BMC Pediatrics (BMC Pediatr)
BMC Pediatrics publishes original research articles in all aspects of health care in neonates, children and adolescents, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.
- Impact factor1.88
- WebsiteBMC Pediatrics website
Other titlesBMC pediatrics, BioMed Central pediatrics, Pediatrics
Material typeDocument, Periodical, Internet resource
Document typeInternet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper
Publications in this journal
Article: How to minimize children's environmental tobacco smoke exposure: an intervention in a clinical setting in high risk areas.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite the low prevalence of daily smokers in Sweden, children are still being exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), primarily by their smoking parents. A prospective intervention study using methods from Quality Improvement was performed in Child Health Care (CHC). The aim was to provide nurses with new methods for motivating and supporting parents in their efforts to protect children from ETS exposure. METHOD: Collaborative learning was used to implement and test an intervention bundle. Twenty-two CHC nurses recruited 86 families with small children which had at least one smoking parent. Using a bundle of interventions, nurses met and had dialogues with the parents over a one-year period. A detailed questionnaire on cigarette consumption and smoking policies in the home was answered by the parents at the beginning and at the end of the intervention, when children also took urine tests to determine cotinine levels. RESULTS: Seventy-two families completed the study. Ten parents (11%) quit smoking. Thirty-two families (44%) decreased their cigarette consumption. Forty-five families (63%) were outdoor smokers at follow up. The proportion of children with urinary cotinine values of >6 ng/ml had decreased. CONCLUSION: The intensified tobacco prevention in CHC improved smoking parents' ability to protect their children from ETS exposure.BMC Pediatrics 05/2013; 13(1):76.
Article: Renal abnormalities among HIV-infected, antiretroviral naive children, Harare, Zimbabwe: a cross-sectional study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Data on the prevalence of renal and urine abnormalities among HIV-infected children in Sub-Saharan Africa are limited. We set out to determine the prevalence of proteinuria; low estimated glomerular filtrate rate (eGFR), urinary tract infection and associated factors among HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART) naive children, aged 2--12 years, attending the paediatric HIV clinic at a tertiary hospital in Harare. METHODS: Consecutive ART naive children attending the clinic between June and October 2009 were recruited. Detailed medical history was obtained and a complete physical examination was performed. Patients were screened for urinary tract infection and for significant persistent proteinuria. Serum creatinine was used to estimate GFR using the modified Counahan-Barratt formula. The Student's t-test was used to analyse continuous variables and the chi-square or Fisher's exact test was used to analyse categorical data. Logistic regression was performed to assess the relationship between study factors and urine abnormalities, persistent proteinuria and the eGFR. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty children were enrolled into the study. The median age was 90 months (Q1=65.5; Q3=116.5). The prevalence of urinary tract infection was 9.5%. Escherichia coli was the predominant organism. There was uniform resistance to cotrimoxazole. Persistent proteinuria (urine protein to creatinine ratio greater than 0.2, a week apart) was found in 5% of the children. Seventy-five patients (34.6%) had mild to moderate renal impairment shown by a low eGFR (30 to <90ml/min/1.73m2). Persistent proteinuria was more likely to be found in children who were wasted, weight-for-height (WHZ) z-score <-2 (p=0.0005). Children with WHO clinical stage 4 were more likely to have a low eGFR than children with less advanced stages (OR 2.68; CI 1.24-5.80). Urine abnormalities were more likely to be observed in children with WHO clinical stages 3 and 4 (OR 2.20; CI 1.06-4.60). CONCLUSION: There is significant renal impairment among HIV-infected, ART naive children aged 2--12 years attending the outpatient paediatric HIV clinic at Harare Central Hospital. The abnormalities are more likely to occur in children with advanced HIV/AIDS. Screening for renal impairment and urinary tract infections in HIV-infected children before initiation of ART and regularly thereafter would be helpful in their management. Keywords: HIV, renal disease, persistent proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, urinary tract infection.BMC Pediatrics 05/2013; 13(1):75.
