Plant and Cell Physiology (Plant Cell Physiol)

Publisher: Nihon Shokubutsu Seiri Gakkai; Oxford University Press; HighWire Press, Oxford University Press (OUP)

Journal description

Plant and Cell Physiology is an international journal devoted to the publication of original papers in the biological sciences including: physiology biochemistry biophysics chemistry molecular biology cell biology and gene engineering of plants and micro-organisms.

Current impact factor: 4.98

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 4.978
2012 Impact Factor 4.134
2011 Impact Factor 4.702
2010 Impact Factor 4.257
2009 Impact Factor 3.594
2008 Impact Factor 3.542

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 4.30
Cited half-life 7.90
Immediacy index 1.07
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 1.35
Website Plant and Cell Physiology website
Other titles Plant & cell physiology (Online), Plant and cell physiology
ISSN 1471-9053
OCLC 45088618
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Oxford University Press (OUP)

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print can only be posted prior to acceptance
    • Pre-print must be accompanied by set statement (see link)
    • Pre-print must not be replaced with post-print, instead a link to published version with amended set statement should be made
    • Pre-print on author's personal website, employer website, free public server or pre-prints in subject area
    • Post-print in Institutional repositories or Central repositories
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany archived copy (see policy)
    • Eligible authors may deposit in OpenDepot
    • The publisher will deposit in PubMed Central on behalf of NIH authors
    • Publisher last contacted on 19/02/2015
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Oxford University Press (OUP)'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown that external application of micromolar magnesium (Mg) can increase legumes' resistance to aluminum (Al) stress by enhancing Al-induced citrate exudation. However, the exact mechanism underlying this regulation remains unknown. In this study, the physiological and molecular mechanisms by which Mg enhances Al-induced citrate exudation to alleviate Al toxicity were investigated in broad bean. Micromolar concentrations of Mg that alleviated Al toxicity paralleled the stimulation of Al-induced citrate exudation and increased the activity of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase. Northern blot analysis shows that a putative MATE-like gene (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) was induced after treatment with Al for 4, 8 and 12 h. Whereas, the mRNA abundance of the MATE-like gene showed no significant difference between Al plus Mg and Al-only treatments during the entire treatment period. Real-time RT-PCR and western blot analyses suggest that the transcription and translation of the PM H(+)-ATPase were induced by Al but not by Mg. In contrast, immunoprecipitation suggests that Mg enhanced the phosphorylation levels of VHA2 and its interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein under Al stress. Taken together, our results suggest that micromolar concentrations of Mg can alleviate the Al rhizotoxicity by increasing PM H(+)-ATPase activity and Al-induced citrate exudation in YD roots. This enhancement is likely attributable to Al-induced increases in the expression of MATE-like gene and vha2 and Mg-induced changes in the phosphorylation levels of VHA2, thus changing its interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:
    Plant and Cell Physiology 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcv038
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is a lens-less technique for visualizing the structures of non-crystalline particles with the dimensions of sub-micrometer to micrometer at a resolution of several tens of nanometer. We conducted cryogenic CXDI experiments at 66 K to visualize the internal structures of frozen-hydrated chloroplasts of Cyanidioschyzon merolae using X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) as a coherent X-ray source. Chloroplasts dispersed specimen disks at a number density of 7/(10×10 μm(2)) were flash-cooled with liquid ethane without staining, sectioning or chemical labeling. Chloroplasts are destroyed at atomic level immediately after the diffraction by XFEL pulses. Thus, diffraction patterns with good signal-to-noise ratio from single chloroplasts were selected from many diffraction patterns collected through scanning specimen disks to provide fresh specimens into irradiation area. The electron density maps of single chloroplasts projected along the direction of the incident X-ray beam were reconstructed by using the iterative phase-retrieval method and the multivariate analyses. The electron density map at a resolution of 70 nm appeared as a C-shape. In addition, the fluorescence image of proteins stained with Flamingo™ dye also appeared as a C-shape as well as that of the autofluorescence from chlorophyll. The similar images suggest that the thylakoid membranes with an abundance of proteins distribute along the outer membranes of chloroplasts. To statistically confirm the present results, a number of projection structures must be accumulated through high-throughput data collection in near future. Based on the results, we discuss the feasibility of XFEL-CXDI experiments in the structural analyses of cellular organelles. © Crown copyright 2015.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcv032
