European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)

Publisher: European Cancer Prevention Organisation, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

Description

  • Impact factor
    2.21
  • 5-year impact
    0.00
  • Cited half-life
    6.80
  • Immediacy index
    0.30
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.61
  • Other titles
    European journal of cancer prevention (Online), European journal of cancer prevention
  • ISSN
    1473-5709
  • OCLC
    362263375
  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
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    • 12 months embargo
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    • Pre-print must be removed upon acceptance for publication
    • Post-print may be deposited in personal website or institutional repository
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must include statement that it is not the final published version
    • Published source must be acknowledged with full citation
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Must link to publisher version
    • NIH authors will have their accepted manuscripts transmitted to PubMed Central on their behalf after a 12 months embargo (see policy for details)
    • Wellcome Trust and HHMI authors will have their accepted manuscripts transmitted to PubMed Central on their behalf after a 6 months embargo (see policy for details)
    • If the hybrid open access option is not available, RCUK authors articles will be released as Creative Commons Attirbution Non-Commercial No Derivatives after a 6 months
    • Publisher last reviewed on 10/04/2014
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate all the in-vitro raloxifene (RAL) mechanisms of action on normal, Ishikawa, and different endometrium-derived cell lines to explain the in-vivo RAL endometrial effects, a systematic literature search was performed in the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE ScienceDirect, and the Cochrane Library for the time period between 2002 and 2012. Outcomes were considered in relation to in-vitro stimulatory, inhibitory, or neutral actions of RAL in Ishikawa cell lines compared with different endometrial-derived cell lines (both cancerous and normal endometrium). We also considered all the RAL molecular mechanisms responsible for the in-vitro effects observed. More than 150 articles were available in the scientific database literature, but only 21 fulfilled our selection criteria. Although in-vitro studies appear to yield conflicting results, most evidence has shown that RAL seems to induce endometrial cell mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, and to inhibit estrogen-related cell proliferation and endometrial carcinogenesis by inducing antiangiogenic factors, and reducing cytoskeletal reorganization. If the endometrial safety profile of RAL is confirmed, in the near future, selective estrogen receptor modulators could represent an efficient alternative adjuvant treatment to tamoxifen (TAM) in women with breast cancer considered to be at an increased risk of endometrial disease. The confirmation of the endometrial safety profile could enable the proposal of RAL by clinicians as the most appropriate treatment for BRCA1-2 patients after prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the Spanish population's knowledge of and beliefs regarding the European Code Against Cancer (ECAC) recommendations. This was a cross-sectional, observational, multicentric study that used self-administered surveys. Ten individuals, between the ages of 15 and 69 years old, were enrolled by each participating primary care professional in their respective surgery consultations. This study used 2058 individuals who were recruited by 205 professionals from 106 health centres. Their average age was 41.5 years (52.2% women). The majority believe that smoking [94.1%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 93.1-95.2], sun exposure (91%; 95% CI: 89.7-92.3) and alcoholism (72.1%; 95% CI: 70.1-74.1) are factors related to cancer. The least relevant are infection by the hepatitis B virus (25.7%; 95% CI: 23.8-27.7) and having multiple sexual partners (25%; 95% CI: 23.1-26.9). In all, 86.7% (95% CI: 85.2-88.2) had never heard about the ECAC. Patients adequately identify the carcinogenic effect of tobacco, alcohol or sun exposure. Moreover, they inadequately identify having hepatitis B and multiple sexual partners as being related to cancer. A large majority of individuals have not heard of the ECAC, which raises the need to conduct outreach campaigns at an institutional level and/or through scientific associations and activities promoting health education among primary care professionals.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Oral cancer, representing all the malignancies arising in the oral cavity, is the eighth most diffused neoplasm worldwide. Despite therapeutic improvements, its survival rate has not changed significantly over the past few decades, with a 5-year survival rate slightly above 50%. In this context, a search for new therapeutic strategies is mandatory. Flavonoids, polyphenolic compounds derived from plants, have a broad spectrum of biological activities, including antioxidant and anticancer. They have been proved to counteract the growth of several types of cancer through multiple mechanisms including the inhibition of cell cycle progression, apoptosis induction, and the modulation of intracellular pathways. Because of their multiple biological activities and their safe toxicological profile, flavonoids have been studied widely in the last decade as potential leads for anticancer therapy. Several studies have reported different flavonoid effects according to cancer cell type. In the present review, therefore, we have evaluated the data available on the effect of flavonoids on oral cancer, with the aim of identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying their potential anticancer properties.