Article: Hospital outcomes for paediatric pneumonia and diarrhoea patients admitted in a tertiary hospital on weekdays versus weekends: a retrospective study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Quality of patient care in hospitals has been shown to be inconsistent during weekends and night-time hours, and is often associated with reduced patient monitoring, poor antibiotic prescription practices and poor patient outcomes. Poorer care and outcomes are commonly attributed to decreased levels of staffing, supervision and expertise and poorer access to diagnostics. However, there are few studies examining this issue in low resource settings where mortality from common childhood illnesses is high and health care systems are weak. METHODS: This study uses data from a retrospective cross-sectional study aimed at "evaluating the uptake of best practice clinical guidelines in a tertiary hospital" with a pre and post intervention approach that spanned the period 2005 to 2009. We evaluated a primary hypothesis that mortality for children with pneumonia and/or dehydration aged 2--59 months admitted on weekends differed from those admitted on weekdays. A secondary hypothesis that poor quality of care could be a mechanism for higher mortality was also explored. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between mortality and the independent predictors of mortality. RESULTS: Our analysis indicates that there is no difference in mortality on weekends compared to weekdays even after adjusting for the significant predictors of mortality (OR = 1.15; 95%CI 0.90 -1.45; p = 0.27). There were similarly no significant differences between weekends and weekdays for the quality of care indicators, however, there was an overall improvement in mortality and quality of care through the period of study. CONCLUSION: Mortality and the quality of care does not differ by the day of admission in a Kenyan tertiary hospital, however mortality remains high suggesting that continued efforts to improve care are warranted.BMC Pediatrics 05/2013; 13(1):74.
Article: The effectiveness of proactive telephone support provided to breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although breast milk has numerous benefits for infants' development, with greater effects in those born preterm (at < 37 gestational weeks), mothers of preterm infants have shorter breastfeeding duration than mothers of term infants. One of the explanations proposed is the difficulties in the transition from a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) to the home environment. A person-centred proactive telephone support intervention after discharge from NICU is expected to promote mothers' sense of trust in their own capacity and thereby facilitate breastfeeding.Methods/design: A multicentre randomized controlled trial has been designed to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of person-centred proactive telephone support on breastfeeding outcomes for mothers of preterm infants. Participating mothers will be randomized to either an intervention group or control group. In the intervention group person-centred proactive telephone support will be provided, in which the support team phones the mother daily for up to 14 days after hospital discharge. In the control group, mothers are offered a person-centred reactive support where mothers can phone the breastfeeding support team up to day 14 after hospital discharge. The intervention group will also be offered the same reactive telephone support as the control group. A stratified block randomization will be used; group allocation will be by high or low socioeconomic status and by NICU. Recruitment will be performed continuously until 1116 mothers (I: 558 C: 558) have been included. Primary outcome: proportion of mothers exclusively breastfeeding at eight weeks after discharge. Secondary outcomes: proportion of breastfeeding (exclusive, partial, none and method of feeding), mothers satisfaction with breastfeeding, attachment, stress and quality of life in mothers/partners at eight weeks after hospital discharge and at six months postnatal age. Data will be collected by researchers blind to group allocation for the primary outcome. A qualitative evaluation of experiences of receiving/providing the intervention will also be undertaken with mothers and staff. DISCUSSION: This paper presents the rationale, study design and protocol for a RCT providing person-centred proactive telephone support to mothers of preterm infants. Furthermore, with a health economic evaluation, the cost-effectiveness of the intervention will be assessed.Trial registration: NCT01806480.BMC Pediatrics 05/2013; 13(1):73.
Article: Risk factors associated with overweight and obesity among urban school children and adolescents in Bangladesh: a case-control study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity has become an emerging urban health problem in urban cities in Bangladesh, particularly in affluent families. Risk factors for obesity in this context have not been explored yet. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with overweight and obesity among school children and adolescents in Dhaka, Bangladesh. METHODS: From October through November 2007, we conducted a case--control study among children aged 10--15 years in seven schools in Dhaka. We assessed body mass index (weight in kg/height in sq. meter) to identify the cases (overweight/obese) and controls (healthy/normal weight) following the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention age and sex specific growth chart. We used a structured questionnaire to collect demographic information and respondent's exposure to several risk factors such as daily physical activity at home and in school, hours spent on computer games and television watching, maternal education level and parents' weight and height. RESULTS: We enrolled 198 children: 99 cases, 99 controls. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that having at least one overweight parent (OR = 2.8, p = 0.001) and engaging in sedentary activities for >4 hours a day (OR = 2.0, p = 0.02) were independent risk factors for childhood overweight and/or obesity while exercising >= 30 minutes a day was a protective factor (OR = 0.4, p = 0.02). There were no significant associations between childhood overweight and sex, maternal education or physical activity at school. CONCLUSION: Having overweight parents along with limited exercise and high levels of sedentary activities lead to obesity among school children in urban cities in Bangladesh. Public health programs are needed to increase awareness on risk factors for overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in order to reduce the future burden of obesity-associated chronic diseases.BMC Pediatrics 05/2013; 13(1):72.
