BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth


BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth publishes original research articles in all aspects of pregnancy and childbirth.

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Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The United Kingdom has one of the highest rates of stillbirth in Europe, resulting in approximately 4,000 stillbirths every year. Potentially modifiable risk factors for late stillbirths are maternal age, obesity and smoking, but the population attributable risk associated with these risk factors is small.Recently the Auckland Stillbirth Study reported that maternal sleep position was associated with late stillbirth. Women who did not sleep on their left side on the night before the death of the baby had double the risk compared with sleeping on other positions. The population attributable risk was 37%. This novel observation needs to be replicated or refuted.Methods/design: Case control study of late singleton stillbirths without congenital abnormality. Controls are women with an ongoing singleton pregnancy, who are randomly selected from participating maternity units booking list of pregnant women, they are allocated a gestation for interview based on the distribution of gestations of stillbirths from the previous 4 years for the unit. The number of controls selected is proportional to the number of stillbirths that occurred at the hospital over the previous 4 years.Data collection: Interviewer administered questionnaire and data extracted from medical records. Sample size: 415 cases and 830 controls. This takes into account a 30% non-participation rate, and will detect an OR of 1.5 with a significance level of 0.05 and power of 80% for variables with a prevalence of 57%, such as non-left sleeping position.Statistical analysis: Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios and unconditional logistic regression to adjust for potential confounders. DISCUSSION: The hypotheses to be tested here are important, biologically plausible and amenable to a public health intervention. Although this case-control study cannot prove causation, there is a striking parallel with research relating to sudden infant death syndrome, where case-control studies identified prone sleeping position as a major modifiable risk factor. Subsequently mothers were advised to sleep babies prone ("Back to Sleep" campaign), which resulted in a dramatic drop in SIDS. This study will provide robust evidence to help determine whether such a public health intervention should be considered.Trial registration number:
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 05/2015; 14:171.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common illness, but due to the underlying processes and the diversity of symptoms, some variability is exhibited. The risk of postpartum depression is great if the mother has previously suffered from depression, but there is some evidence that a certain subgroup of women only experience depression during the postpartum period.Methods The study group consisted of 104 mothers with postpartum major depression and a control group of 104 postpartum mothers without depression. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) was used for data collection. The severity of depression and other mental symptoms were assessed using several validated rating scales.ResultsA history of past depression (82%), including depression during pregnancy (42%) and during the postpartum period (53%), was very common in those with current PPD. Eighteen per cent of mothers with current PPD had previously not had any depressive episodes and four per cent had experienced depression only during the postpartum period. Therefore, pure PPD was rare. The onset of PPD was usually (84%) within six weeks of childbirth. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, depressed mood, diminished pleasure/interest, decreased energy, and psychomotor agitation/retardation were common with all kinds of depression histories. Pure PPD was the most similar to the first depressive episode. Nevertheless, the severity of depression, the level of hopelessness, somatisation, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, psychoticism, sleep disturbance, and suicidal ideation were lower, appetite changed less, and concentration was better than in other recurrent depressions.Conclusions According to this study, PPD is not a homogenous disorder. The time of onset, severity, symptoms, level of hopelessness, and the course of depression vary. Recurrent depression is common. All mothers must be screened during the sixth week postpartum at the latest. Screening alone is not effective; it is also important to give mothers information about PPD and to discuss the symptoms with them in order for them to recognise this disorder and possible new episodes in the future.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 12/2014; 14(1):402.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Life-threatening events during pregnancy are currently used as a measure to assess quality of obstetric care. The aim of this study is to assess prevalence of near miss cases and maternal deaths, to elucidate the causes and to analyze avoidable factors based upon the three-delays approach in southern Mozambique.Methods Near miss cases comprised five categories: eclampsia, severe hemorrhage, severe sepsis, uterine rupture and severe malaria. Pregnant women surviving the event were interviewed during a 5-month period within five health facilities offering comprehensive emergency obstetric care in Maputo City and Province. Family members gave additional information and were interviewed in case of the patient¿s death.ResultsOut of 27,916 live births, 564 near miss cases and 71 maternal deaths were identified, giving a total maternal near miss ratio of 20/1,000 live births and maternal mortality ratio of 254/100,000 live births, respectively. Near miss fatality rate was 11.2%. Among near miss cases hemorrhage accounted for the most common event (58.0%), followed by eclampsia (35.5%); HIV seroprevalence was 22.3%. Inappropriate attendance in antenatal care services (21.1%), late or wrong diagnosis (12.6%), inadequate management immediately after delivery (9.6%), no monitoring of blood pressure and other vital signs (9.2%) were the most prevalent factors contributing to the severe morbidity under study. Third delay was identified in 69.7% of the interviews. In more than one fourth of near miss cases treatment was not started immediately. Lack of blood derivates and unavailable operating room were reported in 42.0% and 35.0%, respectively.Conclusions Near miss cases were frequent and related to delays in reaching and receiving adequate care. First and third type of delay contributed significantly to the number of maternal near miss cases and deaths. Maternal health policies need to be concerned not only with averting the loss of life, but also with ameliorating care of severe maternal complications at all levels including primary care. Sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents should be prioritized to prevent adverse outcomes.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 12/2014; 14(1):401.
