Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

Publisher: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

Current impact factor: 5.01

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 5.006
2013 Impact Factor 5.034
2012 Impact Factor 4.87
2011 Impact Factor 4.93
2010 Impact Factor 5.167
2009 Impact Factor 4.723
2008 Impact Factor 4.35
2007 Impact Factor 4.754
2006 Impact Factor 4.795
2005 Impact Factor 4.258
2004 Impact Factor 4
2003 Impact Factor 2.674
2002 Impact Factor 1
2001 Impact Factor 0.82
2000 Impact Factor 0.778
1999 Impact Factor 0.923
1998 Impact Factor 0.874
1997 Impact Factor 0.706
1996 Impact Factor 0.935
1995 Impact Factor 0.749
1994 Impact Factor 0.675
1993 Impact Factor 0.294
1992 Impact Factor 0.239

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 4.48
Cited half-life 5.40
Immediacy index 0.74
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 1.61
ISSN 1473-6527

Publisher details

Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

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    • Publisher last reviewed on 19/03/2015
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: The review provides the infectious disease community with a urologic perspective on bacterial prostatitis. Specifically, the article briefly reviews the categorization of prostatitis by type and provides a distillation of new findings published on bacterial prostatitis over the past year. It also highlights key points from the established literature. Recent findings: Cross-sectional prostate imaging is becoming more common and may lead to more incidental diagnoses of acute bacterial prostatitis. As drug resistance remains problematic in this condition, the reemergence of older antibiotics such as fosfomycin, has proven beneficial. With regard to chronic bacterial prostatitis, no clear clinical risk factors emerged in a large epidemiological study. However, bacterial biofilm formation has been associated with more severe cases. Surgery has a limited role in bacterial prostatitis and should be reserved for draining of a prostatic abscess or the removal of infected prostatic stones. Summary: Prostatitis remains a common and bothersome clinical condition. Antibiotic therapy remains the basis of treatment for both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Further research into improving prostatitis treatment is indicated.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 11/2015; DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000222
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is now managed as a chronic disease. Noninfectious pulmonary conditions have replaced infection as the biggest threat to lung health, particularly as HIV cohorts age, but there is no consensus on how best to maintain long-term lung health. We review the epidemiology and pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and lung cancer in HIV-seropositive individuals. Recent findings: Diagnoses of COPD are now up to 50% more prevalent in HIV-seropositive individuals than HIV-uninfected controls, and prospective pulmonary function studies find significant impairment in 7% to more than 50% of HIV-seropositive individuals. The prevalence of HIV-PAH is 0.2-0.5%, and lung cancer is two to three times more prevalent in HIV-seropositive individuals. Although host factors such as age and smoking have a role, HIV is an independent contributor to the pathogenesis of COPD, PAH, and lung cancer. Chronic inflammation, immune senescence, oxidative stress, and direct effects of viral proteins are all potential pathogenetic mechanisms. Despite their prevalence, noninfectious lung diseases remain underrecognized and evidence for effective screening strategies in HIV-seropositive individuals is limited. Summary: COPD, PAH, and lung cancer are a growing threat to lung health in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era necessitating early recognition.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 11/2015; DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000221
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: The mainstay of antiviral therapy for the alpha-herpesviruses [herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, HSV-2, and varicella zoster virus (VZV)] over the past 40 years has been the nucleoside analogues such as aciclovir. Although conventional antiviral therapy has reduced mortality in severe disease, novel agents are needed to address the emergence of resistance and toxicity associated with current second-line therapy. Treatment and prophylaxis of VZV and HSV reactivations remains a challenge. Recent findings: A number of compounds have recently been evaluated in human clinical trials, amongst them brincidofovir, an intracellularly acting derivative of cidofovir currently undergoing phase III trials. The helicase-primase inhibitors are a new class of antiviral agent and may circumvent resistance to existing agents. Amenamevir and pritelivir are two examples of these agents that have been evaluated clinically along with novel nucleoside analogues such as valomaciclovir and FV-100. Tenofovir, an agent used in HIV and hepatitis B therapy, may also have a role in the prevention of HSV-2 acquisition and reduce viral shedding. Summary: Although several novel antiviral agents have undergone clinical trials in recent years, all are yet to gain licensure. Brincidofovir appears to be the candidate with most promise for adoption into routine practice in the near future.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 11/2015; 28(6):589-595. DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000211