Article: Brief parenting intervention for parents of NICU graduates: a randomized, clinical trial of Primary Care Triple P.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Preterm-born or asphyxiated term-born children who received neonatal intensive care show more emotional and behavioral problems than term-born children without a medical condition. It is uncertain whether regular parenting intervention programs to which the parents of these children are usually referred, are effective in reducing child problem behavior in this specific population. Our objective was to investigate whether a regular, brief parenting intervention, Primary Care Triple P, is effective in decreasing emotional and behavioral problems in preterm-born or asphyxiated term-born preschoolers. METHODS: For this pragmatic, open randomized clinical trial, participants were recruited from a cohort of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICU) of two Dutch hospitals. Children born with a gestational age <32 weeks or birth weight <1500 g and children born at a gestational age 37--42 weeks with perinatal asphyxia were included. After screening for a t-score >=60 on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), children were randomly assigned to Primary Care Triple P (n = 34) or a wait-list control group (n = 33). The primary outcome was child emotional and behavioral problems reported by parents on the Child Behavior Checklist, 6 months after the start of the trial. RESULTS: There was no effect of the intervention on the CBCL at the trial endpoint (t64 = 0.54, P = .30). On secondary measurements of child problem behavior, parenting style, parenting stress, and parent perceived child vulnerability, groups either did not differ significantly or the intervention group showed more problems. In both the intervention and control group there was a significant decrease in emotional and behavioral problems during the trial. CONCLUSIONS: Primary Care Triple P, a brief parenting intervention, is not effective in reducing child emotional and behavioral problems in preterm-born children or term-born children with perinatal asphyxia.Trial registration: Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR): NTR2179.BMC Pediatrics 05/2013; 13(1):69.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Parents of infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) find themselves in a situation of emotional strain. Communication in the NICU presents special challenges due to parental stress and the complexity of the highly technologized environment. Parents' need for communication may not always be met by the NICU staff. This study aimed to describe strengths and weaknesses of parent--nurse and parent--doctor communication in a large level III NICU in Sweden in order to improve our understanding of parents' communication needs. METHODS: Parents were asked to complete a survey consisting of sixteen questions about their experiences of communication with nurses and doctors in the NICU. In each question the parents evaluated some aspect of communication on a five- or six-point Likert scale. They also had the opportunity on each question to comment on their experiences in their own words. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0 and qualitative manifest content analysis. RESULTS: 270 parents (71.4%) completed the survey. Parents generally rated communication with the staff in the NICU positively and appreciated having received emotional support and regular information about their child s care. Although a large majority of the parents were satisfied with their communication with doctors and nurses, only about half of the parents felt the nurses and doctors understood their emotional situation very well. Some parents would have desired easier access to conversations with doctors and wanted medical information to be given directly by doctors rather than by nurses. Parents' communication with the staff was hampered when many different nurses were involved in caring for the infant or when the transfer of information in connection with shift changes or between the maternity ward and NICU was poor. Parents also desired to be present during doctors' rounds on their infant. CONCLUSIONS: Training both doctors and nurses in communication skills, especially in how to meet parents' emotional needs better, could make communication at the NICU more effective and improve parental well-being. Creating a framework for the parents of what to expect from NICU communication might also be helpful. In addition, our results support the use of primary nurse teams to improve continuity of care and thereby promote successful communication.BMC Pediatrics 05/2013; 13(1):71.