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    ABSTRACT: Background The purpose of this scoping review was to review the literature on healthcare provider provision of anti-D prophylaxis to RhD negative pregnant women in appropriate clinical situations in various healthcare settings.MethodsA scoping review framework was used to structure the process. The following databases were searched: CINAHL (EBSCO), EBM Reviews (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), Medline (OvidSP), and Web of Science (ISI). In addition, hand searching of article references was conducted. The search yielded 301 articles. Thirty-five articles remained for review after screening. Two team members reviewed each article using a detailed data collection sheet. A third reviewer was utilized if discrepancies occurred amongst reviewers.ResultsThe review process yielded 18 included articles. The majority of the studies were conducted in the United Kingdom. Of the 18 studies, 15 were retrospective studies. The articles were largely conducted in one institution. The articles with a focus on routine antenatal provision of anti-D immunoglobulin found that it was given 80 to 90% of the time. Postpartum provision of anti-D immunoglobulin had significantly higher results of 95-100%. The review found that the delivery of anti-D immunoglobulin to RhD negative pregnant women during situations of potential sensitizing events was suboptimal.Conclusions The included articles examine the management of RhD negative pregnancies in various countries with existing national guidelines. The existing evidence indicates an opportunity for quality improvement in situations where potential sensitizing events are not at routine times in pregnancy, such as miscarriage or fetal demise early in pregnancy. Routine care for the prevention of RhD alloimmunization in pregnancy and postpartum appears to be fairly consistent. The paucity of recent literature in this area leads to a recommendation for further research.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 12/2014; 14(1):411.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Preterm birth, a leading cause of neonatal death, is more common in multiple births and thus there has being an increasing call for reducing multiple births in ART. However, few studies have compared risk factors for preterm births amongst ART and non-ART singleton birth mothers.MethodsA population-based study of 393,450 mothers, including 12,105 (3.1%) ART mothers, with singleton gestations born between 2007 and 2009 in 5 of the 8 jurisdictions in Australia. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to evaluate socio-demographic, medical and pregnancy factors associated with preterm births in contrasting ART and non-ART mothers.ResultsTen percent of singleton births to ART mothers were preterm compared to 6.8% for non-ART mothers (P¿<¿0.01). Compared with non-ART mothers, ART mothers were older (mean 34.0 vs 29.7 yr respectively), less socio-economically disadvantaged (12.4% in the lowest quintile vs 20.7%), less likely to be smokers (3.8% vs 19.4%), more likely to be first time mothers (primiparous 62.4% vs 40.5%), had more preexisting hypertension and complications during pregnancy. Irrespective of the mode of conception, preexisting medical and pregnancy complications of hypertension, diabetes and antepartum hemorrhages were consistently associated with preterm birth. In contrast, socio-demographic variables, namely young and old maternal age (<25 and >34), socioeconomic disadvantage (most disadvantaged quintile Odds Ratio (OR) 0.95, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.77¿1.17), smoking (OR 1.12, 95%CI: 0.79¿1.61) and priminarity (OR 1.19, 95%CI: 1.05¿1.35, AOR not significant) shown to be associated with elevated risk of preterm birth for non-ART mothers were not demonstrated for ART mothers, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Nonetheless, in multivariable analysis, the association between ART and the elevated risk for singleton preterm birth persisted after controlling for all included confounding medical, pregnancy and socio-economic factors (AOR 1.51, 95%CI: 1.42¿1.61).Conclusions Preterm birth rate is approximately one-and-a-half-fold higher in ART mothers than non-ART mothers albeit for singleton births after controlling for confounding factors. However, ART mothers were less subject to the adverse influence from socio-demographic factors than non-ART mothers. This has implications for counselling prospective parents.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 12/2014; 14(1):406.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Approximately 5 in 1,000 deliveries in England and Wales result in stillbirth, with little improvement in figures over the last few decades. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between clinical and socio-demographic factors and stillbirth, with a particular focus on ethnicity and obesity.Methods Analysis of routine maternity data on 53,293 singleton births occurring in a large London teaching hospital between 2004 and 2012. Logistic regression was used to investigate risk factors for stillbirth and to explore potential effect modification.Results53,293 deliveries occurred during the time period, of which 329 resulted in a stillbirth (6.2 per 1,000 births). Compared to White women, non-White ethnicity was associated with a doubling of the odds of stillbirth (aOR for Black women 2.15, 95% CI 1.56-2.97; aOR for South Asian women 2.33, 95% CI 1.42-3.83). Obese women had a trend towards higher odds of stillbirth compared to women of recommended BMI (aOR 1.38, 95% CI 0.98-1.96), though this was not significant (p 0.07). Both higher parity (¿2 compared to para 1) and hypertension were associated with a higher odds of stillbirth (parity ¿2 aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.13-2.39; hypertension aOR 1.84, 95% CI 1.22-2.78) but there was no evidence that area deprivation or maternal age were independently associated with stillbirth in this population. There was some evidence of effect modification between ethnicity and obesity (p value for interaction 0.06), with obesity a particularly strong risk factor for stillbirth in South Asian women (aOR 4.64, 95% CI 1.84-11.70).Conclusions There was a high prevalence of stillbirth in this multi-ethnic urban population. The increased risk of stillbirth observed in non-White women remains after adjusting for other factors. Our finding of possible effect modification between ethnicity and obesity suggests that further research should be conducted in order to improve understanding of the interplay between ethnicity, obesity and stillbirth.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 12/2014; 14(1):404.
