BMC Nephrology (BMC Nephrol)

Publisher: BioMed Central

Journal description

BMC Nephrology publishes original research articles in all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of kidney and associated disorders, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.

Current impact factor: 1.52

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.52
2012 Impact Factor 1.644
2011 Impact Factor 2.176
2010 Impact Factor 2.136

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 3.60
Immediacy index 0.10
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.00
Website BMC Nephrology website
Other titles BioMed Central nephrology, Nephrology
ISSN 1471-2369
OCLC 45259909
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

BioMed Central

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    • Creative Commons Attribution License
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    • All titles are open access journals
    • 'BioMed Central' is an imprint of 'Springer Verlag (Germany)'
  • Classification
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Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: A noninvasive system for determining left ventricular (LV) filling pressure may help to improve personalized fluid removal goals in hemodialysis patients. We previously showed that the change in photoplethysmography (PPG) pulse amplitude measured by finger PPG during a Valsalva maneuver correlates with invasively measured left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). This key PPG change, the ratio of finger PPG pulse amplitude at end-Valsalva to baseline, is known as the Pulse Amplitude Ratio, PAR. The objective of this study was to determine how PAR changes after fluid removal in hemodialysis. We tested subjects with end-stage renal disease, before and after hemodialysis. Each subject performed a Valsalva maneuver with an effort of 20 mmHg for 10 s, guided by the device display. Finger PPG was recorded continuously before and during the maneuver. PAR was calculated automatically. Twenty-seven subjects (21 Males) ages 25-75 years were tested. Access sites were AV-fistulas of the arm predominantly. Weight decreased from 99.7 ± 36.9 kg to 97.0 ± 36.0 kg (p < 0.0003) with an average fluid removal of 3.07 ± 1.08 l. Correspondingly, PAR decreased from 0.74 ± 0.24 to 0.62 ± 0.23 (p = 0.003). The change in PAR was correlated with baseline PAR (r = 0.48, p = 0.01). An index of left heart filling pressure obtained noninvasively using finger photoplethysmography during the Valsalva maneuver is sensitive enough to detect reductions in filling pressure after fluid removal with hemodialysis. Further studies are warranted to determine if this method can be used to guide fluid removal during hemodialysis.
    BMC Nephrology 12/2015; 16(1):138. DOI:10.1186/s12882-015-0135-0
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    BMC Nephrology 12/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12882-015-0034-4
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    ABSTRACT: Background Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) is expressed in tubular epithelial cells after injury and may have a role in the development of renal graft fibrosis. In this study we evaluated the molecular and protein expressions of KIM-1 in dysfunctional allografts and also mRNA KIM-1 expression in urine as potential biomarkers of graft fibrosis. Methods Protein and mRNA levels in renal tissue and urinary sediment cells of 69 kidney transplant recipients that undertook for-cause graft biopsies were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The histopathology was classified according to the 2007 Banff schema. Results KIM-1 protein expression was increased in biopsies with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) compared with biopsies showing acute calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity (CIN) (P <0.05). Kidney tissue KIM-1 mRNA signaling (in) was increased in biopsies with IF/TA compared with all other groups (P <0.05). In the urine cells KIM-1 mRNA was also increased in patients with IF/TA compared with patients with acute CIN (P <0.05). Significant correlations were found between KIM-1 protein and mRNA levels in tissue, between mRNA expressions in tissue and urine and between protein tissue expression and gene expression in the urine. Conclusions KIM-1 seems to be a marker of kidney graft fibrosis. Urinary KIM-1 mRNA may become a useful non-invasive biomarker of the injuries that can trigger intra-graft fibrotic processes, such as interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy.
    BMC Nephrology 12/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12882-015-0011-y