Article: Quality of neonatal healthcare in Kilimanjaro region, northeast Tanzania: learning from mothers' experiences.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: With a decline of infant mortality rates, neonatal mortality rates are striking high in development countries particularly sub Saharan Africa. The toolkit for high quality neonatal services describes the principle of patient satisfaction, which we translate as mother's involvement in neonatal care and so better outcomes. The aim of the study was to assess mothers' experiences, perception and satisfaction of neonatal care in district hospitals in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. METHODS: A cross sectional study using qualitative and quantitative approaches in 112 semi structured interviews from 14 health facilities. Open ended questions for detection of illness, care given to the baby and time spent by the health worker for care and treatment were studied. Probing of the responses was used to extract and describe findings by a mix of in-depth interview skills. Closed ended questions for the quantitative variables were used to quantify findings for statistical use. Narratives from open ended questions were coded by colours in excel sheet and themes were manually counted. RESULTS: 80 mothers were interviewed from 13 peripheral facilities and 32 mothers were interviewed at a zonal referral hospital of Kilimanjaro region. 59 mothers (73.8%) in the peripheral hospitals of the region reported that they noticed their babies had a medical problem and then requested for further check up. 11 mothers (13.8%) noticed the baby's problem themselves without any assistance, followed by 7 mothers (8.7%) who were told by a relative, and 3 mothers (3.7%) who were told of the problem by the doctor. 24 times mothers in the peripheral hospitals reported bad language like "I don't have time to listen to you everyday and every time". 77 mothers in the periphery (90.6%) were not satisfied with the amount of time spent by the doctors to see their babies. CONCLUSION: Mothers of the neonates play great roles in identifying the illness of the newborn. Mother's awareness of what might be needed during neonatal support strategies to improve neonatal care in both health facilities and the communities.BMC Pediatrics 05/2013; 13(1):68.
Article: External birth defects in southern Vietnam: a population-based study at the grassroots level of health care in Binh Thuan province.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There currently exists no data on birth defects from population-based studies in Vietnam. Our study's aim was to assess external birth defect (EBD) prevalence among live newborns in Binh Thuan Province in Vietnam with the help of health workers at all levels of the health system. METHODS: A 2-month training session for 452 health professionals (HP) practicing delivery care in 127 Commune Health Stations (CHS) and in 12 provincial or district hospitals (DH) was setup in 2006. After a successful 6-month pilot study, a one-year registry of EBDs was established in 2008. All live newborns were screened for EBDs within 24 hours after birth in all DH obstetric departments and in all CHSs. Trained local HPs collected information by filling out a predesigned form and by photographing the affected newborn. EBDs were coded using the International Classification of Diseases system-10, Clinical Modification. The study was repeated in 2010. RESULTS: Throughout 2010, out of a total of 13,954 newborns, 84 cases with one or more EBDs were reported, representing an overall prevalence rate of 60.2 per 10,000 live births. The most common groups of EBDs were limbs (27.2/10,000), orofacial clefts (20.1/10,000) and the central nervous system (7.9/10,000). CONCLUSIONS: This first population-based study in Vietnam, which required coordination efforts at the local level, provides baseline prevalences of external birth defects. Data on EBDs from this study in southern Vietnam may be useful for setting up a regional population-based registry of birth defects in Vietnam.BMC Pediatrics 04/2013; 13(1):67.
Article: Effect of osteopathic manipulative treatment on length of stay in a population of preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The use of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) in preterm infants has been documented and results from previous studies suggest the association between OMT and length of stay (LOS) reduction, as well as significant improvements in several clinical outcomes. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of OMT on LOS in premature infants. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted on preterm newborns admitted to a single NICU between 2008-2009. N=110 subjects free of medical complications and with gestational age >28 and < 38 weeks were enrolled and randomized in two groups: study group (N=55) and control group (N=55). All subjects received routine pediatric care and OMT was performed to the study group for the entire period of hospitalization. Endpoints of the study included differences in LOS and daily weight gain. RESULTS: Results showed a significant association between OMT and LOS reduction (mean difference between treated and control group: -5.906; 95% C.I. -7.944, -3.869; p<0.001). OMT was not associated to any change in daily weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that OMT may have an important role in the management of preterm infants hospitalization.Trial registration: This trial has been registered on www.clinicaltrials.org (identifier NCT01544257).BMC Pediatrics 04/2013; 13(1):65.