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Kaposi sarcoma is expressed in four clinical variants, all associated with human herpes virus type 8 infection, namely, classic, endemic, immunosuppression-related and AIDS-related. The latter currently accounts for most of the burden of Kaposi sarcoma in sub-Saharan Africa, reflecting the frequency of HIV infection and its management. We aimed to estimate the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in Mozambique and in its provinces. We estimated the number of incident cases of Kaposi sarcoma by adding up the expected number of endemic and AIDS-related cases. The former were estimated from the rates observed in Kyandondo, Uganda (1960-1971). The latter were computed from the number of AIDS-related deaths in each region, assuming that the ratio between the AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma incident cases and the number of AIDS-related deaths observed in the city of Beira applies to all regions. A total of 3862 Kaposi sarcoma cases were estimated to have occurred in Mozambique in 2007, mostly AIDS-related, in the age group 25-49 years, and in provinces from South/Centre. The age-standardized incidence rates were 36.1/100 000 in men and 11.5/100 000 in women, with a more than three-fold variation across provinces. We estimated a high incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in Mozambique, along with large regional differences. These results can be used to improve disease management and to sustain political decisions on health policies.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 12/2014;
  • European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: As breast cancer (BC) screening identifies many BCs with a good prognosis, which might be overdiagnosed and therefore overtreated, the identification of subgroups with a high risk for aggressive subtypes might be helpful. The aim of this case-case analysis was to investigate the association between epidemiological risk factors and molecular subtypes in a cohort of BC patients. Epidemiological risk factors for 2587 BC patients were obtained using a structured questionnaire and from the patients' charts. The histopathological information (estrogen and progesterone receptor, HER2 and Ki-67) used in the analysis was retrieved from the original pathology reports. Analyses using conditional inference regression trees were carried out on these data. The strongest influence factor on the distribution of the molecular subtypes was age at first diagnosis of BC. An influence of BMI was also identified in patients aged either more than 42 years or 49.6 years or less. Older patients aged more than 49.6 years and perimenopausal women with a BMI of 32.4 kg/m or less were most likely to develop luminal A-like BC. Young patients aged 42 years or less and perimenopausal patients with a BMI more than 32.4 kg/m more often developed triple-negative BC. The study confirmed that age at diagnosis is an important factor influencing the distribution of molecular subtypes. In the perimenopausal group, it may be postulated that BMI plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of BC, defining a subgroup that is more likely to develop triple-negative BC or luminal B-like disease and another group in which there is a more postmenopausal distribution pattern.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing proportion of new cancers is registered in patients who have received a previous cancer diagnosis. As data are inconsistent across studies, we provided information for populations long covered by valid cancer registration. Data were derived from the Swiss cancer Registries of Vaud and Neuchâtel (885 000 inhabitants). Patients diagnosed with a new malignancy (except skin basal and squamous cell carcinomas) during the period 2005-2010 were included. Over the period 2005-2010, 24 859 patients were registered with incident cancer. Of these, 3127 (13%) had multiple primary cancers and 578 (2.3%) were synchronous. Breast, prostate, colorectum, skin, melanomas, and squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SHN) and bladder/ureter were the most common sites of first neoplasms, whereas breast, lung, colorectum, prostate, melanoma, and SHN were the most common sites of second neoplasms. The most common pairing was breast with breast (31% synchronous), followed by the bladder/ureter with the prostate (72% synchronous), prostate with the colorectum, SHN with SHN, and SHN with lung. Five-year crude survival of patients with synchronous cancers (34%) was not significantly lower than that of patients with single neoplasms (39%). This population-based study indicates that about one in eight incident neoplasms in these mature registries are second neoplasms and almost 1/40 patients are diagnosed with synchronous primary cancers. These are related to shared genetic and environmental factors as well as diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. As cancer diagnosis and survival is likely to improve, the proportion of patients with multiple primary cancers will further increase in the future.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Novel treatment strategies are needed for breast cancer chemoprevention. Tamoxifen is the only drug approved for the chemoprevention of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. However, to date, no treatment exists for the chemoprevention of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer. NSAID use is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. However, the biological mechanisms underlying the effect of NSAID on breast cancer are not well defined. NSAIDs inhibit cyclooxygenases, thus preventing the formation of prostaglandins, prostacyclin, and thromboxane. NSAIDs also exert other biological effects, including generation of reactive oxygen species and inhibition of nuclear factor-κB-mediated signals. This review synthesizes the evidence on the COX-2-independent mechanisms of action of aspirin, salicylates, and other NSAIDs on breast cancer.