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    ABSTRACT: Background In common with other countries, teenage pregnancy is attracting policy attention in Sri Lanka because of the risks it poses to maternal and infant health and social and economic well-being. This study aimed to increase understanding of the context of teenage pregnancy, by (1) describing the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of pregnant teenagers and their partners; (2) exploring whether teenage pregnancies are planned and how they are received; and (3) exploring factors associated with unplanned teenage pregnancy.MethodsA population health-register based sample survey was conducted in Badulla District, Sri Lanka. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were administered to two samples: 450 pregnant women aged less than 20 years; and 150 male partners of pregnant women aged less than 20 years. Bivariate statistics described the characteristics and context of teenage pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression explored correlates of unplanned pregnancy.ResultsOver 60% of pregnant teenagers and male partners indicated that the current pregnancy was planned; while 79% of pregnant teenagers and 85% of male partners welcomed the pregnancy. Most pregnant teenagers were living within stable and supportive family environments, with 94% reporting that they felt `very well supported¿. Nevertheless, a sub-group of pregnant teenagers appeared to be vulnerable, reporting unplanned and unhappy pregnancy; factors that were also associated with first intercourse being reported as not wanted. Levels of reproductive and contraceptive knowledge were poor among both pregnant teenagers and male partners. Just 46% of teenagers and 64% of male partners knew that pregnancy was possible at first intercourse. Mothers appear to be an important source of information and support for young women, with peers being reported far less often.Conclusions Intervention to reduce teenage pregnancy must recognise the normative nature of early childbearing for the majority of girls who currently conceive and their families. Avoiding such pregnancies will require a fundamental shift in life chances such that delaying pregnancy offers significant socioeconomic advantages. Meanwhile, improved provision of contraceptive information and services is needed to support the delay of second pregnancies for young mothers. In addition, strategies to identify and protect those girls who are vulnerable to unwanted sexual activity are needed.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 12/2014; 14(1):394.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Little attention has been given to the impact of singlehood during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of marital status on diet during pregnancy and pregnancy outcome.Methods The study population comprised 62,773 women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Marital status was categorised into singles living alone, singles living with parents and married/cohabiting (reference group). Participants answered a general health questionnaire in gestational week 15¿17 and a food frequency questionnaire in gestational week 22. We used nonparametric tests to compare dietary intakes by marital status, and multiple logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for infants being small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA), and preterm delivery (defined as delivery before gestational week 37).ResultsSingle women living with parents had lower intakes of fruits and vegetables, higher intake of total energy, higher proportion of energy from added sugar, and lower intake of fibre than the reference group. Singles living alone also had a higher intake of added sugar. In both of the single groups, daily smoking was more prevalent than in women living with a partner. In analyses adjusted for maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, energy intake, energy contributed by protein, education, income, parity and nausea, single women living alone had increased risk of SGA with OR¿=¿1.27 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.55). When smoking was included among the confounding variables, the association was no longer significant. Likewise, singles living alone had increased risk of preterm delivery, with OR¿=¿1.32 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.72) in a partly adjusted model, but the association did not remain significant in a model fully adjusted for confounding variables.Conclusions Single mothers had lower dietary quality and included more smokers than women who lived with a partner. Single mothers living alone had higher prevalence of SGA and preterm delivery, but the associations with adverse pregnancy outcomes were confounded by other variables. This study shows that single mothers should be given special attention during antenatal care and counselling.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 12/2014; 14(1):396.