AIDS (London, England) (AIDS )

Publisher: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins


  • Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
  • Cited half-life
  • Immediacy index
  • Eigenfactor
  • Article influence
  • Other titles
    AIDS (London, England: Online)
  • ISSN
  • OCLC
  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Some journals have separate policies, please check with each journal directly
    • Pre-print must be removed upon acceptance for publication
    • Post-print may be deposited in personal website, university's institutional repository or employers intranet
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Must include statement that it is not the final published version
    • Published source must be acknowledged with full citation
    • Must link to publisher version
    • NIH, Wellcome Trust and HHMI authors will have their accepted manuscripts transmitted to PubMed Central on their behalf (see policy for details)
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • AIDS (London, England) 04/2014; 28(7):1065-7.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Current guidelines advise to vaccinate every hepatitis B virus (HBV)-susceptible HIV patient against HBV until sufficient antibody titers have been reached. However, in this era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), acute HBV infection rarely occurs in patients who lack this immune protection. We analyzed whether HBV-active cART (lamivudine, emtricitabine, tenofovir) might work as a preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to explain this effect. From our HIV cohort at the Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis hospital (N = 2942), patients were selected retrospectively for negative HBV serology (HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc-negative) at cohort entry. Men who have sex with men (MSM) with a second HBV serology available were included for analysis. The incidence of anti-HBc conversion was determined and correlated with the use of HBV-active drugs. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests were used to compare HBV-free survival for MSM. In total, 33 HBV infections occurred in 381 eligible MSM over a median follow-up of 2470 days (interquartile range 1146-3871.5). The incident rate per 100 patient-years of follow-up was 1.10 overall, but differed strongly dependent on the use of HBV-active drugs: 2.85/100 patient-years of follow-up in the absence of HBV-active drugs, 1.36 when only lamivudine was used, and 0.14 in the presence of tenofovir. Furthermore, HBV-free survival rate was significantly higher when HBV-active cART was used, in particular when this HBV-active cART contained tenofovir (log-rank P <0.001). Our findings demonstrate that HBV-active cART protects against the occurrence of de-novo HBV infection, most strongly when tenofovir is used.
    AIDS (London, England) 04/2014; 28(7):999-1005.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To use multimodality imaging to explore the relationship of biomarkers of inflammation, T-cell activation and monocyte activation with coronary calcification and subclinical vascular disease in a population of HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Cross-sectional. A panel of soluble and cellular biomarkers of inflammation and immune activation was measured in 147 HIV-infected adults on ART with HIV RNA less than 1000 copies/ml and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) 130 mg/dl or less. We examined the relationship of biomarkers to coronary calcium (CAC) score and multiple ultrasound measures of subclinical vascular disease. Overall, median (interquartile range, IQR) age was 46 (40-53) years; three-quarters of participants were male and two-thirds African-American. Median 10-year Framingham risk score was 6%. Participants with CAC more than 0 were older, less likely to be African-American and had higher current and lower nadir CD4 T-cell counts. Most biomarkers were similar between those with and without CAC; however, soluble CD14 was independently associated with CAC after adjustment for traditional risk factors. Among those with a CAC score of zero, T-cell activation and systemic inflammation correlated with carotid intima-media thickness and brachial hyperemic velocity, respectively. Compared with normal participants and those with CAC only, participants with increasing degrees of subclinical vascular disease had higher levels of sCD14, hs-CRP and fibrinogen (all P < 0.05). Soluble CD14 is independently associated with coronary artery calcification, and, among those with detectable calcium, predicts the extent of subclinical disease in other vascular beds. Future studies should investigate the utility of multimodality imaging to characterize vascular disease phenotypes in this population.
    AIDS (London, England) 04/2014; 28(7):969-77.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HIV 'treatment as prevention' (TasP) describes early treatment of HIV-infected patients intended to reduce viral load and transmission. Crucial assumptions for estimating TasP's effectiveness are the underlying estimates of transmission risk. We aimed to determine transmission risk during primary infection, and describe the relation of HIV transmission risk to viral load. A systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed and Embase databases for studies that established a relationship between viral load and transmission risk, or primary infection and transmission risk, in serodiscordant couples. We analysed assumptions about the relationship between viral load and transmission risk, and between duration of primary infection and transmission risk. We found 36 eligible articles, based on six different study populations. Studies consistently found that higher viral loads lead to higher HIV transmission rates, but assumptions about the shape of this increase varied from exponential increase to saturation. The assumed duration of primary infection ranged from 1.5 to 12 months; for each additional month, the log10 transmission rate ratio between primary and asymptomatic infection decreased by 0.40. Assumptions and estimates of the relationship between viral load and transmission risk, and the relationship between primary infection and transmission risk, vary substantially and predictions of TasP's effectiveness should take this uncertainty into account.