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: Novel direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents are highly effective in the treatment of hepatitis C, achieving unprecedented rates of sustained virological response, a functional cure. However, a significant minority of patients belong to 'difficult-to-treat' groups, in which efficacy of DAAs appears less robust. The review article aims to discuss additional treatment strategies which may be employed in these patient cohorts, as well as evidence for the potential role of experimental DAAs. Recent findings: Patients with genotype 3 infection have consistently lower rates of virological clearance following DAA therapy when compared with other genotypes. However, in combination with sofosbuvir, the novel nonstructural protein 5A inhibitor daclatasvir has demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of noncirrhotic genotype 3 infection. Recent data from phase 2 and 3 clinical studies support the use of currently approved DAA regimens in the treatment of patients with hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. Sustained virological response rates in coinfected patients are analogous to those observed in monoinfection, such that HIV infection itself does not pose a barrier to DAA efficacy. In posttransplant populations, DAAs have again shown great potential, with trial data validating use of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir. Summary: Unmet need persists in certain subsets of the hepatitis C patient population. The arrival on scene of novel DAAs is likely to further expand the repertoire of available therapy for these 'difficult-to-treat' groups.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 11/2015; 28(6):572-575. DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000204
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: The rapid evolution in the therapeutic landscape of hepatitis C presents a minefield to clinicians seeking to optimize therapy for their patients. Efficacy, evidence-base, side-effects, and drug combinations must be tailored to individual patients, taking into account comorbidities, degree of fibrosis, evidence of hepatic decompensation, and life expectancy. The review article aims to discuss novel hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments with an overview of recent breakthrough research validating their potential. It is hoped that this systematic evaluation will clarify best available evidence for clinicians treating patients with HCV on a regular basis. Recent findings: With greater understanding of the HCV life cycle and viral genome, the last decade has seen the emergence of novel direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents, which specifically target proteins responsible for viral replication. Landmark clinical trials have offered robust evidence supporting the use of DAA agents as pioneer treatments, alone, or in combination with standard pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV)-based regimens. DAAs have proved highly efficacious, with pan-genotypic activity, shortened treatment duration, and an improved side-effect profile when compared with historical peg-IFN/RBV treatment. Recent phase 3 studies have provided proof-of-concept that all-oral, IFN-free DAA regimens can yield high rates of sustained virological response across most HCV genotypes. Summary: The ability of DAAs to dramatically improve virological clearance heralds a new era in clinical therapeutics, as the unprecedented prospect of cure for a chronic viral infection becomes tangible. However, myriad clinical challenges remain before global eradication of HCV can become reality.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 11/2015; 28(6):563-571. DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000205
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: The current guidelines and recent clinical research in the management of Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) are reviewed. Areas where further research is required will also be highlighted. Recent findings: P. aeruginosa is a key respiratory pathogen in CF. Inhaled tobramycin or colistin is recommended for early eradication to prevent establishment of chronic infection. Other antibiotic options are currently being investigated. The long-term success of eradication strategies is also now being assessed. The use of inhaled antibiotics in the management of chronic P. aeruginosa infection is an area of active investigation. Acute pulmonary exacerbations are still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Guidelines continue to recommend combination intravenous therapy but further research is required to clarify the advantage of this approach. Multidrug resistance is common and potentially more effective antipseudomonal antibiotics may soon become available. Summary: The management of P. aeruginosa respiratory infection in CF remains a challenging area, especially in the setting of multidrug resistance. The role of inhaled antibiotics continues to be expanded. Further research is required in the key areas of eradication and management of chronic infection and acute pulmonary exacerbations to identify those treatments that optimize long-term, clinical benefits.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 11/2015; 28(6):547-556. DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000217
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: To discuss the role of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) lytic replication in viral-associated diseases and assess the progress on targeting KSHV lytic replication as a strategy to prevent KSHV-related malignancies. Recent findings: New inhibitors of viral lytic replication are being developed as well as novel modalities are being investigated to target cellular processes that the virus hijacks during its life cycle. Research has also focused on reactivating viral lytic replication in latently infected tumour cells (lytic induction therapy) to promote death of tumour cells. Summary: KSHV is linked to three malignancies: Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman disease. Despite significant progress in understanding KSHV pathobiology, no therapeutic guidelines for the management of KSHV-related diseases exist, and current treatments are suboptimal and associated with toxicity. Antiherpesvirus drugs have shown inconsistent results in KSHV-associated malignancies that harbour the virus in a latent state. However, lytic replication plays a crucial role in the process of tumorigenesis. Therefore, not only antiviral agents directed against the virus replicative cycle but also agents that target cellular processes that are activated by the virus are being investigated. Antivirals may also be used in combination with inducers of the viral lytic stage.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 11/2015; 28(6):611-624. DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000213