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In nature, root systems of most terrestrial plants are protected from light exposure by growing in a dark soil environment. Hence, in vitro cultivation in transparent Petri dishes leads to physiological perturbations, but the mechanisms underlying root-mediated light perception and responses have not been fully elucidated. Thus, we compared Arabidopsis thaliana seedling development in transparent and darkened Petri dishes at low light intensity (20 μmol m(-2) s(-1)), allowing us to follow (inter alia) hypocotyl elongation, which is an excellent process for studying interactions of signals involved in the regulation of growth and developmental responses. To obtain insights into molecular events underlying differences in seedling growth under these two conditions, we employed LC-MS shotgun proteomics (available via the PRIDE deposit PXD001612). In total, we quantified relative abundances of peptides representing 1209 proteins detected in all sample replicates of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses. Comparison of MS spectra after manual validation revealed 48 differentially expressed proteins. Functional classification, analysis of available gene expression data and literature searches revealed alterations associated with root illumination (inter alia) in autotrophic CO2-fixation, C-compound and carbohydrate metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism. The results also indicate a previously unreported role of cytokinin plant hormones in the escape-tropism response to root illumination. We complemented these results with RT-qPCR, chlorophyll fluorescence and detailed cytokinin signaling analyses, detecting in the latter a significant increase in activity of the cytokinin two-component signaling cascade in roots and implicating the cytokinin receptor AHK3 as the major mediator of root-to-hypocotyl signaling in responses to root illumination. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:
    Plant and Cell Physiology 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcv026
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Asparagine is synthesized from glutamine by the reaction of asparagine synthetase (AS) and is the major nitrogen form in both xylem and phloem sap in rice (Oryza sativa L.). There are two genes encoding AS, OsAS1 and OsAS2, in rice, but the functions of individual AS isoenzymes are largely unknown. Cell-type and NH4+ inducible expression of OsAS1 as well as analyses of knockout mutants were carried out in this study to characterize AS1. OsAS1 was mainly expressed in the roots with in situ hybridization showing that the corresponding mRNA was specifically accumulated in the three cell layers of root surface (epidermis, exodermis, and sclerenchyma) in an NH4+-dependent manner. Conversely, OsAS2 mRNA was abundant in leaf blades and sheathes of rice. Although OsAS2 mRNA was detectable in the roots, its content decreased when NH4+ was supplied. Retrotransposon-mediated knockout mutants lacking AS1 showed slight stimulation of shoot length and slight reduction in root length at the seedling stage. On the other hand, the mutation caused an approximately 80-90% reduction in free asparagine content in both roots and xylem sap. These results suggest that AS1 is responsible for the synthesis of asparagine in rice roots following the supply of NH4+. Characteristics of the NH4+-dependent increase and the root-surface cell-specific expression of OsAS1 gene are very similar to our previous results on cytosolic glutamine synthetase1;2 and NADH-glutamate synthase1 in rice roots. Thus, AS1 is apparently coupled with the primary assimilation of NH4+ in rice roots.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 01/2015; DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcv005
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important food crops in the world. Numerous quantitative trait loci or genes controlling panicle architecture have been identified to increase grain yield. Yet grain yield, defined as the product of the number of well-ripened grains and their weight, is a complex trait that is determined by multiple factors such as source, sink, and translocation capacity. Mechanistic modelling capturing capacities of source, sink, and transport will help in the theoretical design of crop ideotypes that guarantee high grain yield. In this paper, we present a mathematical model simulating sucrose transport and grain growth within a complex phloem network. The model predicts that the optimal panicle structure for high yield shows a simple grain arrangement with few higher-order branches. In addition, numerical analyses revealed that inefficient delivery of carbon to panicles with higher-order branches prevails regardless of source capacity, indicating the importance of designing grain arrangement and phloem structure. Our model highlights the previously unexplored effect of grain arrangement on the yield, and provides numerical solutions for optimal panicle structure under various source and sink capacities.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 12/2014; DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcu191
  • Plant and Cell Physiology 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Plants, which are sessile unlike most animals, have evolved a system to reduce growth under stress; however, the molecular mechanisms of this stress response are not well known. During programmed development, a fraction of the leaf epidermal precursor cells become meristemoid mother cells (MMCs), which are stem cells that produce both stomatal guard cells and epidermal pavement cells. Here we report that Arabidopsis plants, in response to osmotic stress, post-transcriptionally decrease the protein level of SPEECHLESS, the transcription factor promoting MMC identity, through the action of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. The growth reduction under osmotic stress was lessened by inhibition of the MAPK cascade or by a mutation that disrupted the MAPK-target amino acids in SPEECHLESS, indicating that Arabidopsis reduces growth under stress by integrating the osmotic stress signal into the MAPK-SPEECHLESS core developmental pathway.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 11/2014; DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcu159