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Immigrant women may be regarded as a vulnerable population with respect to access and navigation of maternity care services. They may encounter difficulties when accessing culturally safe and appropriate maternity care, which may be further exacerbated by language difficulties and discriminatory practices or attitudes. The project aimed to understand ethnocultural food and health practices and how these intersect in a particular social context of cultural adaptation and adjustment in order to improve the care-giving capacities of health practitioners working in multicultural perinatal clinics.Methods This four-phase study employed a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase one consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases two and three incorporate pictorial representations of food choices with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews. This study was undertaken at a Prenatal and Obstetric Clinic, in an urban Canadian city. In phase four, the research team will inform the development of culturally appropriate visual tools for health promotion.ResultsFive themes were identified: (a) Perceptions of Health, (b) Social Support (c) Antenatal Foods (d) Postnatal Foods and (e) Role of Health Education. These themes provide practitioners with an understanding of the cultural differences that affect women¿s dietary choices during pregnancy. The project identified building collaborations between practitioners and families of pregnant immigrant women to be of utmost importance in supporting healthy pregnancies, along with facilitating social support for pregnant and breastfeeding mothers.Conclusion In a multicultural society that contemporary Canada is, it is challenging for health practitioners to understand various ethnocultural dietary norms and practices. Practitioners need to be aware of customary practices of the ethnocultural groups that they work with, while simultaneously recognizing the variation within¿not everyone follows customary practices, individuals may pick and choose which customary guidelines they follow. What women choose to eat is also influenced by their own experiences, access to particular foods, socioeconomic status, family context, and so on.The pilot study demonstrated the efficacy of the employed research strategies and we subsequently acquired funding for a national study.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 12/2014; 14(1):370.
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    ABSTRACT: Background While studies have suggested that depression and HIV-related stigma may impede access to care, a growing body of literature also suggests that access to HIV care itself may help to decrease internalized HIV-related stigma and symptoms of depression in the general population of persons living with HIV. However, this has not been investigated in postpartum women living with HIV. Furthermore, linkage to care itself may have additional impacts on postpartum depression beyond the effects of antiretroviral therapy. We examined associations between linkage to HIV care, postpartum depression, and internalized stigma in a population with a high risk of depression: newly diagnosed HIV-positive pregnant women.Methods In this prospective observational study, data were obtained from 135 HIV-positive women from eight antenatal clinics in the rural Nyanza Province of Kenya at their first antenatal visit (prior to testing HIV-positive for the first time) and subsequently at 6 weeks after giving birth.ResultsAt 6 weeks postpartum, women who had not linked to HIV care after testing positive at their first antenatal visit had higher levels of depression and internalized stigma, compared to women who had linked to care. Internalized stigma mediated the effect of linkage to care on depression. Furthermore, participants who had both linked to HIV care and initiated antiretroviral therapy reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms.Conclusions These results provide further support for current efforts to ensure that women who are newly diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy become linked to HIV care as early as possible, with important benefits for both physical and mental health.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 12/2014; 14(1):400.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Maternal blood pressures in pregnancy is an important determinant of offspring size at birth. However, the relationship between maternal blood pressures and offspring¿s size at birth is not consistent and may vary between ethnic groups. We examined the relationship between maternal peripheral and central blood pressures and offspring size at birth in an Asian multi-ethnic cohort, and effect modifications by maternal ethnicity and obesity.Methods We used data from 713 participants in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes study consisting of pregnant Chinese, Malay and Indian women recruited from two tertiary hospitals between 2009 to 2010. Peripheral systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP), and central SBP and pulse pressure (PP) were measured around 27 weeks of gestation. Biometric parameters at birth were collected from medical records.ResultsAfter adjusting for maternal and fetal covariates, each 1-SD increase (10.0 mmHg) in central SBP was inversely associated with birth weight (¿40.52 g; 95% confidence interval (CI) -70.66 to ¿10.37), birth length (¿0.19 cm; ¿0.36 to ¿0.03), head circumference (¿0.12 cm; ¿0.23 to ¿0.02) and placental weight (¿11.16 g; ¿20.85 to ¿1.47). A one-SD (11.1 mmHg) increase in peripheral SBP was also associated with lower birth weight (¿35.56 g; ¿66.57 to ¿4.54). The inverse relations between other blood pressure measures and offspring size at birth were observed but not statistically significant. Higher peripheral SBP and DBP and central SBP were associated with increased odds of low birth weight (defined as weight <2500 g) and small for gestational age (defined as <10th percentile for gestational age adjusted birth weight). Maternal adiposity modified these associations, with stronger inverse associations in normal weight women. No significant interactions were found with ethnicity.Conclusions Higher second-trimester peripheral and central systolic pressures were associated with smaller offspring size at birth, particularly in normal weight women. Findings from this study reinforces the clinical relevance of antenatal blood pressure monitoring.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 12/2014; 14(1):403.
