European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)

Publisher: European Cancer Prevention Organisation, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

Journal description

Current impact factor: 2.76

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.764
2012 Impact Factor 2.974
2011 Impact Factor 2.13
2010 Impact Factor 2.536
2009 Impact Factor 2.205
2008 Impact Factor 1.865
2007 Impact Factor 1.632
2006 Impact Factor 1.993
2005 Impact Factor 1.764
2004 Impact Factor 1.785
2003 Impact Factor 1.673
2002 Impact Factor 1.685
2001 Impact Factor 1.938
2000 Impact Factor 1.351
1999 Impact Factor 1.287
1998 Impact Factor 0.853
1997 Impact Factor 0.7

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 6.80
Immediacy index 0.30
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.61
Other titles European journal of cancer prevention (Online), European journal of cancer prevention
ISSN 1473-5709
OCLC 362263375
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
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    • 12 months embargo
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    • Pre-print must be removed upon acceptance for publication
    • Post-print may be deposited in personal website or institutional repository
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must include statement that it is not the final published version
    • Published source must be acknowledged with full citation
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Must link to publisher version
    • NIH authors will have their accepted manuscripts transmitted to PubMed Central on their behalf after a 12 months embargo (see policy for details)
    • Wellcome Trust and HHMI authors will have their accepted manuscripts transmitted to PubMed Central on their behalf after a 6 months embargo (see policy for details)
    • Publisher last reviewed on 19/03/2015
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thyroid cancer incidence and diagnostic radiography exposures, particularly computed tomography (CT) scanning and nuclear medicine examinations, have increased substantially in the USA. However, very few epidemiologic studies have directly investigated their associations. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Connecticut in 2010-2011, including 462 histologically confirmed incident thyroid cancer cases and 498 population-based controls. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between diagnostic radiography and the risk of thyroid cancer, controlling for potential confounding factors. Exposure to any form of diagnostic radiography was associated with an increased risk of well-differentiated thyroid microcarcinoma [tumor size≤10 mm, odds ratio (OR)=2.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-5.81]. The highest risk increase occurred with nuclear medicine examinations (excluding cardiology tests and thyroid uptake studies; OR=5.47, 95% CI: 2.10-14.23), followed by chest CT scanning (OR=4.30, 95% CI: 1.66-11.14), head and neck CT scanning (OR=3.88, 95% CI: 1.75-8.63), upper gastrointestinal series (OR=3.56, 95% CI: 1.54-8.21), lower gastrointestinal series (OR=3.29, 95% CI: 1.41-7.66), kidney radiography involving dye injection into a vein or artery (OR=3.21, 95% CI: 1.20-8.54), mammography (OR=2.95, 95% CI: 1.14-7.61), chest radiography (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.37-6.29), and abdomen CT scanning (OR=2.54, 95% CI: 1.02-6.30). No significant associations were found between these imaging modalities and thyroid tumors larger than 10 mm. This study provides the first direct evidence that CT scanning and nuclear medicine examinations are associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer. The novel finding that an array of diagnostic radiography procedures are associated with thyroid microcarcinomas warrants further investigation.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 04/2015; DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000169
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    ABSTRACT: The association between BMI and cervical cancer risk is not clear. This meta-analysis was carried out to estimate the association between overweight and obesity and cervical cancer risk. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, LILACS, and SciELO for observational studies addressing the association between BMI and cervical cancer until February 2015. Data were independently extracted and analyzed using odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), on the basis of random-effects models. We identified a total of 3543 references and included nine studies with 128 233 participants. On the basis of the results of case-control and cohort studies, the association between cervical cancer and overweight was estimated to be 1.03 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.25) and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.17), respectively. According to the results of case-control and cohort studies, the association between cervical cancer and obesity was estimated to be 1.40 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.71) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.52), respectively. No evidence of heterogeneity and publication bias was observed. The findings from this meta-analysis indicate that overweight is not associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer, but obesity is weakly associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer. However, more evidence, based on large prospective cohort studies, is required to provide conclusive evidence on whether or not BMI is associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 04/2015; DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000164