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Small molecule demethylation is considered unusual in plants. Of the studied instances, the N-demethylation of nicotine is catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, while the O-dealkylation of alkaloids in Papaver somniferum is mediated by 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODDs). This report describes a 2-ODD regiospecifically catalyzing the 7-O-demethylation of methoxylated flavones in peltate trichomes of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Three candidate 2-ODDs were identified in basil trichome transcriptome database. Only the candidate designated ObF7ODM1 was found to be active with and highly specific for the proposed natural substrates, gardenin B and 8-hydroxysalvigenin. Of the characterized 2-ODDs, ObF7ODM1 is most closely related to O-demethylases from Papaver. The demethylase activity in trichomes from four basil chemotypes matches well with the abundance of ObF7ODM1 peptides and transcripts in the same trichome preparations. Treatment of basil plants with a 2-ODD inhibitor prohexadione-calcium significantly reduced the accumulation of 7-O-demethylated flavone nevadensin, confirming the involvement of a 2-ODD in its formation. Notably, the full-length open reading frame of ObF7ODM1 contains a second in-frame AUG codon 57 nucleotides downstream of the first translation initiation codon. Both AUG codons are recognized by bacterial translation machinery during heterologous gene expression. The N-truncated ObF7ODM1 is nearly inactive. The N-terminus essential for activity is unique to ObF7ODM1 and does not align with the sequences of other 2-ODDs. Further studies will reveal whether alternative translation initiation plays a role in regulating the O-demethylase activity in planta. Molecular identification of the flavone 7-O-demethylase completes the biochemical elucidation of the lipophilic flavone network in basil.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 11/2014; DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcu152
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: How do sessile plants cope with irregularities in soil nutrient availability? The uptake of essential minerals from the soil influences plant growth and development. However, most environments do not provide sufficient nutrients; rather nutrient distribution in the soil can be uneven and change temporally according to environmental factors. To maintain mineral nutrient homeostasis in their tissues, plants have evolved sophisticated systems for coping with spatial and temporal variability in soil nutrient concentrations. Among these are mechanisms for modulating root system architectures in response to nutrient availability. This review discusses recent advances in knowledge of the two important strategies for optimizing nutrient uptake and translocation in plants: root architecture modification and transporter expression control in response to nutrient availability. Recent studies have determined (i) nutrient-specific root patterns, (ii) their physiological consequences, and (iii) the molecular mechanisms underlying these modulation systems that operate to facilitate efficient nutrient acquisition. Another mechanism employed by plants in nutrient-heterogeneous soils involves modification of nutrient transport activities in a nutrient-concentration-dependent manner. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the diverse functions of transporters for specific nutrients; it is now clear that the expression and activities of nutrient transporters are finely regulated in multiple steps at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels for adaptation to a wide range of nutrient conditions.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 11/2014; DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcu156
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 4-Aminobutyrate (GABA) accumulates in apple fruit during controlled atmosphere storage. A potential source of GABA is the polyamine putrescine, which can be oxidized via copper containing amine oxidase (CuAO), resulting in the production 4-aminobutanal/Δ(1)-pyrroline, with the consumption of O2 and release of H2O2 and ammonia. Five putative CuAO genes (MdAOs) were cloned from apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Empire) fruit and the deduced amino acid sequences found to contain the active sites typically conserved in CuAOs. Genes encoding two of these enzymes, MdAO1 and MdAO2, were highly expressed in apple fruit and selected for further analysis. Amino acid sequence analysis predicted the presence of a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal 1 tripeptide in MdAO1 and an N-terminal signal peptide and N-glycosylation site in MdAO2. Transient expression of green fluorescent protein-fusion proteins in Arabidopsis protoplasts or onion epidermal cells revealed a peroxisomal localization for MdAO1 and an extracellular localization for MdAO2. The enzymatic activity of purified recombinant MdAO1 and MdAO2 was measured continuously as H2O2 production using a coupled reaction. MdAO1 did not use monoamines or polyamines and displayed high catalytic efficiency for 1,3-diaminopropane, putrescine and cadaverine, whereas MdAO2 exclusively utilized aliphatic and aromatic monoamines, including 2-phenylethylamine and tyramine. Together, these results indicate that MdAO1 may contribute to GABA production via putrescine oxidation in the peroxisome of apple fruit under controlled atmosphere conditions. MdAO2 seems to be involved in deamination of 2-phenylethylamine, which is a step in the biosynthesis of 2-phenylethanol, a contributor to fruit flavour and flower fragrance.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 11/2014; 56(1). DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcu155