    AIDS (London, England) 04/2014; 28(7):1021-9.
  • AIDS (London, England) 04/2014; 28(7):1079-80.
  • AIDS (London, England) 04/2014; 28(7):1075-7.
  • AIDS (London, England) 04/2014; 28(7):1069-70.
  • AIDS (London, England) 04/2014; 28(7):1077-9.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During their second pregnancy with diagnosed HIV (n = 1177), two-fifths of women in the United Kingdom/Ireland not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at conception had an immunological indication for treatment (CD4 <350 cells/μl), of whom nearly half had CD4 at least 350 cells/μl in their previous pregnancy. Those initiating ART during pregnancy had a 4.3-fold increased odds of detectable viral load at delivery compared with those conceiving on treatment, suggesting that continuation of ART after pregnancy may be beneficial for many women.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivitives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.
    AIDS (London, England) 03/2014;
  • AIDS (London, England) 03/2014; 28(6):932-4.
  • AIDS (London, England) 03/2014; 28(6):925-6.
  • AIDS (London, England) 03/2014; 28(6):934-6.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To estimate the association between immunologic response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and non-AIDS defining cancer (NADC) incidence in HIV-infected patients. A prospective cohort including patients with at least 1 cell/μl CD4 cell count and HIV-1 RNA measure after ART initiation between 1996 and 2011 in the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems, a collaboration of eight HIV clinics at major academic medical centres in the United States. Measures of immunologic response were 6-month CD4 post-ART, latest CD4 and CD4 count-years, a cumulative measure of CD4 lymphopenia. Cox regression with inverse probability-of-exposure weights was used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios of virus-related and virus-unrelated NADC incidence. Among 9389 patients at ART initiation, median CD4 cell count was 200 cells/μl [interquartile range (IQR) 60-332)], and median HIV-1 RNA was 4.8 log10copies/ml (IQR 4.3-5.4). Median follow-up was 3.3 years (IQR 1.5-6.5). After 6 months of ART, median CD4 cell count was 304 cells/μl (IQR 163-469). One hundred and sixty-four NADCs were diagnosed during study follow-up, 65 (40%) considered virus-related. Virus-related NADCs were inversely associated with 6-month CD4 cell count (hazard ratio per 100 cells/μl increase = 0.71), latest CD4 cell count (hazard ratio per 100 cells/μl increase = 0.70) and CD4 cell count-years (hazard ratio per 200 cell-years/μl increase = 0.91) independent of CD4 cell count at ART initiation, age and HIV-1 RNA response. No associations were found with virus-unrelated NADCs. Poor CD4 cell count response was strongly associated with virus-related NADC incidence, suggesting an important role for T-cell mediated immunity in pathogenesis. Lower CD4 cell count proximal to cancer diagnosis may be a result of subclinical cancer. Intensified cancer screening should be considered for patients on ART with low CD4 cell counts.
    AIDS (London, England) 03/2014;
  • AIDS (London, England) 03/2014; 28(6):931-2.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Describing the undiagnosed HIV-infected population is essential for guiding HIV screening policy, implementing interventions, and resource planning. We used French national HIV surveillance data and a back-calculation approach to estimate the number of undiagnosed HIV-infected individuals in France and the distribution of time since HIV infection among undiagnosed individuals. We also used data on CD4 cell count decline to assess the CD4 cell count distribution among undiagnosed individuals. We estimated that 29 000 [95% confidence interval (CI): 24 200-33 900] individuals were living with undiagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2010. Of these, 28.7% (95% CI: 27.1-30.4) were infected less than a year ago, 16.4% (95% CI: 15.0-17.8) more than 5 years ago, and 59.6% (95% CI: 59.2-59.8) were eligible for antiretroviral treatment (CD4 cell count less than 500/μl) according to the 2010 French guidelines. Men represented 70.0% of the undiagnosed HIV-infected individuals and had lower CD4 cell counts than women. The numbers of undiagnosed infections in MSM, non-French national heterosexuals, and French national heterosexuals were similar (9200, 9300, 10 000, respectively). However, because of differences in group size, undiagnosed HIV prevalence varied significantly between these groups (2.95, 0.36, 0.03%, respectively; P less than 0.001). Our findings suggest that many undiagnosed HIV-infected individuals were eligible for treatment and, thus, lack of HIV diagnosis is a lost chance for them; many more heterosexuals than MSM will need to be tested to find those undiagnosed; and universal screening of men may be cost-effective, especially in the areas most affected by the epidemic, such as the Paris region.