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    ABSTRACT: Screening for renal diseases should be performed at the time of diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Despite the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Northern Uganda, little is known about the status of renal function and its correlates in the newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals in this resource limited region. We aimed to determine the status of renal function and factors associated with impaired renal function in newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults in Northern Uganda. This was a seven month cross-sectional hospital-based study, involving newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients, 18 years and older. Patients with history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and renal disease were excluded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula (Table one). Factors associated with impaired renal function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) were thus sought. We enrolled 361 participants (230, 63.7% female) with Mean ± standard deviation age of 31.4 ± 9.5 years. 52, (14.4%) had impaired renal function (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and of this 37 (71.2%) moderate renal impairment (eGFR 30-59.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) while 15 (28.8%) had severe renal impairment (eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Proteinuria was recorded in 189 (52.4%) participants. Of these, 154 (81.5%) had mild (1+) while 8 (4.2%) had severe (3+) proteinuria. Using logistic regression, age, CD4 cell count, and proteinuria were significantly associated with impaired renal function; age >34 years (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.3 - 5.9; P =0.009), CD4 count <350 cells/μL (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.0-4.7; P =0.039) and proteinuria (OR 9.6, 95% CI 5.2-17.9; P < 0.001). The prevalence of impaired renal function was high in new HIV-infected individuals in this region with limited resources. So, screening for renal disease in HIV is recommended at the time of HIV diagnosis.
    BMC Nephrology 12/2015; 16(1):43. DOI:10.1186/s12882-015-0035-3
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    ABSTRACT: It is unknown whether variability of estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) is a risk factor for dialysis or death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study aimed to evaluate variability of estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) as a risk factor for dialysis or death to facilitate optimum care among high risk patients. A longitudinal retrospective cohort study of 70,598 Veterans Health Administration veteran patients with diabetes and CKD (stage 3–4) in 2000 with up to 5 years of follow-up. VHA and Medicare files were linked to derive study variables. We used Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate association between time to initial dialysis/death and key independent variables: time-varying eGFR variability (measured by standard deviation (SD)) and eGFR means and slopes while adjusting for prior hospitalizations, and comorbidities. There were 76.7% older than 65 years, 97.5% men, and 81.9% Whites. Patients were largely in early stage 3 (61.2%), followed by late stage 3 (28.9%), and stage 4 (9.9%); 29.1%, 46.8%, and 73.3%, respectively, died or had dialysis during the follow-up. eGFR SDs (median: 5.8, 5.1, and 4.0 ml/min/1.73 m2 ) and means (median: 54.1, 41.0, 27.2 ml/min/1.73 m2) from all two-year moving intervals decreased as CKD advanced; eGFR variability (relative to the mean) increased when CKD progressed (median coefficient of variation: 10.9, 12.8, and 15.4). Cox regressions revealed that one unit increase in a patient’s standard deviation of eGFRs from prior two years was significantly associated with about 7% increase in risk of dialysis/death in the current year, similarly in all three CKD stages. This was after adjusting for concurrent means and slopes of eGFRs, demographics, prior hospitalization, and comorbidities. For example, the hazard of dialysis/death increased by 7.2% (hazard ratio:1.072; 95% CI = 1.067, 1.080) in early stage 3. eGFR variability was independently associated with elevated risk of dialysis/death even after controlling for eGFR means and slopes.
    BMC Nephrology 12/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12882-015-0025-5
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular access-related infections and septicemia are the main causes of infections among hemodialysis patients, the majority of them caused by Staphylococcus species. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) has recently been reported with a probable antistaphylococcal activity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ASA on the risk of dialysis-related infection and septicemia among incident chronic hemodialysis patients. In a nested case-control study, we identified 449 cases of vascular access-related infections and septicemia, and 4156 controls between 2001 and 2007 from our incident chronic hemodialysis patients' cohort. Cases were defined as patients hospitalized with a main diagnosis of vascular access-related infection or septicemia on the discharge sheet (ICD-9 codes). Up to ten controls per case were selected by incidence density sampling and matched to cases on age, sex and follow-up time. ASA exposure was measured at the admission and categorized as: no use, low dose (80-324 mg/d), high dose (≥325 mg/d). Odds ratios (OR) for infections were estimated using multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounders. Compared to no use, neither dose of ASA was associated with a decreased risk of infection: low dose (OR 1.03, 95 % CI 0.82-1.28) and high dose (OR 1.30, 95 % CI 0.96-1.75). However, diabetes (OR = 1.32, 95 % CI = 1.07-1.62) and anticoagulant use (OR = 1.62, 95 % CI = 1.30-2.02) were associated with a higher risk. Among hemodialysis patients, ASA use was not associated with a reduced risk of hospitalizations for dialysis-related infections or septicemia. However, ASA may remain beneficial for its cardiovascular indications.