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Potassium (K(+)) is an essential mineral nutrient for plant growth and development, with numerous membrane transporters and channels having been implicated in the maintenance and regulation of its homeostasis. The cation cesium (Cs(+)) is toxic for plants but shares similar chemical properties to the K(+) ion and hence competes with its transport. Here, we report that K(+) and Cs(+) homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana also requires the action of ZIFL2 (Zinc-Induced Facilitator-Like 2), a member of the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) of membrane transporters. We show that the Arabidopsis ZIFL2 is a functional transporter able to mediate K(+) and Cs(+) influx when heterologously expressed in yeast. Promoter-reporter, RT-PCR and fluorescent protein fusion experiments indicate that the predominant ZIFL2.1 isoform is targeted to the plasma-membrane of endodermal and pericyle root cells. ZIFL2 loss of function and overexpression respectively exacerbate and alleviate plant sensitivity upon Cs(+) and excess K(+) supply, also influencing Cs(+) whole-plant partitioning. We propose that the activity of this Arabidopsis MFS carrier promotes cellular K(+) efflux in the root, thereby restricting Cs(+)/K(+) xylem loading and subsequent root-to-shoot translocation under conditions of Cs(+) or high K(+) external supply.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 11/2014; DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcu157
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gene targeting (GT) is a technique used to modify endogenous genes in target genomes precisely via homologous recombination (HR). Although GT plants are produced using genetic transformation techniques, if the difference between the endogenous and the modified gene is limited to point mutations, GT crops can be considered equivalent to non-genetically-modified mutant crops generated by conventional mutagenesis techniques. However, it is difficult to guarantee the non-incorporation of DNA fragments from Agrobacterium in GT plants created by Agrobacterium-mediated GT despite screening with conventional Southern blot and/or PCR techniques. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of herbicide-tolerant rice plants generated by inducing point mutations in the rice ALS gene via Agrobacterium-mediated GT. We performed genome comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array analysis and whole genome sequencing to evaluate the molecular composition of GT rice plants. Thus far, no integration of Agrobacterium-derived DNA fragments has been detected in GT rice plants. However, more than 1,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion/deletion (InDels) were found in GT plants. Among these mutations, 20-100 variants might have some effect on expression levels and/or protein function. Information about additive mutations should be useful in clearing out uninvited mutations by backcrossing.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 11/2014; DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcu153
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Jasmonic acid and its derivatives (jasmonates: JAs) are phytohormones with essential roles in plant defense against pathogenesis and herbivorous arthropods. Both the up- and down-regulation of defense responses are dependent on signaling pathways mediated by JAs as well as other stress hormones (for example, salicylic acid), generally those involving the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of transcription factors via protein modification and epigenetic regulation. In addition to the typical model plant Arabidopsis (a dicotyledon), advances in genetics research have made rice a model monocot in which innovative pest control traits can be introduced and whose JA signaling pathway can be studied. In this review, we introduce the dynamic functions of JAs in plant defense strategy using defensive substances (e.g., indole alkaloids and terpenoid phytoalexins) and airborne signals (e.g., green leaf volatiles and volatile terpenes) in response to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens as well as aboveground and belowground herbivores. We then discuss the important issue of how the mutualism of herbivorous arthropods with viruses or bacteria can cause cross-talk between JA and other phytohormones to counter the defense systems.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 11/2014; DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcu158
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The decapping enzymes DCP1 and DCP2 are components of a decapping complex that degrades mRNAs. DCP2 is the catalytic core and DCP1 is an auxiliary subunit. It has been assumed that DCP1 and DCP2 are consistently co-localized in cytoplasmic RNA granules called processing bodies (P-bodies). However, it has not been confirmed whether DCP1 and DCP2 co-localize in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we generated DCP1-GFP and DCP2-GFP transgenic plants that complemented dcp1 and dcp2 mutants, respectively, to see whether localization of DCP2 is identical to that of DCP1. DCP2 was present throughout the cytoplasm, whereas DCP1 formed P-body-like foci. Use of DCP1-GFP/DCP2-RFP or DCP1-RFP/DCP2-GFP plants showed that heat treatment induced DCP2 assembly into DCP1 foci. In contrast, cold treatment did not induce DCP2 assembly while the number of DCP1 foci increased. These changes in DCP1 and DCP2 localization during heat and cold treatments occurred without changes in DCP1 and DCP2 protein abundance. Our results show that DCP1 and DCP2 respond differently to environmental changes, indicating that P-bodies have diverse DCP1 and DCP2 proportions depending on environmental conditions. The localization changes of DCP1 and DCP2 may explain how specific mRNAs are degraded during changes in environmental conditions.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 10/2014; DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcu151
