Behavioural pharmacology (Behav Pharmacol)
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Publications in this journal
Article: Noradrenergic neurotransmission within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulates the retention of immobility in the rat forced swimming test.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a limbic structure that has a direct influence on the autonomic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral responses to stress. It was recently reported that reversible inactivation of synaptic transmission within this structure causes antidepressant-like effects, indicating that activation of the BNST during stressful situations would facilitate the development of behavioral changes related to the neurobiology of depression. Moreover, noradrenergic neurotransmission is abundant in the BNST and has an important role in the regulation of emotional processes related to the stress response. Thus, this study aimed to test the hypothesis that activation of adrenoceptors within the BNST facilitates the development of behavioral consequences of stress. To investigate this hypothesis, male Wistar rats were stressed (forced swimming, 15 min) and 24 h later received intra-BNST injections of vehicle, WB4101, RX821002, CGP20712, or ICI118,551, which are selective α1, α2, β1, and β2 adrenoceptor antagonists, respectively, 10 min before a 5-min forced swimming test. It was observed that administration of WB4101 (10 and 15 nmol), CGP20712 (5 and 10 nmol), or ICI118,551 (5 nmol) into the BNST reduced the immobility time of rats subjected to forced swimming test, indicating an antidepressant-like effect. These findings suggest that activation of α1, β1, and β2 adrenoceptors in the BNST could be involved in the development of the behavioral consequences of stress.Behavioural pharmacology 06/2013; 24(3):214-21.
Article: Evaluation of functional relationship between mouse hippocampal cholinergic and nitrergic systems in anxiogenic-like behavior.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although a body of evidence shows the crucial role of hippocampal nitrergic and cholinergic systems in the modulation of anxiety, little is known about their functional relationship with regard to anxiety. The present study investigated the relationship between intra-CA1 administration of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (mecamylamine) and a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor [Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)] or its precursor (L-arginine) in anxiety-related behaviors. Mice received bilateral intra-CA1 injections of either L-NAME or L-arginine in the presence of mecamylamine and were subsequently tested in the elevated plus maze. A dose of 0.5 μg/0.5 μl mecamylamine bilaterally administered into CA1 did not change the percentage of open arm time (%OAT) or the percentage of open arm entries (%OAE) in the elevated plus maze task and thus was considered as a subeffective dose. Intra-CA1 administration of either L-arginine (1 and 1.5 μg/0.5 μl, bilaterally) or L-NAME (at 60 ng/0.5 μl, bilaterally) decreased %OAT, which represents an anxiogenic-like effect. Coadministration of the subeffective dose of mecamylamine together with the lower doses of L-NAME (10 and 30 ng/0.5 μl, bilaterally) or L-arginine (0.5 μg/0.5 μl, bilaterally) led to a decrease in %OAT and %OAE. Thus, both L-NAME and L-arginine showed anxiogenic-like effects, but the effects of mecamylamine were too small to support a functional relationship between the hippocampal cholinergic and nitrergic systems.Behavioural pharmacology 06/2013; 24(3):229-236.