    BMC Nephrology 12/2015; 16(1):115. DOI:10.1186/s12882-015-0112-7
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing dialysate flow rates (Qd) from 500 to 800 ml/min has been recommended to increase dialysis efficiency. A few publications show that increasing Qd no longer led to an increase in mass transfer area coefficient (KoA) or Kt/V measurement. Our objectives were: 1) Studying the effect in Kt of using a Qd of 400, 500, 700 ml/min and autoflow (AF) with different modern dialysers. 2) Comparing the effect on Kt of water consumption vs. dialysis time to obtain an individual objective of Kt (Ktobj) adjusted to body surface. This is a prospective single-centre study with crossover design. Thirty-one patients were studied and six sessions with each Qd were performed. HD parameters were acquired directly from the monitor display: effective blood flow rate (Qbe), Qd, effective dialysis time (Te) and measured by conductivity monitoring, final Kt. We studied a total of 637 sessions: 178 with 500 ml/min, 173 with 700 ml/min, 160 with AF and 126 with 400 ml/min. Kt rose a 4% comparing 400 with 500 ml/min, and 3% comparing 500 with 700 ml/min. Ktobj was reached in 82.4, 88.2, 88.2 and 94.1% of patients with 400, AF, 500 and 700 ml/min, respectively. We did not find statistical differences between dialysers. The difference between programmed time and Te was 8′ when Qd was 400 and 500 ml/min and 8.8′ with Qd = 700 ml/min. Calculating an average time loss of eight minutes/session, we can say that a patient loses 24′ weekly, 312′ monthly and 62.4 hours yearly. Identical Kt could be obtained with Qd of 400 and 500 ml/min, increasing dialysis time 9.1′ and saving 20% of dialysate. Our data suggest that increasing Qd over 400 ml/min for these dialysers offers a limited benefit. Increasing time is a better alternative with demonstrated benefits to the patient and also less water consumption.
    BMC Nephrology 12/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12882-015-0013-9
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the regulation of mineral homeostasis and function of the skeleton as buffer for Calcium and Phosphate has regained new interest with introduction of the syndrome “Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder”(CKD-MBD). The very rapid minute-to-minute regulation of plasma-Ca2+ (p-Ca2+) takes place via an exchange mechanism of Ca2+ between plasma and bone. A labile Ca storage pool exists on bone surfaces storing excess or supplying Ca when blood Ca is lowered. Aim was to examine minute-to-minute regulation of p-Ca2+ in the very early phase of acute uremia, as induced by total bilateral nephrectomy and to study the effect of absence of kidneys on the rapid recovery of p-Ca2+ from a brief induction of acute hypocalcemia. The rapid regulation of p-Ca2+ was examined in sham-operated rats, acute nephrectomized rats(NX), acute thyroparathyrectomized(TPTX) rats and NX-TPTX rats. The results clearly showed that p-Ca2+ falls rapidly and significantly very early after acute NX, from 1.23 ± 0.02 to 1.06 ± 0.04 mM (p < 0.001). Further hypocalcemia was induced by a 30 min iv infusion of EGTA. Control groups had saline. After discontinuing EGTA a rapid increase in p-Ca2+ took place, but with a lower level in NX rats (p < 0.05). NX-TPTX model excluded potential effect of accumulation of Calcitonin and C-terminal PTH, both having potential hypocalcemic actions. Acute TPTX resulted in hypercalcemia, 1.44 ± 0.02 mM and less in NX-TPTX rats,1.41 ± 0.02 mM (p < 0.05). Recovery of p-Ca2+ from hypocalcemia resulted in lower levels in NX-TPTX than in TPTX rats, 1.20 ± 0.02 vs.1.30 ± 0.02 (p < 0.05) demonstrating that absence of kidneys significantly affected the rapid regulation of p-Ca2+ independent of PTH, C-PTH and CT. P-Ca2+ on a minute-to-minute basis is influenced by presence of kidneys. Hypocalcemia developed rapidly in acute uremia. Levels of p-Ca2+, obtained during recovery from hypocalcemia resulted in lower levels in acutely nephrectomized rats. This indicates that kidneys are of significant importance for the ‘set-point’ of p-Ca2+ on bone surface, independently of PTH and calcitonin. Our results point toward existence of an as yet unknown factor/mechanism, which mediates the axis between kidney and bone, and which is involved in the very rapid regulation of p-Ca2+.
    BMC Nephrology 12/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12882-015-0019-3