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During the last decade, significant research progress in Arabidopsis thaliana has been made in defining the molecular mechanisms behind the plant circadian clock. The circadian clock must have the ability to integrate both external light and ambient temperature signals into its transcriptional circuitry to properly regulate its function. We previously showed that transcription of a set of clock genes including LUX (LUX ARRHYTHMO), GI (GIGANTEA), LNK1 (NIGHT LIGHT-INDUCIBLE AND CLOCK-REGULATED GENE 1), PRR9 (PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 9) and PRR7 is commonly regulated through the evening complex (EC) nighttime repressor in response to both moderate changes in temperature (Δ6°C) and differences in steady-state growth-compatible temperature (16°C to 28°C). Here, we further show that a nighttime-light signal also feeds into the circadian clock transcriptional circuitry through the EC nighttime repressor, so that the same set of EC target genes is upregulated in response to a nighttime-light pulse. This light-induced event is dependent on phytochromes, but not cryptochromes. Interestingly, both the warm-night and nighttime-light signals negatively modulate the activity of the EC nighttime repressor in a synergistic manner. In other words, an exponential burst of transcription of the EC target genes is observed only when these signals are simultaneously fed into the repressor. Taken together, we propose that the EC nighttime repressor plays a crucial role in modulating the clock transcriptional circuitry to properly keep track of seasonal changes in photo- and thermal-cycles by conservatively double-checking the external light and ambient temperature signals.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 10/2014; DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcu144
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Plants share photosynthetically fixed carbon with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to maintain their growth and nutrition. AM fungi are oleogenic fungi that contain numerous lipid droplets in their syncytial mycelia during most of their life cycle. These lipid droplets are probably used for supporting growth of extraradical mycelia and propagation; however, when and where the lipid droplets are produced remains unclear. To address these issues, we investigated the correlation between intracellular colonization stages and the appearance of fungal lipid droplets in roots by a combination of vital staining of fungal structures, selective staining of lipids and live imaging. We discovered that a surge of lipid droplets coincided with the collapse of arbuscular branches, indicating that arbuscule collapse and the emergence of lipid droplets may be associated processes. This phenomenon was observed in the model AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis and the ancestral member of AM fungi Paraglomus occultum. Because the collapsing arbuscules were metabolically inactive, the emerged lipid droplets are probably derived from preformed lipids but not de novo synthesized. Our observations highlight a novel mode of lipid release by AM fungi.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 09/2014; 55(11). DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcu123
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lunularia cruciata occupies a very basal position in the phylogenetic tree of liverworts, which in turn have been recognized as a very early clade of land plants. It would therefore seem appropriate to take L. cruciata as the starting point for investigating character evolution in the metal(loid) response of land plants. One of the strongest evolutionary pressures for land colonization by plants has come from potential access to much greater amounts of nutritive ions from surface rocks. This might have resulted in the need to precisely regulate trace element homeostasis and to minimize the risk of exposure to toxic concentrations of certain metals, prompting the evolution of a number of response mechanisms, such as synthesis of phytochelatins, metal(loid)-binding thiol-peptides. Accordingly, if the ability to synthesize phytochelatins and the occurrence of an active phytochelatin synthase are traits present in a basal liverwort, and have been even reinforced in “modern” tracheophytes, e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana, then such traits would presumably have played an essential role in plant fitness over time. Hence, we demonstrated here that: 1) L. cruciata compartmentalizes cadmium in the vacuoles of the phototosynthetic parenchyma by means of a phytochelatin-mediated detoxification strategy, and possesses a phytochelatin synthase that is activated by cadmium and homeostatic concentrations of iron(II) and zinc; 2) A. thaliana phytochelatin synthase displays a higher and broader response to several metal(loid)s [namely: cadmium, iron(II), zinc, copper, mercury, lead, arsenic(III)] than the phytochelatin synthase of L. cruciata.
    Plant and Cell Physiology 09/2014; 55(11). DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcu117