T-helper-cell differentiation, tissue-specific lymphocyte homing, the production of specific antibody isotypes and regulation of the immune response. Finally, we discuss the clinical potential of vitamin A and D metabolites for modulating tissue-specific immune responses and for preventing and/or treating inflammation and autoimmunity.
    Nature reviews. Immunology 10/2008; 8(9):685-98.
  • Nature reviews. Immunology 03/2008; 8(4):242-242.
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence from animal models has shown that the transfer of regulatory T cells or tolerogenic dendritic cells can prevent or cure transplant rejection or re-establish self-tolerance in autoimmune disease. The potential of these tolerogenic cells for the treatment of T-cell-mediated diseases in humans has gained momentum in recent years. Here, Nature Reviews Immunology asks four leading researchers to provide their view on the future of cell-based tolerogenic therapy and to highlight some important issues that must be considered before this form of immunotherapy can become a reality.
    Nature reviews. Immunology 09/2007; 7(8):650-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Anergy, a condition in which cells persist in the periphery but are unresponsive to antigen, is responsible for silencing many self-reactive B cells. Loss of anergy is known to contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and type 1 diabetes. Multiple transgenic mouse models have enabled the dissection of mechanisms that underlie anergy, and recently, anergic B cells have been identified in the periphery of wild-type mice. Heterogeneity of mechanistic concepts developed using model systems has complicated our understanding of anergy and its biological features. In this Review, we compare and contrast the salient features of anergic B cells with a view to developing unifying mechanistic hypotheses that explain their lifestyles.
    Nature reviews. Immunology 09/2007; 7(8):633-43.
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, there has been a shift from the perception of dendritic cells (DCs) solely as inducers of immune reactivity to the view that these cells are crucial regulators of immunity, which includes their ability to induce and maintain tolerance. Advances in our understanding of the phenotypical and functional plasticity of DCs, and in our ability to manipulate their development and maturation in vitro and in vivo, has provided a basis for the therapeutic harnessing of their inherent tolerogenicity. In this Review, we integrate the available information on the role of DCs in the induction of tolerance, with a focus on transplantation.
    Nature reviews. Immunology 09/2007; 7(8):610-21.
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    ABSTRACT: In 1997, the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene was identified as the locus underlying susceptibility to the polyendocrine autoimmune disease known as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). In the intervening 10 years, it has become increasingly clear that this rare disorder has provided us with an illuminative window on one of the most fundamental processes of the immune system--the establishment and maintenance of self tolerance.
    Nature reviews. Immunology 09/2007; 7(8):645-50.
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    ABSTRACT: Here I present the idea that the immune system uses a computational strategy to carry out its many functions in protecting and maintaining the body. Along the way, I define the concepts of computation, Turing machines and system states. I attempt to show that reframing our view of the immune system in computational terms is worth our while.
    Nature reviews. Immunology 08/2007; 7(7):569-74.

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