    AIDS (London, England) 03/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic performance of the symptom-based tuberculosis (TB) screening questionnaire recommended by WHO for people living with HIV (PLWH) in resource-limited settings, among adults off and on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Cross-sectional study at two HIV clinics in South Africa. A total of 825 PLWH completed the screening questionnaire and underwent investigations [chest radiography (CXR) and microbiologic testing of sputa]. A positive screen was defined as presence of cough, fever, night sweats, or weight loss. Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) was defined as sputum smear positive for acid-fast bacilli or growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Of 737 participants with at least one diagnostic sputum specimen, PTB was diagnosed in 31 of 522 (5.9%) on ART, and 34 of 215 (15.8%) not on ART. The questionnaire missed 15 of 31 (48.4%) PTB cases on ART, and three of 34 (8.8%) not on ART. Among participants on ART, post-test probability of PTB diagnosis (95% confidence interval) was 6.8% (4.0-10.9%) if screening positive, and 5.2% (2.9-8.4%) if screening negative, whereas among participants not on ART, post-test probabilities were 20.3% (14.2-27.5%) and 4.8% (1.0-13.5%), respectively. Among participants diagnosed with PTB, those on ART were significantly less likely to screen positive (adjusted odds ratio 0.04, 95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.39). In both groups (ART and no ART), screening was more sensitive when CXR was incorporated. For case detection and exclusion of PTB, the WHO-recommended questionnaire performed adequately among PLWH not on ART, and poorly among those on ART. Further research is needed to identify feasible and effective TB screening strategies for PLWH in resource-limited settings.
    AIDS (London, England) 03/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A quarter of individuals acutely infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) clear the virus spontaneously. Once chronic infection is established, HCV elimination generally can only be achieved using specific antiviral therapy, such as peg-interferon-ribavirin. Herein, we report a group of chronically HIV/HCV-coinfected patients that cleared HCV spontaneously while being treated only with antiretrovirals. Retrospective analysis of all HIV+ individuals with positive HCV antibodies (HCV-Abs) and negative serum HCV-RNA seen during 2012 at a reference HIV clinic in Madrid. From a total of 2366 HIV+ individuals, 618 (26%) were HCV-Ab+, of whom 387 (62%) were positive for serum HCV-RNA. Individuals HCV-Ab+/HCV-RNA-negative were grouped into two categories - those that had eliminated HCV following a course of antiviral treatment (n = 198, 86%) and those who had cleared the virus spontaneously (n = 33, 14%). Eight with spontaneous clearance were HBsAg+ and might have cleared HCV as a result of viral interference. However, 6 (24%) out of the remaining 25 did so after being serum HCV-RNA+ for longer than 6 months (median 5.6 years, range 1.3-12 years). All harbored IL28B-CC alleles and had undetectable plasma HIV-RNA on HAART around the time of HCV clearance. Spontaneous HCV clearance may occur in a subset of chronically HIV/HCV-coinfected patients on HAART harboring IL28B-CC. Given that antiretrovirals do not display any direct anti-HCV activity, recovery of innate immune responses could be responsible for these late HCV clearance episodes. Thus, periodic testing of serum HCV-RNA may be warranted in chronically HIV/HCV-coinfected patients on HAART harboring IL28B-CC alleles.