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of the relationships of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), glutathione-S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and suppressor of the cytokine signalling 1 (SOCS1) promoter region methylation with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have yielded inconsistent results. We carried out the current meta-analysis to comprehensively assess the associations between APC, GSTP1 and SOCS1 promoter methylation frequency and the risk of HCC. All relevant reports were identified by searching the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI and the Chinese BioMedical Literature databases before 1 March 2014, with restriction to articles published in the Chinese and English languages. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to investigate the rates of APC, GSTP1 and SOCS1 promoter methylation and the risk of HCC. Our meta-analysis identified relationships of APC (12 studies with 592 HCC tumour tissues), GSTP1 (13 studies including 646 HCC tumour tissues) and SOCS1 (11 studies with 512 HCC tumour tissues) promoter methylation with the risk of HCC. Compared with paracancerous tissues, the pooled ORs of APC, GSTP1 and SOCS1 promoter region methylation in HCC cancer tissues were 5.32 (95% CI=2.96-9.56), 5.65, (95% CI=3.41-9.35) and 2.73 (95% CI=1.37-5.44), respectively. Compared with normal liver tissues as controls, the pooled ORs of APC, GSTP1 and SOCS1 promoter region methylation in HCC cancer tissues were 20.43 (95% CI=5.56-75.08), 18.78 (95% CI=5.76-61.19) and 13.00 (95% CI=5.20-32.47), respectively. Subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that APC, GSTP1 and SOCS1 promoter methylation was associated significantly with the risk of HCC in both Asian and White populations (all P<0.05). Our meta-analysis suggested strong associations between APC, GSTP1 and SOCS1 gene promoter methylation and the risk of HCC, suggesting these to be promising biomarkers for HCC.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 04/2015; DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000121
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim is to investigate the risk association between allopurinol use and cancer incidence among gout patients using clinical evidence. Newly diagnosed male patients with gout, 20 years or older, were included after excluding those who had a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, and were followed up for 12 years in a retrospective cohort study of one million outpatients of a national database. The gout patients were matched to male controls by age and first diagnosis date of gout disease. We then estimated the risk associations between incident cancers and duration of allopurinol use by Cox hazard regression, age-adjusted standardized incidence ratio, and incidence per 1000 person-years. A total of 24 050 gout patients and 76 129 controls were included. The incidence of all-cause cancers for gout patients and controls was 8.26 cases and 7.49 cases/1000 person-years, respectively; it was markedly increased in gout patients who used allopurinol for over 90 days. The hazard ratio of all-cause cancers was 1.21 (95% confidence interval=1.03-1.42, P=0.019) after adjustment for age and 2.26 for bladder cancer (95% confidence interval=1.32-3.87, P=0.003) on comparing those who used allopurinol for over 90 days with nonusers. Meanwhile, other cancers did not show the same significant result. We concluded that those who used allopurinol for a long duration had a higher occurrence of both bladder cancer and all-cause cancers in clinical evidence.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 03/2015; DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000161