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: The majority of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in the United Kingdom and many developing countries were acquired through injecting. New clinical guidance suggests that HCV treatment should be offered to people with a transmission risk - such as people who inject drugs (PWID) - irrespective of severity of liver disease. We consider the strength of the evidence base and potential problems in evaluating HCV treatment as prevention among PWID. Recent findings: There is good theoretical evidence from dynamic models that HCV treatment for PWID could reduce HCV chronic prevalence and incidence among PWID. Economic evaluations from high-income settings have suggested HCV treatment for PWID is cost-effective, and that in many settings HCV treatment of PWID could be more cost-effective than treating those at an equivalent stage with no ongoing transmission risk. Epidemiological studies of older interferon treatments have suggested that PWID can achieve similar treatment outcomes to other patient groups treated for chronic HCV. Impact and cost-effectiveness of HCV treatment is driven by the potential 'prevention benefit' of treating PWID. Model projections suggest that more future infections, end stage liver disease, and HCV-related deaths will be averted than lost through reinfection of PWID treated successfully for HCV. However, there is to date no empirical evidence from trials or observational studies that test the model projections and 'prevention benefit' hypothesis. In part this is because of uncertainty in the evidence base but also there is unlikely to have been a change in HCV prevalence due to HCV treatment because PWID HCV treatment rates historically in most sites have been low, and any scale-up and switch to the new direct acting antiviral has not yet occurred. There are a number of key uncertainties in the data available on PWID that need to be improved and addressed to evaluate treatment as prevention. These include estimates of the prevalence of PWID, measurements of HCV chronic prevalence and incidence among PWID, and how to interpret reinfection rates as potential outcome measures. Summary: Eliminating HCV through scaling up treatment is a theoretical possibility. But empirical data are required to demonstrate that HCV treatment can reduce HCV transmission, which will require an improved evidence base and analytic framework for measuring PWID and HCV prevalence.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 11/2015; 28(6):576-582. DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000216
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: We review and offer our clinical perspectives on the emergence of echinocandin-resistant Candida. Recent findings: Candida FKS gene mutations attenuate echinocandin activity, but overall mutation rates among clinical isolates remain low (Candida glabrata, ∼4%; other species, <1%). Rates are higher with prior echinocandin exposure, exceeding 50% among C. glabrata or Candida albicans isolates causing breakthrough invasive candidiasis. The median duration of prior echinocandin exposure among FKS mutant isolates is ∼100 days. The clinical usefulness of echinocandin susceptibility testing is limited by the low overall prevalence of resistance, and uncertainties surrounding testing methods and interpretation of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). In single-center studies, caspofungin resistance (defined using institution-specific MIC breakpoints) was 32-53% sensitive and 75-95% specific for predicting treatment outcomes of C. glabrata invasive candidiasis; corresponding values for the presence of an FKS mutation were 35-41% and 90-98%. Results were similar using anidulafungin and micafungin MICs. Clinical data are scarce for non-C. glabrata species. Summary: Echinocandins remain preferred agents against invasive Candida infections. Susceptibility testing and FKS genotypic testing do not have roles in routine clinical practice, but may be useful in newly-diagnosed patients who are echinocandin-experienced or those who have not responded to echinocandin treatment.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 11/2015; 28(6):514-522. DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000215
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: Treatment of chronic disease in a manner that promotes compliance and patient adherence has necessitated the consideration for drug delivery approaches that reduce the burden of regimens requiring daily treatment. Long-acting injectable (LAI) products have been developed in many disease areas and are now being exploited for the treatment of infectious disease, most notably HIV. Recent findings: Research published over the past 3 years has shown that LAI nanosuspensions of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and integrase inhibitors provide extended exposure to the active drug over a period of days to weeks. Some of these candidates are currently in clinical study and are highly anticipated medications for the prevention of HIV. Summary: LAIs represent a growing need in the treatment of chronic infections. To date, the approach has been most successfully applied in the treatment of HIV, but could certainly be expanded into other diseases like tuberculosis. Most importantly, LAIs can provide a means to help prevent the emergence of resistance which may be attributed to lack of compliance to regimens requiring daily, oral administration.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 11/2015; 28(6):603-610. DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000214