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: According to current guidelines, screening colonoscopy begins at 50 years for the average-risk population, although there are not enough data on the incidence of precancerous lesions of individuals in the preceding decades. To evaluate the prevalence of colorectal polyps including potentially premalignant lesions in asymptomatic, average-risk individuals aged 40-49 versus 50-59 years, we offered total colonoscopy screening to individuals without any lower gastrointestinal symptoms. The primary end point was the prevalence of colorectal adenoma in two age groups. Of a total of 737 studies, 333 participants were 40-49 years old and 407 participants were 50-59 years old. The overall prevalence of adenomas was 11.2 and 16.4% in the group of 40-49 and 50-59 year olds, respectively. Advanced adenoma was more common in 50-59 year olds (1.2 vs. 2.9%). Malignancy was not reported in these groups. Furthermore, 77.5 and 68.6% of adenomas were observed in the distal colon in the groups of 40-49 year olds and 50-59 year olds, whereas in the proximal colon, 22.2 and 57.1% of adenomas in the groups of 40-49 year olds and 50-59 year olds, respectively, were advanced adenomas. In our study, male sex showed an association with adenoma. However, importantly, there was no significant association between age and colorectal adenoma. Although the prevalence of colorectal adenoma was similar in the two age groups investigated, the rate of advanced adenoma was higher in the group of individuals who were 50-59 years old, suggesting that colorectal cancer screening could be recommended at an age younger than 50 years.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to review the National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program (the Program) in Lithuania according to the criteria set by the European Union. In Lithuania, screening services are provided free of charge to the population. The National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) reimburses the institutions for performing each service; each procedure within the Program has its own administrative code. All the information about the performance of the Program is collected in one institution - the NHIF. The results of the Program were retrieved from the database of NHIF from the start of the Program from 1 July 2009 to 1 July 2012. Descriptive analysis of epidemiological indicators was carried out. Results were compared with the references in the guidelines of the European Union for quality assurance in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and diagnosis. Information service [which involves fecal immunochemical test (FIT)] was provided to 271 396 of 890 309 50-74-year-old residents. The screening uptake was 46.0% over 3 years. During this period, 19 455 (7.2%) FITs were positive and 251 941 (92.8%) FITs were negative. Referral for colonoscopy was performed in 10 190 (52.4%) patients. Colonoscopy was performed in 12 864 (66.1%) patients. Colonoscopy did not indicate any pathological findings in 8613 (67.0%) patients. Biopsies were performed in 4251 (33.0%) patients. The rate of high-grade neoplasia reported by pathologists was 3.9%; the rate of cancer was 3.1% of all colonoscopies. The rate of CRC detected by the Program was 0.2%. The CRC screening program in Lithuania meets most of the requirements for standardized CRC screening programs. The invitation coverage and rate of referral for colonoscopy after positive FIT should be improved.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to summarize the current evidence on the strength of associations between tea consumption and the incidence of cancer at different sites. We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library for relevant articles published before October 2013. Prospective studies that reported effect estimates of cancer incidence, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for more than two categories of tea consumption were included. We analysed 87 datasets (57 articles), which included a total of 49 812 incident cases. Overall, high tea consumption had no significant effect on the risk of gastric, rectal, colon, lung, pancreatic, liver, breast, prostate, ovarian, bladder cancers or gliomas. However, high tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of oral cancer (risk ratio 0.72; 95% CI 0.54-0.95; P=0.021). A dose-response meta-analysis suggested that an increase in tea consumption by one cup per day was associated with a reduced risk of oral cancer (risk ratio 0.89; 95% CI 0.80-0.98; P=0.022), but had little effect on the incidence of other cancers. Subgroup analysis indicated that an increase in the consumption of black tea by one cup per day was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Moreover, in western countries, we found that an increase in the consumption of tea by one cup per day was associated with a reduced risk of bladder cancer. Increased tea consumption has no significant effect on the risk of common malignancies. For some cancer types, associations differ according to sex, ethnicity and tea type.