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    ABSTRACT: The haemoglobin concentration measured by faecal immunochemical tests (FIT) may be decreased in cases of delayed sample return or high temperature. It is an issue of great importance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sample return time and of season on the performance of an FIT (FOB-Gold) with a new buffer. The study included 20 371 participants involved in the French organized colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme. The probability of a positive screening test, detection rates and positive predictive values for CRC and advanced adenoma were analysed according to sample return time and season of screening. A sample of positive FIT was stored for 7 days in an incubator at 20°C or 30°C. The positivity rate was 4.1% for a sample return time of up to 3 days, 4.1% for 4-5 days and 4.6% for 6-7 days (P=0.25). In multivariate analysis, there was no association between positivity rates, detection rates and positive predictive values for CRC and advanced adenoma and the sample return time or the season of screening. At a constant temperature of 20°C, there was a decrease in the haemoglobin concentration of 5.1% after 7 days. The decrease reached 20.5% at a temperature of 30°C. It was only 4.5% during the first 4 days of storage in the incubator. With the new buffer, delay in sample return or season did not affect the clinical outcome. When temperatures reach 30°C, the faecal sample must be returned promptly.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 03/2015; DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000153
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic variation in DNA repair genes can modulate DNA repair capacity and may be related to the risk of cancer. The human papillomavirus is considered to be a necessary but not sufficient cause for cervical cancer and, therefore, other factors contribute to the carcinogenesis. A hereditary component for this neoplasia has been reported. Evaluation of the association of six polymorphisms was carried out in the following DNA repair genes: XRCC1 (Arg194Trp, Arg280His, and Arg399Gln), ERCC1 (Asp118Asp), ERCC2 (Lys751Gln), and ERCC4 (Arg415Gln). The cases (n=110) included 65 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and 45 squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL). Controls (n=68) were recruited from among women without cervical abnormalities. Genotypes were determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing. A positive association was observed between the polymorphisms of XRCC1 genes, that is, in codons 194 [P=0.001, odds ratio (OR)=20.1, 95% confidence interval (CI)=5.9-68.8], 280 (P=0.001, OR=5.4, 95% CI=2.3-12.6), and 399 (P=0.008, OR=4.2, 95% CI=1.5-12.1) and cervical cancer. SIL patients also showed a significant association with codon 194 (P=0.012, OR=3.8, 95% CI=1.3-10.6), but not with 280 (P=0.35) and 399 (P=0.81). A positive correlation was also found in ERCC4 Gln415Gln in both SCCs and SILs (P=0.001, OR=21.3, 95% CI=7.1-64.0 and P=0.001, OR=7.8, 95% CI=2.9-20.9, respectively). For ERCC2 Gln751Gln, the association was significant for both SCCs (P=0.001, OR=10.1, 95% CI=2.6-37.9) and SILs (P=0.001, OR=8.9, 95% CI=2.8-28.3). However, the risk of SCC did not appear to differ significantly among individuals with the ERCC1 Asp118Asp genotype (P=0.404). For SILs, it appeared to be a protective genotype (95% CI=0.1-0.7). This study indicates that variant types of DNA repair genes play an important role in modifying individual susceptibility to SCC.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 03/2015; DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000159
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we investigated the effects of the combination of all-transretinoic acid (ATRA) and natural nontoxic C-phycocyanin (C-PC) on the growth of A549 lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the anticancer mechanism of the drug combination was revealed. Results showed both C-PC and ATRA could inhibit the growth of A549 cells in vivo. The combination of ATRA+C-PC could yield a higher inhibition rate. C-PC exerted a major effect on the proliferation of human embryo lung cells, but ATRA at a high concentration exerted an inhibitory effect. In addition, ATRA+C-PC could decrease the CDK4 mRNA level, but upregulated caspase-3 protein expression and induced cell apoptosis. A mouse model with tumor was constructed by a subcutaneous injection to the left axilla of nu nude (NU/NU) mice. Compared with the control group, the tumor weight was decreased in the single-drug treatment group and was the lowest in the combination group. C-PC+ATRA could upregulate tumor necrosis factor levels and downregulate Bcl-2 expression and the cyclin D1 gene in the tumor. C-PC could promote T cells' activities and spleen weight, but a single use of ATRA exerted an opposite effect. The dosage of ATRA could be reduced when combined with C-PC to reduce the toxic side-effects. In summary, the antitumor effects of the C-PC+ATRA combination were more significant than a single drug in vivo and in vitro.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 03/2015; DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000157
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the most common neoplasm in men in western countries. The use of strategies for primary prevention and early diagnosis is a usual procedure, but there is considerable controversy on their benefits. Recent data from several remarkable studies have contributed more uncertainty toward this issue. We review the available evidence and suggest some general recommendations for prostate cancer primary prevention and screening.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 03/2015; DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000149