Article: Dosing variability in prescriptions of acetaminophen to children: comparisons between pediatricians, family physicians and otolaryngologists.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To estimate the extents of dosing variability in prescriptions of acetaminophen to children among pediatricians, family physicians andotolaryngologists. METHODS: The acetaminophen prescriptions in the systematic sampling datasets from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan were analyzed. The distribution of dosages was measured and expressed in terms of coefficient of variation (CV). The analyses were stratified by patient's age, prescriber's specialty and preparation form. RESULTS: From 13,868 prescribed items of acetaminophen in 2009, liquids accounted only for 11.1% (n = 1544). More than half (56.9%) of liquids were prescribed by pediatricians. The median dose (83.3 mg, n = 1683) of acetaminophen prescriptions in infants is around half of that in preschool children (166.7 mg, n = 3921), one-third in children (250.0 mg, n = 4926) and one-sixth in adolescents (500.0 mg, n = 3338). In infants, the prescriptions by pediatricians had the highest CV (86.7%), followed by family physicians (82.3%) and otolaryngologists (70.3%). The patterns were similar in preschool children and children, but the difference of CV among specialties narrowed down with the patient's age. CONCLUSIONS: In acetaminophen prescriptions to children, pediatricians had a wider variability of dosages and a higher ratio of liquid preparations than family physicians and otolaryngologists. Further investigations can be undertaken to estimate the accuracy of dosing variability as an indicator of prescribing quality. Besides, child-suitable drug preparations should be promoted to ensure patient safety.BMC Pediatrics 04/2013; 13(1):64.
Article: Moderate agreement between body mass index and measures of waist circumference in the identification of overweight among 5-year-old children; the 'Be active, eat right' study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is a common indirect method to assess weight status among children. There is evidence that BMI data alone can underestimate overweight-related health risk and that waist circumference (WC) should also be measured. In this study we investigated the agreement between BMI and WC and BMI and the waist-height ratio (WHtR) when used to identify overweight among children. METHODS: This cross-sectional population-based study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds (n = 7703) collected by healthcare professionals for the 'Be active, eat right' study. RESULTS: According to age-specific and sex-specific cut-off points for BMI (IOTF, 2000) and WC (Fredriks et al., 2005), the prevalence of overweight (obesity included) was 7.0% and 7.1% among boys, and 11.6% and 10.1% among girls, respectively. For the WHtR the 90th percentile was used as the cut-off point. Among boys, observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WC classification was 0.95, Cohen's kappa 0.58 (95% CI; 0.53-0.63), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.61 and 0.97, respectively. Observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WHtR classification was 0.92, Cohen's kappa 0.46 (95% CI; 0.41-0.51), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.51 and 0.95. Children identified as overweight according to WC were relatively tall, and children classified as overweight according to the WHtR only were relatively short (comparable results for girls). CONCLUSIONS: There is moderate agreement between BMI and measures of WC on the presence of overweight among 5-year-olds. If BMI data and cut-offs continue to be used, then part of the group of children identified as overweight according to WC and the WHtR will be omitted. Follow-up of the children classified as overweight according to BMI only, WC only, and WHtR only, will give indications whether WC should be measured in addition to BMI or whether WC should only be measured in certain subgroups (e.g. relatively tall or short children) to identify and monitor overweight in children. This may improve early identification and prevention of overweight and overweight-related health problems in children.BMC Pediatrics 04/2013; 13(1):63.