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We carried out this study to evaluate the association between mammographic density adjusted for age and BMI and early-onset breast cancer in Asian women. We recruited 213 Korean patients with breast cancer (45% diagnosed before the age of 50 years) and 630 controls matched for age, menopausal status, and examination date. The percentage and absolute size of dense areas on digital mammograms were measured using a computer-assisted thresholding technique (Cumulus). We carried out an analysis using the conditional logistic regression model with adjustment for covariates. An increase by 1 SD in age and BMI-adjusted absolute dense area and percentage dense area was associated with a 1.15-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.29) and 1.20-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.37) increased risk of breast cancer, respectively. These associations were stronger for premenopausal disease (P=0.07 and 0.01, respectively) and for disease diagnosed before age 50 (P=0.07 and 0.02, respectively) than for postmenopausal disease (P=0.16 and 0.23, respectively) or later onset disease (P=0.10 and 0.10, respectively). There was no difference in the associations with premenopausal versus postmenopausal and early-onset versus late-onset disease. After adjusting for age and BMI, both a greater absolute dense area and a greater percentage dense area were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, particularly at a young age.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper was to examine the distribution of fecal hemoglobin (f-Hb) concentration in a Spanish colorectal cancer screening population according to sociodemographic characteristics and analyze whether f-Hb was associated with clinical outcomes (type of lesion and its location). From September 2009 to November 2012, we sent 77 744 invitations to individuals aged 50-69 years to provide one sample of feces. f-Hb was measured on samples from 27 606 screenees (35.5%). Colonoscopy findings and pathology data were collected on the 1406 screenees with f-Hb greater than 100 ng Hb/ml (20 mg Hb/g feces). The Mann-Whitney U-test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare f-Hb (median) according to sociodemographic variables, clinical outcomes, and histological features of adenomas. f-Hb from greater than 100 ng Hb/ml was categorized into quartiles. Regression models were used to determine whether f-Hb was a risk predictor of colorectal lesions. f-Hb was associated directly with the severity of the colorectal lesions. An overlap between individuals with a negative colonoscopy and those with a low-risk adenoma was observed. High-grade dysplasia, villous histology, distal location, and increasing size were all features associated with an increased f-Hb level. f-Hb could be used in individual risk assessment to determine surveillance strategies for colorectal cancer screening.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Application of Bethesda guidelines on cervical cytology involves human papillomavirus (HPV) determinations on all ASC-US and ASC-H results. We compared HPV DNA results in view of the eventual development of a cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesion determined either on cytology or histology. A total of 214 liquid-based cytology samples were analysed. Three different HPV DNA methods were applied: the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test, INNO-Lipa HPV Genotyping Extra and Full Spectrum PCR HPV Amplification and Detection/Genotyping System by Lab2Lab Diagnostic Service. A comparison of these three methods showed full concordance only for 49 samples (23%), and 27 (13%) of the samples were discordant in indicating the presence of the high-risk HPV type. Out of 214 patients, 88 were selected who presented with a cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or a VAIN lesion at follow-up cytology or histology. In this group, full concordance with HPV genotyping was present only in 19 (22%) follow-up samples. Nine (10%) follow-up samples showed discordant results for the presence of a high-risk genotype between the three genotyping methods tested either by negativity for high-risk HPV by one of the methods (n=6) or by failure to genotype HPV (n=2), or by a combination of both (n=1). Moreover, discordance for the detection of HPV16 or HPV18 was observed between the three HPV DNA genotyping methods used in 9 (10%) follow-up samples. In addition, the performance of genotyping methods on 20 external quality samples was assessed, showing discordant results for HPV16 and HPV18. Major differences were found in the genotyping results according to the HPV DNA method. Our findings highlight the importance of careful interpretation of data from studies using different HPV genotyping methods and underline the need for standardization by method validation in clinical laboratories, especially in the setting of primary HPV screening.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate among cancers; however, its nosogenesis is still unclear. Genome-wide association studies have shown that the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene, located in the chromosome 5p15.33 region, is one of the genes associated with the risk of lung cancer. In this case-control study, we genotyped 11 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the TERT gene to evaluate their association with lung cancer risk in the Han Chinese population. Two tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found to be associated with lung cancer risk on using the χ-test: rs4246742 [odds ratio (OR)=0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60-0.98; P=0.03] and rs2853672 (OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.01-1.57; P=0.045). By using SNPStats software we also found rs2242652 (OR=1.47, 95% CI 1.02-2.13; P=0.04) in the dominant model and rs2736098 (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.06-1.80; P=0.017), rs2853672 (OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.11-1.80; P=0.0048), and rs4246742 (OR=0.75, 95% CI 0.58-0.97; P=0.029) in the log-additive model. 'T/C-T/T' of rs10069690 conferred an increased risk for male sex in the dominant model (OR=1.80, 95% CI, 1.05-3.08; P=0.03) and 'TC' increased risk for male sex in the overdominant model (OR=1.85, 95% CI, 1.08-3.17; P=0.031). Our findings, combined with previous studies, suggest that polymorphisms in the TERT gene contribute to the risk for lung cancer in the Chinese Han population.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 11/2014; 23(6):497-501.