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    ABSTRACT: Coinciding with the increased incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) during the past decades, there has been a significant increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in mainland China. We therefore evaluated whether type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with the risk of NHL using data from the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS) and the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS). The SMHS and SWHS are two on-going, prospective, population-based cohorts of more than 130 000 Chinese adults in urban Shanghai. Self-reported diabetes was recorded on the baseline questionnaire and updated in follow-up surveys. Cox regression models with T2D as a time-varying exposure were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for covariates. After a median follow-up of 12.9 years for SWHS and 7.4 years for SMHS, 172 NHL cases were identified. Patients with T2D have a higher risk of incident NHL with a hazard ratio of 2.00 (95% confidence interval: 1.32-3.03) compared with those without diabetes. This positive association remained when the analysis was restricted to untreated diabetes or after excluding NHL cases that occurred within 3 years after the onset of diabetes. No interaction effect was found in the development of NHL between T2D and other potential risk factors. A linear inverse association was found between T2D duration and the risk of NHL in both men and women (Pfor linearity<0.01), with a highest risk of incident NHL in the first 5 years after the diagnosis of diabetes. Our study suggested that T2D might be associated with an increased risk of NHL.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 03/2015; DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000150
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation contributes to colorectal carcinogenesis. To determine whether serum cytokines are associated with colon polyps, 126 asymptomatic men (48-65 years) were recruited during colonoscopy. Serum cytokine concentrations were measured. Odds ratios were determined using polytomous logistic regression for polyp number and type. Men with serum monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3) or soluble interleukin-4 receptor (sIL-4R) concentrations in the highest tertile were 0.2 times less likely to have three or more polyps relative to no polyps. For each increase in serum MCP-3 or sIL-4R tertile a man was about 0.4 times less likely to have three or more polyps than to have no polyps. Men with serum concentrations of interferon-α2 (IFN-α2) or interleukin (IL)-7 in the highest tertile were three times more likely to have an adenoma than no polyps. Those with serum IL-8 concentrations in the highest tertile were four times more likely to have an adenoma than no polyps. For each increase in serum IFN-α2, IL-7, or IL-8 tertile an individual was 1.8 times more likely to have an adenoma than to have no polyps. Serum concentrations of MCP-3, sIL-4R, IFN-α2, IL-7, and IL-8 may indicate which men are more likely to have colorectal polyps.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 03/2015; DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000160
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    ABSTRACT: The fecal immunochemical test (FIT) that quantifies hemoglobin concentration is reported to be better than qualitative FIT and the reason for its superiority has not been interpreted. To evaluate and understand the superiority of quantitative FIT, a representative randomly selected population (n=2355) in Jiashan County, China, aged 40-74 years was invited for colorectal cancer screening in 2012. Three fecal samples were collected from each participant by one optimized and two common sampling devices, and then tested by both quantitative and qualitative FITs. Colonoscopy was provided independently to all participants. The performances of five featured screening strategies were compared. A total of 1020 participants were eligible. For screening advanced neoplasia, the positive predictive value (PPV) and the specificity of the strategy that tested one sample dissolved in an optimized device by quantitative FIT [PPV=40.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 27.1-54.6; specificity=96.8%, 95% CI: 95.7-98.0] were significantly improved over the strategy that tested one sample dissolved in the common device by qualitative FIT (PPV=14.1%, 95% CI: 8.2-19.9; specificity=87.9%, 95% CI: 85.8-89.9), whereas the sensitivity did not differ (39.2 and 37.3%, P=0.89). Similar disparity in performance was observed between the strategies using qualitative FIT to test one sample dissolved in optimized (PPV=29.5%, 95% CI: 18.1-41.0; specificity=95.3%, 95% CI: 94.0-96.7) versus common sampling devices. High sensitivity for advanced neoplasia was observed in the strategy that tested two samples by qualitative FIT (52.9%, 95% CI: 39.2-66.6). Quantitative FIT is better than qualitative FIT for screening advanced colorectal neoplasia. However, the fecal sampling device might contribute most significantly toward the superiority of quantitative FIT.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 03/2015; DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000154