Article: Exposure to histone deacetylase inhibitors during Pavlovian conditioning enhances subsequent cue-induced reinstatement of operant behavior.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) strengthen memory following fear conditioning and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference. Here, we examined the effects of two nonspecific HDACIs, valproic acid (VPA) and sodium butyrate (NaB), on appetitive learning measured by conditioned stimulus (CS)-induced reinstatement of operant responding. Rats were trained to lever press for food reinforcement and then injected with VPA (50-200 mg/kg, i.p.), NaB (250-1000 mg/kg, i.p.), or saline vehicle (1.0 ml/kg), 2 h before receiving pairings of noncontingent presentation of food pellets preceded by a tone+light cue CS. Rats next underwent extinction of operant responding followed by response-contingent re-exposure to the CS. Rats receiving VPA (100 mg/kg) or NaB (1000 mg/kg) before conditioning displayed significantly higher cue-induced reinstatement than did saline controls. Rats that received either vehicle or VPA (100 mg/kg) before a conditioning session with a randomized relation between presentation of food pellets and the CS failed to show subsequent cue-induced reinstatement with no difference between the two groups. These findings indicate that, under certain contexts, HDACIs strengthen memory formation by specifically increasing the associative strength of the CS, not through an increasing motivation to seek reinforcement.Behavioural pharmacology 04/2013;
Article: Involvement of opioidergic and nitrergic systems in memory acquisition and exploratory behaviors in cholestatic mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bile duct ligation (BDL) is an animal model used in cholestatic disease research. Both opioidergic and nitrergic systems are known to be involved in cholestasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible interaction between these two systems in BDL-induced memory formation and exploratory behaviors in mice. Male mice weighing 25-30 g were divided into nonoperated controls, sham-operated, and BDL groups. One-trial step-down and hole-board paradigms were used to assess memory acquisition and exploratory behaviors, respectively. Cholestasis did not alter memory acquisition while increasing exploratory behaviors 7 days after BDL. A pretraining intraperitoneal injection of L-arginine (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg), or naloxone (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/kg) did not alter memory acquisition or exploratory behaviors, whereas morphine (5 and 7.5 mg/kg) decreased memory acquisition in sham-operated animals. Moreover, although injection of L-NAME and naloxone exerted no effect on memory acquisition in the 7 days post-BDL mice, L-arginine (100 and 200 mg/kg) and morphine (2.5, 5, and 7.5 mg/kg) injection reduced it. In contrast, L-NAME and naloxone, but not morphine or L-arginine, reduced the BDL-induced exploratory behaviors. Coadministration of subthreshold doses of morphine (1.25 mg/kg) and L-arginine (50 mg/kg) caused a memory deficit in 7 days post-BDL mice. However, the memory deficit induced by the effective doses of morphine (2.5 mg/kg) or L-arginine (200 mg/kg) in these mice was restored by the administration of either naloxone (0.5 mg/kg) or L-NAME (40 mg/kg). In addition, naloxone and L-NAME reduced the exploratory behaviors in L-arginine-pretreated mice but not in morphine-pretreated mice. We conclude that there appears to be a synergistic effect between opioidergic and nitrergic systems on memory acquisition and exploratory behaviors in cholestatic mice.Behavioural pharmacology 04/2013;
Article: Nitric oxide mediates the beneficial effect of chronic naltrexone on cholestasis-induced memory impairment in male rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent studies suggest an augmentation of endogenous opioids following bile duct ligation (BDL) and their pivotal role in the pathophysiology of cholestasis. In this study, the effect of naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, was determined on cholestasis-induced memory impairment and the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in this effect. Male Albino-Wistar rats were randomized to sham-operated and BDL-operated groups. In each group, animals were treated for up to 28 days with saline; naltrexone (10 mg/kg); naltrexone and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nonselective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (3, 10 mg/kg); naltrexone and aminoguanidine, an inducible NOS inhibitor (100 mg/kg); or methylnaltrexone, a peripherally acting opioid receptor antagonist (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Spatial recognition memory was determined in a Y-maze task on the day before surgery and days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after surgery. Memory performance was impaired 14 days after BDL in cholestatic rats and was significantly reversed by chronic treatment with naltrexone at days 14, 21, and 28 after BDL. On day 21 after BDL, chronic L-NAME produced only a nonsignificant decrease in the beneficial effect of naltrexone, whereas on day 28, chronic administration of both L-NAME and aminoguanidine significantly reversed this effect of naltrexone. It is therefore shown in this study that naltrexone improves BDL-induced memory deficit in rats. We conclude that the memory impairment in cholestatic rats might be because of an increase in the level of endogenous opioids and that naltrexone improved the spatial recognition memory by antagonizing opioid receptors. The observation that the procognitive effect of naltrexone is counteracted either by general inhibition of NOS enzymes or by selective inhibition of inducible NOS suggests the nitrergic pathway as a probable mechanism involved in the amelioration of spatial recognition memory by naltrexone in BDL rats.Behavioural pharmacology 04/2013;