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    ABSTRACT: This review summarizes recent important and interesting articles investigating the challenging treatment of the parasitic infection, leishmaniasis. In addition, it compares and contrasts leishmaniasis clinical practice treatment guidelines. Studies show that, in contrast to experience in India, visceral leishmaniasis in East Africa requires higher doses of liposomal amphotericin for effective treatment results and that pentavalent antimonial drugs remain efficacious. A retrospective study of visceral leishmaniasis in organ transplant patients suggests that there may be a role for secondary prophylaxis after treatment akin to HIV coinfection recommendations. The pros and cons of oral therapy with miltefosine, which cuts across leishmaniasis syndromes in its spectrum, are discussed. Cutaneous leishmaniasis clinical practice guidelines vary, although the recent European guidelines favor species-directed therapy. Leishmaniasis remains a neglected tropical disease, with a need for additional clinical trials with better design and reported endpoints to lead evidence-based treatment recommendations - especially in cutaneous leishmaniasis and leishmaniasis in the immunocompromised host.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 10/2015; 28(5):426-37. DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000194
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: Hepatitis B is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis. Interferon (IFN)-based therapies provide the highest likelihood of achieving off-treatment virological and serological control although their use is often avoided because of the side-effect profile. We review recent developments regarding the use of IFN in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B, including proposed strategies to enhance efficacy while limiting treatment exposure for patients who are unlikely to achieve acceptable treatment endpoints. Recent findings: The utility of host genetics (human leukocyte antigen associations and interleukin 28B) is yet to be defined. In hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive disease, add-on IFN therapy to patients on entecavir may allow curtailment of nucleos(t)ide analogue treatment. In HBeAg-negative disease, an on-treatment stopping rule that measures decline of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B virus DNA at 12 and 24 weeks may identify up to two-thirds of poor responders. Prolonging IFN therapy to 96 weeks in patients with HBeAg-negative disease may improve virological and serological response rates. The combination of telbivudine and IFN therapy is contraindicated because of high rates of peripheral neuropathy. Summary: These findings need to be confirmed in larger trials before they can be instituted into routine clinical practice.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 09/2015; 28(6). DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000209
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: To discuss current understanding of the mechanisms of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) tumorigenesis and current and potential treatment strategies for adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATL), an aggressive malignant disease of CD4 cells caused by HTLV-1. Recent findings: Treatment of the aggressive subtypes of ATL remains inadequate, with little improvement in overall survival in the 30 years since HTLV-1 was discovered. Detailed analysis of the clonal expansion of HTLV-1 has provided new insight into pathogenesis. Most HTLV-1-infected cells, including ATL, express CCR4 which can be targeted. Reports of antitumour effects with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation provide a rationale for novel immunotherapy approaches. Progress has been made in the indolent subtypes of ATL with the use of 'antiviral' therapies. Summary: ATL has poor prognosis. There is a major, urgent, unmet clinical need to identify HTLV carriers who will develop ATL to develop biomarkers of transforming disease and disease progression and to provide novel treatment approaches within the context of clinical trials. Several strategies now include putative or actual antiviral therapy. Potentially, the risk of ATL would be reduced by eliminating some or all infected clones. HTLV-1 infection, and hence ATL, can be prevented by antenatal HTLV-1 screening.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 09/2015; 28(6). DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000207
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: Fever and neutropenia is the most common complication in the treatment of childhood cancer. This review will summarize recent publications that focus on improving the management of this condition as well as those that seek to optimize translational research efforts. Recent findings: A number of clinical decision rules are available to assist in the identification of low-risk fever and neutropenia however few have undergone external validation and formal impact analysis. Emerging evidence suggests acute fever and neutropenia management strategies should include time to antibiotic recommendations, and quality improvement initiatives have focused on eliminating barriers to early antibiotic administration. Despite reported increases in antimicrobial resistance, few studies have focused on the prediction, prevention, and optimal treatment of these infections and the effect on risk stratification remains unknown. A consensus guideline for paediatric fever and neutropenia research is now available and may help reduce some of the heterogeneity between studies that have previously limited the translation of evidence into clinical practice. Summary: Risk stratification is recommended for children with cancer and fever and neutropenia. Further research is required to quantify the overall impact of this approach and to refine exactly which children will benefit from early antibiotic administration as well as modifications to empiric regimens to cover antibiotic-resistant organisms.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 09/2015; 28(6). DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000208