Article: Cardiometabolic risk factors and quality of life in severely obese children and adolescents in the Netherlands.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The prevalence of severe obesity in children and adolescents is increasing. However, little is known about cardiometabolic risk factors and quality of life of children with severe obesity.Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the demographic characteristics and the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors and quality of life in severely obese children and adolescents undergoing intensive inpatient treatment for obesity. METHODS: Data were collected between August 2009 and April 2011 on 16 children (8-13y) and 64 adolescents (13-19y) with severe obesity (SDS-BMI >= 3.0 or SDS-BMI >= 2.3 and co-morbidity) participating in an RCT evaluating two intensive inpatient treatment programs for obesity. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical characteristics and two components of the EuroQol for the assessment of quality of life are described. RESULTS: Eighty percent of participants in this study had at least one cardiometabolic risk factor in addition to severe obesity. Low HDL-cholesterol and hypertension were most prevalent (65.0% respectively 31.2%). The highest significant correlations were found between SDS-BMI and SDS-waist circumference, fasting plasma insulin and HOMA-IR (correlation coefficients respectively 0.80, 0.49, and 0.48). With regard to quality of life, the mean utility score of the participants was 0.79 on a scale of 0.0 to 1.0 on the EuroQol questionnaire and their mean individual valuation was 69.1 on a scale of 0 to100. CONCLUSION: Cardiometabolic risk factors are already highly prevalent in this group of severely obese children and adolescents. The score of 69.1 found for quality of life in this study suggests that participants experience important limitations in their quality of life. However, quality of life is not associated with the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors.Trial registration: Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1678, registered 20-Feb-2009).BMC Pediatrics 04/2013; 13(1):62.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Granulicatella spp. is a fastidious bacteria responsible for bacteremia and endocarditis which are fatal in about 20% of the cases. These severe infections are uncommon in children under 17 years of age and have proven extremely difficult to treat.Cases presentation: We report a brief review of the literature and two cases of NVS bacteremia by Granulicatella complicated by infective endocarditis (IE). The first one is that of a 7-year-old Caucasian female with Shone syndrome and IE involving the pulmonary valve homograft, confirmed by echocardiography. The second case is that of a 5-year-old Caucasian male. In this patient echocardiogram was negative for signs of IE; however, a "possible" IE was suspected on the basis of a cardiac catheterization 3 weeks before the onset of fever. Since in both our patients clinical failure of first line antibiotic treatment was observed, we used a combination of meropenem with another anti-streptococcal drug with excellent results. CONCLUSION: In Granulicatella bacteremia in the pediatric population, combination antimicrobial therapy including meropenem should be considered as a second line treatment in non-responding patients.BMC Pediatrics 04/2013; 13(1):61.
Article: What is the easier and more reliable dose calculation for iv Phenytoin in children at risk of developing convulsive status epilepticus, 18 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: With the Convulsive Status Guidelines due for renewal, we wondered if a phenytoin dose of '20 mg/kg' would be easier to calculate correctly and therefore safer than the current '18 mg/kg'. An educational exercise in dose calculation was therefore undertaken to assess ease of calculation. METHOD: A standard question paper was prepared, comprising five clinical scenarios with children of varying ages and estimated body weights. Medical students, trainee doctors at registrar and senior house officer level, and consultant paediatricians were asked to complete the exercise, in private, by one of two medical students (SD, PS). Calculations were done with and without a calculator, for 18 mg/kg and for 20 mg/kg in randomised order. Speed and errors (greater than 10%) were determined. The data analysis was performed using SPSS version 18. RESULTS: All answered all 20 scenarios, giving a total of 300 answers per doctor/student group, and 300 answers per type of calculation. When comparing the 2 doses, the numbers of errors more than 10% were significantly less in 20 mg/kg dose (0.33%) as compared to the 18 mg/kg dose (9.3%) (p<0.0001). Speed off calculation was significantly decreased in 20 mg/kg dose when compared with 18 mg/kg dose, with (p<0.001) or without (p<0.0001) the calculator. Speed was more than halved and errors were much less frequent by using a calculator, for the 18 mg/kg dose but no difference with or without the calculator for 20 mg/kg dose. CONCLUSION: We recommend that the future guidelines should suggest iv Phenytoin at 20 mg/kg rather than 18 mg/kg. This will make the calculation easier and reduce the risk of significant errors.BMC Pediatrics 04/2013; 13(1):60.