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ABSTRACT: In addition to sensory disturbances, neuropathic pain is associated with an ongoing and persistent negative affective state. This condition may be reflected as altered sensitivity to rewarding stimuli. We examined this hypothesis by testing whether the rewarding properties of morphine are altered in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was induced by chronic constriction of the common sciatic nerve. Drug reward was assessed using an unbiased, three-compartment conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. The rats underwent two habituation sessions beginning 6 days after surgery. Over the next 8 days, they were injected with drug or vehicle and were confined to one CPP compartment for 30 min. On the following test day, the rats had access to all three compartments for 30 min. Consistent with the literature, systemic administration of morphine dose-dependently increased the CPP in pain-naive animals. In rats with neuropathic pain, however, the dose-dependent effects of morphine were in a bell-shaped curve, with a low dose of morphine (2 mg/kg) producing a greater CPP than a higher dose of morphine (8 mg/kg). In a separate group of animals, acute administration of morphine reversed mechanical allodynia in animals with neuropathic pain at the same doses that produced a CPP. The increased potency of systemic morphine to produce a CPP in animals with neuropathic pain suggests that the motivation for opioid-induced reward is different in the two states.Behavioural pharmacology 04/2013;
Article: Cerebral ischemia-induced difference in sensitivity to depression and potential therapeutics in rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The 'vascular depression' hypothesis has recently attracted significant research attention, although the causal relationship between vascular-related injuries and depression has not been established. Here, we show that one episode of cerebral ischemia was sufficient to greatly increase the sensitivity of rats to potentially depressogenic events, evaluated at below-threshold intensities in the open space swim test. The induced 'ischemic depression' was lasting and sensitive to an acute administration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor or bryostatin-1, a relatively selective activator of protein kinase Cε, during the induction phase. Chronic treatment with bryostatin-1 (5 weeks) after the induction of depressive behavior reversed the depressive immobility and produced a lasting therapeutic effect, which remained effective 3 weeks after discontinuation of the treatment. Similar treatment with alaproclate, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in contrast, produced temporary relief from the depressive symptoms, with the therapeutic effect disappearing soon after the end of the treatment. The results strongly suggest that cerebral ischemia has a direct role in shaping the sensitivity of an individual to depressogenic events and that bryostatin-1-like agents may be developed as therapeutics for treating ischemic depression in humans.Behavioural pharmacology 04/2013;
Article: Agmatine attenuates acquisition but not the expression of ethanol conditioned place preference in mice: a role for imidazoline receptors.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effect of agmatine on acquisition and expression of ethanol conditioned place preference (CPP) and its modulation by imidazoline agents. Swiss albino mice were treated intraperitoneally with saline or agmatine (20-40 mg/kg) before injection of ethanol (1.25 mg/kg) during conditioning days or on a test day (20-120 mg/kg), to observe the effect on acquisition or expression of CPP, respectively. Agmatine inhibited the acquisition but not the expression of ethanol CPP. Furthermore, both the I1 receptor antagonist, efaroxan (9 mg/kg) and the I2 receptor antagonist, BU224 (5 mg/kg) attenuated the agmatine-induced inhibition of the ethanol CPP acquisition. In contrast, the I2 receptor agonist, 2-BFI (5 mg/kg) and I1 receptor agonist, moxonidine (0.4 mg/kg) alone, or a combination of their subeffective doses, significantly attenuated the effect of agmatine (20 mg/kg) on acquisition of ethanol CPP. Agmatine or imidazoline agents alone produced neither place preference nor aversion, and at the doses used in the present study did not affect locomotor activity. Thus, agmatine attenuates the acquisition of ethanol CPP at least in part by imidazoline (I1 or I2) receptors. In future studies, agmatine or agents acting at the imidazoline receptors could be explored for their therapeutic potential in ethanol dependence.Behavioural pharmacology 04/2013; 24(2):87-94.