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: Recent studies suggest that contemporary antibiotic dosing is unlikely to achieve best outcomes for critically ill patients because of extensive pharmacokinetic variability and altered pharmacodynamics. Dose adaptation is considered quite challenging because of unpredictable dose-exposure relationships. Consequently, individualization of antibiotic dosing has been advocated. Herein, we describe recent developments in the optimization of antibiotic dosing in the critically ill. Recent findings: Conventional doses of many antibiotics frequently result in sub or supratherapeutic exposures in the critically ill. Clinical studies continue to illustrate that dose-exposure relationships are highly variable in severely ill patients. Dose optimization based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic principles can effectively improve antibiotic exposure. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) with adaptive feedback is likely to be the most robust approach to optimize dosing for individual patients. This more accurate approach to dosing is made possible with the user-friendly dosing software that is emerging. Summary: The scope of TDM is broadening from the traditional focus on prevention of toxicity, to include optimization of antibiotic exposure thereby improving patient outcomes. However, the evidence relating TDM practice with improved clinical outcome remains limited. Well designed, multicentre, randomized controlled studies are warranted.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 09/2015; 28(6). DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000206
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. In contrast to adults, detailed information of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many antifungal compounds is lacking in pediatric patients, and antifungal agents that have been proven to be effective in adults have not been licensed for children. We therefore review the current literature on drugs and dosing for antifungal prophylaxis in the pediatric age group. Recent findings: Although there are only few compounds approved for antifungal prophylaxis in children, an increasing number of reports describe safety and suggest efficacy of agents given to prevent IFD in the pediatric population. Owing to the small number of children included in most studies, however, evidence for efficacy has to be extrapolated from studies in adults. In addition, most studies do not address the optimal dosage of a compound to prevent IFD (optimal balance between efficacy and toxicity). Summary: Although there is a wide use of prophylactic antifungal agents in children, future studies need to establish the optimal dosing of each compound.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 09/2015; 28(6). DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000210
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: Neutropenic fever is the most common infective complication in patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy, and may result in severe sepsis, septic shock and mortality. Advancements in approaches to empiric antimicrobial therapy and prophylaxis have resulted in improved outcomes. Mortality may, however, still be as high as 50% in high-risk cancer populations. The objective of this review is to summarize factors associated with reduced mortality in patients with neutropenic fever, highlighting components of clinical care with potential for inclusion in quality improvement programs. Recent findings: Risks for mortality are multifactorial, and include patient, disease and treatment-related factors. Historically, guidelines for management of neutropenic fever have focused upon antimicrobial therapy. There is, however, a recognized need for early identification of sepsis to enable timely administration of antibiotic therapy and for this to be integrated with a whole of systems approach within healthcare facilities. Use of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome criteria is beneficial, but validation is required in neutropenic fever populations. Summary: In the context of emerging and increasing infections because of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in patients with neutropenic fever, quality improvement initiatives to reduce mortality must encompass antimicrobial stewardship, early detection of sepsis, and use of valid tools for clinical assessment. C-reactive protein and procalcitonin hold potential for inclusion into clinical pathways for management of neutropenic fever.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 09/2015; 28(6). DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000202
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: Despite the availability of new antifungals and improved antifungal formulations, there is a continued need for the development of new drugs to treat invasive fungal infections. In high-risk populations, including heavily immunocompromised patients, those with multiple comorbidities, and patients in intensive care settings, invasive fungal infections remain a significant problem, and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. In addition, concerns of increasing antifungal resistance to available agents further highlight the need for new drugs to treat these infections. Recent findings: Recent studies have reported potent in-vitro activity for several investigational agents, including both yeasts and moulds. This in-vitro activity has also translated into in-vivo efficacy in animal models of various invasive fungal infections, including those caused by isolates that are resistant to clinically available agents. These agents include those with mechanisms of action similar to available agents and those that target fungi by novel means. Summary: Several new antifungal agents are currently in various stages of development. This is promising, as there is a continued need for new agents to treat invasive fungal infections. Which ones will receive approval for clinical use and their impact in patients with these infections remain unknown.
    Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 09/2015; 28(6). DOI:10.1097/QCO.0000000000000203