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    ABSTRACT: Background The endocannabinoid system plays a key role in female reproduction, including implantation, decidualization and placentation. In the present study, we aimed to analyze cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), CB2 and fatty acid amid hydrolase (FAAH) expressions and localization in normal and preeclamptic placenta, in order to determine whether placental endocannabinoid expression pattern differs between normal pregnancy and preeclampsia.Methods Eighteen preeclamptic patients and 18 normotensive, healthy pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies were involved in our case¿control study. We determined CB1, CB2 and FAAH expressions by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry in placental samples collected directly after Cesarean section.ResultsCB1 expression semi-quantified by Western blotting was significantly higher in preeclamptic placenta, and these findings were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. CB1 immunoreactivity was markedly stronger in syncytiotrophoblasts, the mesenchymal core, decidua, villous capillary endothelial and smooth muscle cells, as well as in the amnion in preeclamptic samples compared to normal pregnancies. However, we did not find significant differences between preeclamptic and normal placenta in terms of CB2 and FAAH expressions and immunoreactivity.Conclusions We observed markedly higher expression of CB1 protein in preeclamptic placental tissue. Increased CB1 expression might cause abnormal decidualization and impair trophoblast invasion, thus being involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Nevertheless, we did not find significant differences between preeclamptic and normal placental tissue regarding CB2 and FAAH expressions. While the detailed pathogenesis of preeclampsia is still unclear, the endocannabinoid system could play a role in the development of the disease.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 12/2014; 14(1):395.
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    ABSTRACT: Background The number of preterm birth is increasing worldwide, especially in low income countries. Malawi has the highest incidence of preterm birth in the world, currently estimated at 18.1 percent. The aim of this study was to explore the perceived causes of preterm birth, care practices for preterm newborn babies and challenges associated with preterm birth among community members in Mangochi District, southern Malawi.Methods We conducted 14 focus group discussions with the following groups of participants: mothers (n¿=¿4), fathers (n¿=¿6) and grandmothers (n¿=¿4) for 110 participants. We conducted 20 IDIs with mothers to preterm newborns (n¿=¿10), TBAs (n¿=¿6) and traditional healers (n¿=¿4). A discussion guide was used to facilitate the focus group and in-depth interview sessions. Data collection took place between October 2012 and January 2013. We used content analysis to analyze data.ResultsParticipants mentioned a number of perceptions of preterm birth and these included young and old maternal age, heredity, sexual impurity and maternal illness during pregnancy. Provision of warmth was the most commonly reported component of care for preterm newborns. Participants reported several challenges to caring for preterm newborns such as lack of knowledge on how to provide care, poverty, and the high time burden of care leading to neglect of household, farming and business duties. Women had the main responsibility for caring for preterm newborns.Conclusion In this community, the reported poor care practices for preterm newborns were associated with poverty and lack of knowledge of how to properly care for these babies at home. Action is needed to address the current care practices for preterm babies among the community members.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 12/2014; 14(1):399.