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    ABSTRACT: Resveratrol and celecoxib were used as chemopreventive agents in animal models of carcinogenesis, and exert antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on cancer cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether combining resveratrol with celecoxib may exert more potent anticarcinogenic effects than the single agents. Mammary carcinogenesis was initiated in 70 female Sprague-Dawley rats with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU). The chemoprevention with resveratrol, celecoxib, and their combination started 2 weeks before the first carcinogen dose and lasted until the end of the experiment. Tumor incidence and frequency, latency period, tumor volume, the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), and also the formation of reactive oxygen species were analyzed using different methods. In addition, the levels of resveratrol and its metabolites in blood and selected tumor tissues were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Finally, the anticancer effects of the reagents were studied in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Celecoxib as a single agent significantly decreased tumor frequency, prolonged tumor latency, and decreased the total number of malignant tumors compared with the NMU conditions. Tumor volume was nonsignificantly reduced (0.68±0.25 vs. 0.93±0.28 cm). Importantly, the addition of resveratrol to celecoxib reduced tumor volume by 60% compared with celecoxib alone (from 0.68±0.25 to 0.27±0.07 cm, P<0.05). Furthermore, the combination of resveratrol and celecoxib reduced tumor frequency by 29% compared with celecoxib alone (P=0.53). Tumor latency was not influenced by this combination compared with celecoxib alone (126.56±3.45 vs. 120.71±4.08 days). In addition, COX2 mRNA and immunoreactive protein stained on tumor sections were reduced and GDF15 protein increased significantly by the combination studied compared with the NMU conditions. In agreement with these data, a significant reduction in reactive oxygen species in blood lymphocytes of the combination was detected, which may have contributed toward the cancer-preventive effects of this application. This study showed that in NMU-induced mammary cancer in rats, the combination of resveratrol and celecoxib led to a significant reduction in all tumor parameters. In addition, in terms of tumor volume, the combination was more efficient than celecoxib as a single agent.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 11/2014; 23(6):506-513.
  • European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 11/2014; 23(6):566-567.
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    ABSTRACT: Laboratory research suggests that components in coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects. Some epidemiologic studies have reported that women who consume coffee and tea have a lower risk for melanoma. We assessed coffee, tea, and melanoma risk prospectively in the Women's Health Initiative - Observational Study cohort of 66 484 postmenopausal women, followed for an average of 7.7 years. Coffee and tea intakes were measured through self-administered questionnaires at baseline and at year 3 of follow-up. Self-reported incident melanomas were adjudicated using medical records. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate risk, adjusting for covariates, with person-time accumulation until melanoma diagnosis (n=398), death, loss to follow-up, or through 2005. Daily coffee [hazard ratio (HR)=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.12] and tea (HR=1.03, 95% CI 0.81-1.31) intakes were not significantly associated with melanoma risk compared with nondaily intake of each beverage. No significant trends were observed between melanoma risk and increasing intakes of coffee (P for trend=0.38) or tea (P for trend=0.22). Women who reported daily coffee intake at both baseline and year 3 had a significantly decreased risk compared with women who reported nondaily intake at both time points (HR=0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.97). Consistent daily tea intake was not associated with decreased melanoma risk. Overall, there is no strong evidence that increasing coffee or tea consumption can lead to a lower melanoma risk. We observed a decrease in melanoma risk among long-term coffee drinkers, but the lack of consistency in the results by dose and type cautioned against overinterpretation of the results.
    European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 10/2014;