Article: Depressive-like behaviour induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin in mice: the protective effect of fluoxetine, antitumour necrosis factor-α and thalidomide therapies.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Information on the effect of an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) on noncognitive behaviour in rodents such as depression states is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the depressive-like effect of STZ injected by the i.c.v. route in mice and the potential protective effect of fluoxetine, antitumour necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) and thalidomide. Our results indicated that a single injection of STZ (0.1 mg/site) promoted depressive-like behaviour in the tail suspension and sucrose preference tests without altering either locomotor activity or plasma glucose levels. We also showed that STZ increased TNF-α levels in the hippocampus of mice. Fluoxetine (32 mg/kg, intraperitoneally. 30 min before STZ injection), and the anti-TNF-α antibody (0.1 pg/site, i.c.v.) and thalidomide (3 mg/kg, subcutaneously), coadministered with STZ, prevented these effects. This is the first study to report depressive-like effects of STZ using the i.c.v. route in mice. We concluded that fluoxetine, anti-TNF-α antibody and thalidomide were effective in preventing depressive-like behaviour and the increase in TNF-α levels in the hippocampus of mice induced by an i.c.v. injection of STZ, reinforcing the involvement of TNF-α in the pathophysiology of depression. This model and the mechanisms studied may contribute towards the development of new antidepressant drugs and enhance the options for studying depression.Behavioural pharmacology 04/2013; 24(2):79-86.
Article: The influence of acutely administered nicotine on cue-induced craving for gambling in at-risk video lottery terminal gamblers who smoke.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Evidence indicates that tobacco use and gambling often co-occur. Despite this association, little is known about how tobacco use affects the propensity to gamble. Nicotine, the putative addictive component of tobacco, has been reported to potentiate the hedonic value of other nonsmoking stimuli. Environmental cues have been identified as an important contributor to relapse in addictive behavior; however, the extent to which nicotine can affect the strength of gambling cues remains unknown. This study examined whether nicotine influences subjective ratings for gambling following gambling cues. In a mixed within/between-subjects design, 30 (20 men) video lottery terminal (VLT) gamblers ('moderate-risk' or 'problem' gamblers) who smoke daily were assigned to nicotine (4 mg deliverable) or placebo lozenge conditions. Subjective and behavioral responses were assessed at baseline, following lozenge, following neutral cues, and following presentation of gambling cues. Nicotine lozenge was found to significantly reduce tobacco-related cravings (P<0.05) but did not affect gambling-related cravings, the choice to play a VLT, or other subjective responses. These results suggest that a low dose of acutely administered nicotine does not increase cue-induced craving for gambling in at-risk VLT gamblers who smoke.Behavioural pharmacology 04/2013; 24(2):124-32.
Article: Inhibition of Gβγ-subunit signaling potentiates morphine-induced antinociception but not respiratory depression, constipation, locomotion, and reward.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inhibition of Gβγ-subunit signaling to phospholipase C β3 has been shown to potentiate morphine-mediated antinociception while attenuating the development of tolerance and dependence in mice. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Gβγ-subunit inhibition on antinociception and other pharmacological effects, such as respiratory depression, constipation, and hyperlocomotion, mediated by the μ-opioid receptor. The Gβγ-subunit inhibitor, gallein, was administered to C57BL/6J mice by intraperitoneal injection before morphine, and data were compared with mice treated with vehicle, morphine, or gallein alone. Morphine-induced antinociception was measured using the 55°C warm-water tail-withdrawal test. Pretreatment with gallein produced a dose-dependent potentiation of morphine-mediated antinociception, producing up to a 10-fold leftward shift in the morphine dose-response curve and extending the duration of antinociception induced by a single dose of morphine. Gallein pretreatment also prevented acute antinociceptive tolerance induced by morphine. In contrast, the dose-dependent respiratory depression and hyperlocomotion induced by morphine were not potentiated by gallein pretreatment. Similarly, gallein pretreatment did not potentiate morphine-conditioned place preference responses or morphine-induced constipation, as measured as a reduction in excreta. These results suggest that selectively inhibiting Gβγ-mediated signaling may selectively increase μ-opioid receptor-mediated antinociception without matching increases in adverse physiological effects.Behavioural pharmacology 04/2013; 24(2):144-52.