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the availability of effective surveillance for colorectal cancer with colonoscopy, chemoprevention might be an acceptable alternative. Statins are potent inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis. In clinical trials, statins have been found to be beneficial in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. However, the overall benefits observed with statins appear to be greater than what might be expected from changes in lipid levels alone, suggesting effects beyond cholesterol lowering. This systematic review aimed to gather information on the possible chemopreventive role of statins in preventing carcinogenesis and tumor promotion by a diverse array of mechanisms in both sporadic and colitis-associated cancer in animal models. The MEDLINE database was thoroughly searched using the following keywords: 'statin, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, colon cancer, mice, rats, chemoprevention, colitis-associated cancer'. Additional articles were gathered and evaluated. There are a lot of clinical studies and meta-analyses, as well as a plethora of basic research studies implementing cancer cell lines and animal models, on the chemopreventive role of statins in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, data derived from clinical studies are inconclusive, yet they show a tendency toward a beneficial role of statins against CRC pathogenesis. Thus, more research on the molecular pathways of CRC tumorigenesis as related to statins is warranted to uncover new mechanisms and compare the effect of statins on both sporadic and colitis-associated cancer in animal models. Basic science results could fuel exclusive colitis-associated cancer clinical trials to study the chemopreventive effects of statins and to differentiate between their effects on the two types of CRCs in humans.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 03/2015; DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000152
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    ABSTRACT: Although outdoor air pollution has been identified as carcinogenic to humans, the magnitude of the relative risk (RR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) for lung cancer in relation to outdoor air pollution remain uncertain. On a global scale, we quantified the risk of lung cancer associated with long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution using a meta-analytic approach. Relevant cohort studies from two databases (PubMed and Web of Science) through 31 May 2014 were searched, and a total of 21 cohort studies were identified in the analysis. The risk of lung cancer mortality or morbidity increased 7.23 (95% CI: 1.48-13.31)%/10 μg/m increase in fine particles (PM2.5), 13.17 (95% CI: 5.57-21.30)%/10 parts per billion (ppb) increase in nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 0.81 (95% CI: 0.14-1.49)%/10 ppb increase in nitrogen oxides (NOx), and 14.76 (95% CI: 1.04-30.34)%/10 ppb increase in sulfur dioxide (SO2). These positive associations remained when analysis was restricted to never-smokers or studies with high methodological quality, and showed no difference by sex. In addition, the association of fine particles with lung cancer was suggestively stronger among never-smokers (RR per each 10 μg/m=1.18, 95% CI: 1.06-1.32). There was a null association for carbon monoxide and ozone. Our study indicated that long-term exposure to PM2.5, NO2, NOx, and SO2 may be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Although the magnitude of the RR is relatively small, our finding, if validated, may be of public health importance because a large proportion of the population is exposed to air pollution globally.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 03/2015; DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000158
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    ABSTRACT: Calorie restriction or a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) can increase life span in normal cells while inhibiting carcinogenesis. Various phytochemicals also have calorie restriction-mimetic anticancer properties. We investigated whether an isocaloric carbohydrate-restriction diet and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-activating phytochemicals induce synergic tumor suppression. We used a mixture of AMPK-activating phytochemical extracts including curcumin, quercetin, catechins, and resveratrol. Survival analysis was carried out in a B16F10 melanoma model fed a control diet (62.14% kcal carbohydrate, 24.65% kcal protein and 13.2% kcal fat), a control diet with multiple phytochemicals (MP), LCD (16.5, 55.2, and 28.3% kcal, respectively), LCD with multiple phytochemicals (LCDmp), a moderate-carbohydrate diet (MCD, 31.9, 62.4, and 5.7% kcal, respectively), or MCD with phytochemicals (MCDmp). Compared with the control