    AIDS (London, England) 03/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prior studies have found that early HIV protease inhibitors contribute to glucose dysregulation. Few randomized trials have evaluated glucose indices in antiretroviral-naive individuals on newer antiretroviral therapy (ART). A5224s was a substudy of A5202, a prospective trial of 1857 ART-naive participants randomized to blinded abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or tenofovir DF-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with open-label efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir-ritonavir (ATV/r). Analyses used two-sample t-tests, Spearman correlation coefficients and linear regression. A5224s included 269 nondiabetic individuals: 85% men, 47% white non-Hispanic, baseline median age 38 years, HIV-1 RNA 4.6 log10 copies/ml and CD4 cell count 233 cells/μl. Overall, significant 96-week increases occurred in fasting glucose, insulin and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), P ≤ 0.004. Assignment to EFV (versus ATV/r) resulted in significantly greater glucose increase [mean difference 4.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3, 7.5 mg/dl; P = 0.006] but not insulin or HOMA-IR (P ≥ 0.72). Glucose indices were not significantly different between ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC arms, P ≥ 0.18. Significant correlations were detected between changes in glucose indices and changes in BMI; all r ≥ 0.23, P ≤ 0.001. In multivariable analyses, in addition to the EFV effect, higher baseline HIV-1 RNA and greater BMI change were significant independent factors associated with greater glucose increase. Changes in glucose metabolism were not significantly different between TDF/FTC and ABC/3TC-based regimens. A small but significantly greater increase in glucose was observed in those assigned to EFV. As glucose dysregulation may increase with time on ART, longer term studies will be needed to further clarify the clinical significance of these findings.
    AIDS (London, England) 03/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Xpert MTB/RIF ('Xpert') and urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) assays offer rapid tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, but have suboptimal sensitivity when used individually in HIV-positive patients. The yield of these tests used in combination for the diagnosis of active TB among HIV-infected TB suspects is unknown. Study of comparative diagnostic accuracy nested into a prospective study of HIV-infected individuals with signs and/or symptoms of TB in Uganda. Xpert testing of archived sputum was conducted for culture-confirmed TB cases and TB suspects in whom a diagnosis of TB was excluded. Additional testing included sputum smear microscopy, sputum culture (solid and liquid media), mycobacterial blood culture, and urinary testing for LAM using a lateral flow test ('LF-LAM') and an enzyme-linked immunosorbance assay ('ELISA-LAM'). Among 103 participants with culture-confirmed TB, sensitivity of Xpert was 76% (95% confidence interval, CI 0.66-0.84), and was superior to that of LF-LAM (49%, 95% CI 0.39-0.59, P < 0.001). Specificity was greater than 97% for both tests among 105 individuals without TB. The combination of smear microscopy and LF-LAM identified 67% (95% CI 0.57-0.76) of culture-confirmed TB cases and approached sensitivity of Xpert testing alone (P = 0.15). The sensitivity of the combination of Xpert and LF-LAM was 85% (88/103 95% CI 0.77-0.92), which was superior to either test alone (P < 0.05) and approached sensitivity of sputum liquid culture testing (94%, 95% CI 0.88-0.98, P = 0.17). Sputum Xpert and urinary LAM assays were complementary for the diagnosis of active TB in HIV-infected patients, and sensitivity of the combination of these tests was superior to that of either test alone.
    AIDS (London, England) 03/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) remain prevalent in patients who receive HAART and may be associated with cumulative exposure to antiretroviral medications and other factors. We proposed that chronic toxic effects of antiretroviral drugs could contribute to cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), which might be one of the key underpinnings of HAND. Clinicopathological cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults in the California NeuroAIDS Tissue Network. We employed multivariable logistic regression methods to determine associations between HAART exposure (protease inhibitor-based, nonprotease inhibitor-based, or no HAART) and CSVD occurrence (standard histopathology: moderate/severe, mild, or absent). We also associated HAND (relative to normal cognition) with CSVD, HIV-related neuropathologic changes, older age at death (≥50 years), sex, or hepatitis C virus infection. We found that both mild and moderate/severe CSVD were associated with protease inhibitor-based HAART exposure after adjusting for diabetes mellitus [odds ratio (OR) 2.8 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.03-7.9) and 2.6 (95% CI 1.03-6.7), respectively, n = 134]. Moderate/severe CSVD was associated with diabetes after adjusting for HAART exposure [OR 7.4 (95% CI 1.6-70.7), n = 134]. Notably, HAND was associated with mild CSVD [OR 4.8 (95% CI 1.1-21.2), n = 63], which remained statistically significant after adjusting for vessel mineralization, HIV encephalitis, microglial nodular lesions, white matter lesions, or older age. Protease inhibitor-based HAART exposure may increase the risk of CSVD and thereby neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected adults. Apart from the possible direct toxicity to cerebral small vessels, protease inhibitor-based HAART may contribute indirectly to CSVD by inducing metabolic abnormalities.
    AIDS (London, England) 03/2014;

Related Journals