Article: The effects of mGlu7 receptor modulation in behavioural models sensitive to antidepressant action in two mouse strains.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence suggesting a role of the neurotransmitter glutamate in depression. The metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are G-protein coupled receptors, which mediate a slow modulatory response to glutamate signalling. mGlu7 receptor is a presynaptic inhibitory autoreceptor showing great promise as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of depression. Selective pharmacological modulators of mGlu7 receptor have been developed; the positive allosteric modulator AMN082 and the negative modulator 6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-methyl-3-(4-pyridinyl)-isoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-4(5H)-one hydrochloride (MMPIP). They remain to be extensively characterized in behavioural models sensitive to antidepressant action. Therefore, we assessed the effects of these compounds on behaviour in two different mouse strains using several preclinical tests sensitive to antidepressant pharmacological action. AMN082 (6 mg/kg) reduced immobility in the forced swim test and tail suspension test (TST) in both C57BL/6j and CD1 mice. In CD1 mice, MMPIP (10 and 30 mg/kg) significantly increased the time spent immobile in the TST, whereas this effect was restricted to a dose of 30 mg/kg in C57BL/6j mice. Administration of MMPIP with AMN082 partially attenuated the antidepressant-like effect of AMN082 in C57BL/6j mice in the forced swim test and the TST. However, this effect was absent from the CD1 strain. This further adds to the growing corpus of data promoting the targeting of mGlu7 receptor with the aim of achieving an antidepressant effect.Behavioural pharmacology 04/2013; 24(2):105-13.
Article: Ovarian hormones and the heterogeneous receptor mechanisms mediating the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol in female rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Past studies have suggested that progesterone-derived ovarian hormones contribute to the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol, particularly via progesterone metabolites that act at γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. It is unknown whether loss of ovarian hormones in women, for example, after menopause, may be associated with altered receptor mediation of the effects of ethanol. The current study measured the substitution of allopregnanolone, pregnanolone, pentobarbital, midazolam, dizocilpine, TFMPP, and RU 24969 in female sham and ovariectomized rats trained to discriminate 1.0 g/kg ethanol from water. The groups did not differ in the substitution of GABAA-positive modulators (barbiturates, benzodiazepines, neuroactive steroids) or the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist dizocilpine. Similarly, blood-ethanol concentration did not differ between the groups, and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone, progesterone, pregnenolone, and deoxycorticosterone were unchanged 30 min after administration of 1.0 g/kg ethanol or water. However, substitution of neuroactive steroids and RU 24969, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A/1B receptor agonist, was lower than observed in previous studies of male rats, and TFMPP substitution was decreased in ovariectomized rats. Ovarian hormones appear to contribute to 5-HT receptor mediation of the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol in rats.Behavioural pharmacology 04/2013; 24(2):95-104.