group, MP, LCD, or MCD intervention did not produce survival benefit, but LCDmp (22.80±1.58 vs. 28.00±1.64 days, P=0.040) and MCDmp (23.80±1.08 vs. 30.13±2.29 days, P=0.008) increased the median survival time significantly. Suppression of the IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, activation of the AMPK/SIRT1/LKB1pathway, and NF-κB suppression were the critical tumor-suppression mechanisms. In addition, SIRT1 suppressed proliferation of the B16F10 and A375SM cells under a low-glucose condition. Alterations in histone methylation within Pten and FoxO3a were observed after the MCDmp intervention. In the transgenic liver cancer model developed by hydrodynamic transfection of the HrasG12V and shp53, MCDmp and LCDmp interventions induced significant cancer-prevention effects. Microarray analysis showed that PPARα increased with decreased IL-6 and NF-κB within the hepatocytes after an MCDmp intervention. In conclusion, an isocaloric carbohydrate-restriction diet and natural AMPK-activating agents induce synergistic anticancer effects. SIRT1 acts as a tumor suppressor under a low-glucose condition.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 03/2015; DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000141
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D plays a significant role in our health, including cancer incidence and mortality. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may affect its activity, influencing the risk of cancer. Several studies have investigated VDR SNPs, but the association with the risk of cancer is controversial. Here, we present a meta-analysis to assess the association of TaqI, ApaI, and Cdx2 SNPs with the risk of cancer. A systematic literature search was performed following a predefined protocol and using validated search strategies. This meta-analysis shows the summary odd ratio (SOR) overall, by cancer sites and by ethnicity. Up to January 2014, we identified 73 independent studies with 35 525 cases and 38 675 controls. The meta-analysis of Cdx2 gg versus GG showed a significant 12% increased risk for all cancers [SOR=1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.25]. The other SNPs analyzed did not show an overall significant association with the risk of cancer: SOR=0.98 (95% CI: 0.90-1.07) and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.95-1.19) for TaqI tt versus TT and ApaI aa versus AA, respectively. TaqI shows a significant 43% increased risk for colorectal cancer (SOR=1.43; 95% CI: 1.30-1.58 for tt vs. TT). Strong frequency variations are present among different ethnic groups. This meta-analysis showed an overall increased risk of cancer associated with Cdx2 SNP and a specific higher risk of colorectal cancer associated with the TaqI polymorphism. The VDR genotype might become more relevant when clustered in a specific haplotype, associated with other SNPs of genes involved in vitamin D metabolism, or for specific tumors and/or patient characteristics.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 03/2015; DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000132
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    ABSTRACT: Socioeconomic status (SES) differences in attitudes towards cancer have been implicated in the differential screening uptake and the timeliness of symptomatic presentation. However, the predominant emphasis of this work has been on cancer fatalism, and many studies focus on specific community subgroups. This study aimed to assess SES differences in positive and negative attitudes towards cancer in UK adults. A population-based sample of UK adults (n=6965, age≥50 years) completed the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer scale, including six belief items: three positively framed (e.g. 'Cancer can often be cured') and three negatively framed (e.g. 'A cancer diagnosis is a death sentence'). SES was indexed by education. Analyses controlled for sex, ethnicity, marital status, age, self-rated health, and cancer experience. There were few education-level differences for the positive statements, and overall agreement was high (all>90%). In contrast, there were strong differences for negative statements (all Ps<0.001). Among respondents with lower education levels, 57% agreed that 'treatment is worse than cancer', 27% that cancer is 'a death sentence' and 16% 'would not want to know if I have cancer'. Among those with university education, the respective proportions were 34, 17 and 6%. Differences were not explained by cancer experience or health status. In conclusion, positive statements about cancer outcomes attract near-universal agreement. However, this optimistic perspective coexists alongside widespread fears about survival and treatment, especially among less-educated groups. Health education campaigns targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged groups might benefit from a focus on reducing negative attitudes, which is not necessarily achieved by promoting positive attitudes.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 03/2015; DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000140