Article: A systematic review and meta-analysis to revise the Fenton growth chart for preterm infants.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to revise the 2003 Fenton Preterm Growth Chart, specifically to: a) harmonize the preterm growth chart with the new World Health Organization (WHO) Growth Standard, b) smooth the data between the preterm and WHO estimates, informed by the Preterm Multicentre Growth (PreM Growth) study while maintaining data integrity from 22 to 36 and at 50 weeks, and to c) re-scale the chart x-axis to actual age (rather than completed weeks) to support growth monitoring.Systematic review, meta-analysis, and growth chart development. We systematically searched published and unpublished literature to find population-based preterm size at birth measurement (weight, length, and/or head circumference) references, from developed countries with: Corrected gestational ages through infant assessment and/or statistical correction; Data percentiles as low as 24 weeks gestational age or lower; Sample with greater than 500 infants less than 30 weeks. Growth curves for males and females were produced using cubic splines to 50 weeks post menstrual age. LMS parameters (skew, median, and standard deviation) were calculated. RESULTS: Six large population-based surveys of size at preterm birth representing 3,986,456 births (34,639 births < 30 weeks) from countries Germany, United States, Italy, Australia, Scotland, and Canada were combined in meta-analyses. Smooth growth chart curves were developed, while ensuring close agreement with the data between 24 and 36 weeks and at 50 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The revised sex-specific actual-age growth charts are based on the recommended growth goal for preterm infants, the fetus, followed by the term infant. These preterm growth charts, with the disjunction between these datasets smoothing informed by the international PreM Growth study, may support an improved transition of preterm infant growth monitoring to the WHO growth charts.BMC Pediatrics 04/2013; 13(1):59.
Article: Quality of life assessment in preterm children: physicians' knowledge, attitude, belief, practice - a KABP study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The sequelae of extremely preterm birth have an impact on the quality of life (QoL) of these children. Standardized assessment of their QoL is rarely done in France. The aim of this study is to examine among all the types of physicians involved in the management of children born extremely preterm, their knowledge, use in routine practice and expectations concerning QoL assessment of these children using standardized questionnaires. METHODS: Prospective survey among heads of obstetric, neonatal medicine and paediatric neurology departments, by means of questionnaires. Two qualitative methods were used: focus groups and Delphi method. RESULTS: Seventy-eight physicians participated (obstetricians 24%, neonatologists 58%, paediatric neurologists 18%). The physicians considered QoL a relevant concept which they assessed subjectively. They expressed a need for information on methods of assessment. An ideal QoL questionnaire was described. Expectations regarding availability of QoL data were expressed from a medical, family and societal perspective. The impact of QoL measurement on the ethical aspect of decision-making was approached, in particular the potential impact of this tool on the decision made. Expectations were found to differ between specialties. CONCLUSION: This original study reports the perspective of experts on taking into consideration the QoL of children born extremely preterm. This is a subjective notion that is difficult to implement and which may influence therapeutic choices.BMC Pediatrics 04/2013; 13(1):58.
Article: Maternal cigarette smoking and its effect on neonatal lymphocyte subpopulations and replication.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Significant immunomodulatory effects have been described as result of cigarette smoking in adults and pregnant women. However, the effect of cigarette smoking during pregnancy on the lymphocyte subpopulations in newborns has been discussed, controversially. METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort, we analyzed the peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations of smoking (SM) and non-smoking mothers (NSM) and their newborns and the replicative history of neonatal, mostly naive CD4 + CD45RA + T cells by measurements of T-cell-receptor-excision-circles (TRECs), relative telomere lengths (RTL) and the serum cytokine concentrations. RESULTS: SM had higher lymphocyte counts than NSM. Comparing SM and NSM and SM newborns with NSM newborns, no significant differences in proportions of lymphocyte subpopulations were seen. Regardless of their smoking habits, mothers had significantly lower naive T cells and higher memory and effector T cells than newborns. NSM had significantly lower percentages of CD4 + CD25++ T cells compared to their newborns, which was not significant in SM. There were no differences regarding cytokine concentrations in newborns of SM and NSM. However, NSM had significantly higher Interleukin-7 concentrations than their newborns. Regardless of smoking habits of mothers, newborns had significantly longer telomeres and higher TRECs than their mothers. Newborns of SM had significantly longer telomeres than newborns of NSM. CONCLUSIONS: Apart from higher lymphocyte counts in SM, our results did not reveal differences between lymphocyte subpopulations of SM and NSM and their newborns, respectively. Our finding of significantly longer RTL in newborns of SM may reflect potential harm on lymphocytes, such as cytogenetic damage induced by smoking.BMC Pediatrics 04/2013; 13(1):57.
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