Article: Peer influences on drug self-administration: an econometric analysis in socially housed rats.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Social-learning theories of substance use propose that members of peer groups influence the drug use of other members by selectively modeling, reinforcing, and punishing either abstinence-related or drug-related behaviors. The objective of the present study was to examine the social influences on cocaine self-administration in isolated and socially housed rats, under conditions where the socially housed rats were tested simultaneously with their partner in the same chamber. To this end, male rats were obtained at weaning and housed in isolated or pair-housed conditions for 6 weeks. Rats were then implanted with intravenous catheters and cocaine self-administration was examined in custom-built operant conditioning chambers that allowed two rats to be tested simultaneously. For some socially housed subjects, both rats had simultaneous access to cocaine; for others, only one rat of the pair had access to cocaine. An econometric analysis was applied to the data, and the reinforcing strength of cocaine was measured by examining consumption (i.e. quantity demanded) and elasticity of demand as a function of price, which was manipulated by varying the dose and ratio requirements on a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement. Cocaine consumption decreased as a function of price in all groups. Elasticity of demand did not vary across groups, but consumption was significantly lower in socially housed rats paired with a rat without access to cocaine. These data suggest that the presence of an abstaining peer decreases the reinforcing strength of cocaine, thus supporting the development of social interventions in drug abuse prevention and treatment programs.Behavioural pharmacology 04/2013; 24(2):114-23.
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ABSTRACT: Relative reinforcing effects of different ethanol and different cocaine doses were studied under concurrent independent fixed-ratio (FR) schedules and concurrent nonindependent FR schedules with rhesus monkeys. Nonindependent FR schedules differed from independent FR schedules in that responses on either side counted towards the FR requirements of two concurrently presented choices. Thus, responses on the right operandum counted toward completion of both right and left FR schedules and, symmetrically, responses on the left did the same. Nonindependent schedules allow the number of responses per drug delivery to vary considerably, unlike independent schedules, thereby making the number of responses per delivery a sensitive dependent variable. In contrast, standard independent schedules do not allow responses per drug delivery to vary; the required number of responses is an independent variable. Three rhesus monkeys were subjects, and choices between different doses of ethanol or cocaine were studied. Larger doses maintained higher response rates than smaller doses - consistent with previous choice studies. By using nonindependent schedules, however, graded responses per drug delivery and increased switching between sides were obtained, providing additional data and useful measures of choice.Behavioural pharmacology 03/2013;
Article: Spatial discrimination and visual discrimination: two methods evaluating learning and memory in juvenile Göttingen minipigs.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Two methods investigating learning and memory in juvenile Göttingen minipigs were evaluated for potential use in preclinical toxicity testing. Twelve minipigs were tested using a spatial hole-board discrimination test including a learning phase and two memory phases. Five minipigs were tested in a visual discrimination test. The juvenile minipigs were able to learn the spatial hole-board discrimination test and showed improved working and reference memory during the learning phase. Performance in the memory phases was affected by the retention intervals, but the minipigs were able to remember the concept of the test in both memory phases. Working memory and reference memory were significantly improved in the last trials of the memory phases. In the visual discrimination test, the minipigs learned to discriminate between the three figures presented to them within 9-14 sessions. For the memory test, all minipigs performed 9/12 correct choices or better. Juvenile Göttingen minipigs are able to learn to perform in a spatial hole-board discrimination test as well as in a visual discrimination test, showing an increase in performance over time. Both tests have considerable scope to assess learning and memory of pigs, and we seem to have succeeded in establishing two test systems suitable for performing preclinical toxicity testing in juvenile minipigs.Behavioural pharmacology 03/2013;
Article: Subacute fluoxetine enhances conditioned responding and conditioning-specific reflex modification of the rabbit nictitating membrane response: implications for drug treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Extensive research on the rabbit nictitating membrane response (NMR) has shown that the NMR reflex can become exaggerated following classical fear conditioning. This learning-related change is referred to as conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM) and is observed in the absence of the conditioned stimulus. The aim of the current study was to examine the sensitivity of the CRM paradigm to serotonergic manipulation with fluoxetine, a commonly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for anxiety disorders. To assess the effect of fluoxetine on exaggerated reflexive responding indicative of CRM and on conditioned cued fear, rabbits underwent delay NMR conditioning (pairings of tone and periorbital shock) and were tested for CRM, followed by 5 days of daily fluoxetine (0.03, 0.3, or 3.0 mg/kg) or saline injections. CRM was reassessed 1 day and 1 week later, followed by a retention test of conditioned responses (CRs) to the tone. Fluoxetine (3.0 mg/kg) enhanced CRM and retention of conditioned responses, a week after treatment ceased, and this is in agreement with the reports on increased anxiety-like behaviors in other animal models and humans. The CRM paradigm, therefore, may provide important insight into the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor effects.Behavioural pharmacology 02/2013; 24(1):55-64.