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    ABSTRACT: Background It is important to understand the risk factors for fetal and neonatal mortality which is a major contributor to high under five deaths globally. Fetal and neonatal mortality is a sensitive indicator of maternal health in society. This study aimed to examine the risk factors for fetal and early neonatal mortality at the Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Kenya.Methods This was a case-control study. Cases were fetal and early neonatal deaths (n¿=¿200). The controls were infants born alive immediately preceding and following the cases (n¿=¿400). Bivariate comparisons and multiple logistic regression analyses were undertaken.ResultsThe odds of having 0-1 antenatal visits relative to 2-3 visits were higher for cases than controls (AOR=4.5; 95% CI: 1.2-16.7; p=0.03). There were lower odds among cases of having a doctor rather than a midwife as a birth attendant (OR¿=¿0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.6; p¿<¿0.01). The odds of mothers having Premature Rupture of Membranes (OR¿=¿4.1; 95% CI: 1.4-12.1; p¿=¿0.01), haemorrhage (OR¿=¿4.8; 95% CI: 1.1-21.9; p¿=¿0.04) and dystocia (OR¿=¿3.6; 95% CI: 1.2-10.9; p¿=¿0.02) were higher for the cases compared with the controls. The odds of gestational age less than 37 weeks (OR¿=¿7.0; 95% CI 2.4-20.4) and above 42 weeks (OR¿=¿16.2; 95% CI 2.8-92.3) compared to 37-42 weeks, were higher for cases relative to controls (p¿<¿0.01). Cases had higher odds of being born with congenital malformations (OR¿=¿6.3; 95% CI: 1.2-31.6; p¿=¿0.04) and with Apgar scores of below six at five minutes (OR¿=¿26.4; 95% CI: 6.1-113.8; p¿<¿0.001).Conclusion Interventions that focus on educating mothers on antenatal attendance, screening, monitoring and management of maternal conditions during the antenatal period should be strengthened. Doctor attendance at each birth and for emergency admissions is important to ensure early neonatal survival and avert potential risk factors for mortality.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 11/2014; 14(1):389.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Nausea and vomiting are common in early pregnancy in 50-90% of pregnant women and resolves in all but 10% of these women. Many obstetricians encounter this problem and should be familiar with the probable outcomes, current treatment options and oral health component of its management. This study assessed the awareness of obstetrics residents of the oral health component of management of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy.Methods This study was carried out among resident doctors in Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Nigeria. A pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was used for the data collection. The data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 17.0. Non parametric analysis in the form of chi square was carried out to test for statistical significance with P value <0.05 considered statistically significant.ResultsA total of 200 questionnaires were administered while 186 were filled and returned, giving a response rate of 93%, comprising 21.5% senior residents and 78.5% junior residents. Most of the respondents agreed that oral health is important in pregnancy. A majority (58%) also thought that oral health complaints in pregnancy were not normal. Fifty-seven percent of the respondents neither assessed teeth and gums of pregnant women for problems during ante-natal care nor educated them on care that would improve their oral health. Majority (95.7%) of the respondents assisted pregnant women with dealing with nausea and vomiting but were not aware of the oral health component of its management.Conclusion Oral health component in the management of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy has been largely neglected in obstetric care. It is pertinent that ante-natal health care providers receive adequate education on perinatal oral health care.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 11/2014; 14(1):388.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Recommended screening and brief intervention (SBI) for alcohol use during pregnancy is impeded by high patient loads and limited resources in public health settings. We evaluated the feasibility, acceptability and validity of a new self-administered, single-session, bilingual, computerized Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI) program for alcohol and sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) use in pregnancy.Methods We developed and tested the computerized SBI program at a public health clinic with 290 pregnant women. Feasibility, acceptability, and validity measures were included in the program which had several modules, including those on demographics, health and beverage use. Time to complete the program and user experience items were used to determine program feasibility and acceptability. Validity analyses compared proportions of prenatal alcohol use identified by the program versus in-person screening by clinic staff.ResultsMost program users (87%, n¿=¿251) completed the entire program; 91% (n¿=¿263) completed the key screening and brief intervention modules. Most users also completed the program in ten to fifteen minutes. Program users reported that the program was easy to use (97%), they learned something new (88%), and that they would share what they learned with others (83%) and with their doctors or clinic staff (76%). Program acceptability did not differ by age, education, or type of beverage intervention received. The program identified alcohol use in pregnancy among 21% of users, a higher rate than the 13% (p¿<¿.01) found via screening by clinic staff.Conclusions Computerized Screening and Brief Intervention for alcohol and SSB use in public health clinics is feasible and acceptable to English and Spanish speaking pregnant women and can efficiently identify prenatal alcohol use.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 11/2014; 14(1):379.