Article: The antinociceptive properties of the novel compound (±)-trans-4-hydroxy-6-propyl-1-oxocyclohexan-2-one in acute pain in mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The compound (±)-trans-4-hydroxy-6-propyl-1-oxocyclohexan-2-one [(±)-δ-lactone] was isolated from the plant Vitex cymosa Bertero, and determined to be the active principle. The present study aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of (±)-δ-lactone and to elucidate its mechanism of action. Mice were subjected to in-vivo models of acute pain (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests) and the open-field test. (±)-δ-Lactone, administered orally (6-900 µmol/kg), exerted a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests. (±)-δ-Lactone administered by the intrathecal (i.t.) and subplantar (s.p.) routes (10-600 nmol) exerted concentration-dependent antinociceptive effects in the formalin test, showing its spinal and peripheral activity, respectively. In the hot-plate test, (±)-δ-lactone was also active when administered i.t., confirming its spinal effect. The previous intraperitoneal (i.p.) application of naloxone, yohimbine, mecamylamine or glibenclamide did not alter the effect produced by the i.t. administration of (±)-δ-lactone, whereas the previous application of atropine and L-arginine significantly reduced its effects in the formalin and hot-plate tests. The previous i.p. application of L-NAME enhanced the antinociceptive effect of the i.t. administration of (±)-δ-lactone in the formalin and hot-plate tests. The previous i.p. application of L-NAME and L-arginine increased and decreased, respectively, the activity of (±)-δ-lactone administered by s.p. administration. These results indicate that (±)-δ-lactone has significant spinal and peripheral antinociceptive activity, and that its effects are at least partially mediated by a reduced nitric oxide production/release, most likely through mechanisms involving the cholinergic system.Behavioural pharmacology 02/2013; 24(1):10-19.
Article: Interoceptive conditioning with the nicotine stimulus: extinction learning as a method for assessing stimulus similarity across doses.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interoceptive conditioning involving the nicotine stimulus likely contributes to chronic tobacco use. To better understand the nature of this interoceptive conditioning, we compared generalization during repeated extinction with generalization in a 'transfer of extinction' test using a wide range of test doses. Rats were first trained in the discriminated goal-tracking task in which nicotine (0.2 or 0.4 mg/kg), but not saline, was paired with repeated intermittent access to sucrose. Across sessions, nicotine acquired control of approach behavior directed at the location of previous sucrose deliveries. Extinction followed with eight 20-min sessions without sucrose access; extinction doses of nicotine ranged from 0.05 to 0.6 mg/kg. In rats trained with 0.4 mg/kg, the 0.1, 0.2, and 0.6 mg/kg doses evoked comparable responding across extinction sessions; substitution was only partial at 0.05 and 0.075 mg/kg (i.e. above saline controls, but less than the training dose). With the 0.2 mg/kg training dose, complete generalization was seen only at the 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg doses. After extinction, rats were given a transfer test with their training dose. Rats trained with 0.4 mg/kg showed full transfer of extinction learning with 0.1, 0.2, and 0.6 mg/kg (i.e. responding comparable with extinction with the training dose). Partial transfer was observed at 0.075 mg/kg. With the 0.2 mg/kg nicotine dose, only 0.4 mg/kg fully generalized; 0.075, 0.1, and 0.6 mg/kg showed partial transfer. Extinction with 0.05 mg/kg dose did not show transfer to either training dose. These findings indicated that conclusions regarding stimulus similarity across nicotine doses can vary with testing protocol.Behavioural pharmacology 02/2013; 24(1):45-54.
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