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    ABSTRACT: Low mean arterial pressure (MAP) can cause low renal blood flow and damage the kidneys. However, in the general population, it remains unclear whether or not decline in renal function is related to MAP. The present study examined the relationship between MAP and decreased glomerular filtration rate(GFR) in participans aged ≥35 years from the Liaoning province of China. A total of 11345 representative individuals aged ≥ 35 years was selected and a cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 2012 to August 2013 to describe the gender-specific prevalence and factors associated with decreased GFR in rural areas of Liaoning Province. Men with decreased eGFR (eGFR < 60ml/min per 1.73m(2)) were older, and had higher meanWC, systolic and diastolic BP, PP, MAP, total fasting glucose, LDL-C ,glyceride and uric acid levels and were current drinker/smoker at the baseline (all P < 0.05). Those with low education level, low income, low physical activity, low hemoglobin and HDL-C level had decreased eGFR (all P < 0.05). In women, the results were similar to those of men, but DBP and drinking status had no associations with the eGFR at the baseline (all P < 0.05). After adjustment for age, men with MAP of >112.2 mmHg versus ≤ 93.8 mmHg had ORs for decreased eGFR of 2.367 (95 % CI: 1.248 to 4.488) .After multivariable adjustment, an MAP of >112.2 mmHg versus ≤93.8 mmHg had an OR for decreased eGFR of 3.249 (95 % CI:1.394 to 7.575) in men, whereas in women, MAP was not associated with decreased eGFR. MAP was associated with decreased eGFR in men, while in women MAP was not associated with decreased eGFR. These findings provide some evidence that a different adaptive response to renal regulation may exist in males and females.
    BMC Nephrology 12/2015; 16(1):137. DOI:10.1186/s12882-015-0115-4
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    ABSTRACT: Socioeconomic characteristics may affect the outcomes of patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). There are two major medical insurances in China: the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS), mainly for rural residents, and the Urban Employees' Medical Insurance (UEMI). The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of medical insurance type on survival of patient undergoing PD. This was a prospective study in adult patients who underwent PD at the Wuhan No.1 Hospital between January 2008 and December 2013. Patients had received continuous ambulatory PD for >3 months. Patients were divided according to their medical insurance. Demographic and socioeconomic data, biochemical parameters and primary clinical outcomes including all-cause mortality, switch to hemodialysis and kidney transplantation were analyzed. There were 415 patients with UEMI and 149 with NCMS. Compared with UEMI, patients with NCMS were younger, and had shorter dialysis duration, smaller proportion of diabetic nephropathy, more severe anemia, and more frequent hyperphosphatemia and hyperuricemia. Total Kt/V, creatinine clearance and residual renal function were not different. There was no difference in technique survival (P > 0.05) between the two groups, but rural patients showed lower overall survival (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that NCMS was independently associated with lower survival (RR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.04-2.15). Medical insurance model is independently associated with PD patient survival.
    BMC Nephrology 12/2015; 16(1):33. DOI:10.1186/s12882-015-0023-7
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    ABSTRACT: Cool dialysate is often recommended for prevention of intra-dialytic hypotensive episodes in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, its effect on toxin removal is not studied. It is known that inter-compartmental resistance is the main barrier for toxin removal. Cool dialysate can potentially increase this resistance by vasoconstriction and thus impair the toxin removal. The aim of this trial is to compare the toxin removal outcome associated with cool vs. warm dialysate. This study is based on the hypothesis that dialysate temperature, a potential maneuver to maintain hemodynamic stability during HD, may influence inter-compartmental resistance and hence, toxin removal. Only stable HD patients will be recruited for this study. The quantum of removed toxins will be assessed by the total spent dialysate, which is a gold standard to quantify the efficacy of a single dialysis session. Collected samples will be analyzed for urea, creatinine, phosphate, β2-microglobulin, and uric acid. The study is a single center, self-controlled, randomized prospective clinical research where 20 study subjects will undergo 2 dialysis sessions: (a) cool dialysis with dialysate at 35.5°C, and (b) warm dialysis with dialysate at 37°C. Pre- and post-dialysis blood samples will be collected to quantify the dialysis adequacy and toxin reduction ratio. This is the first clinical research to investigate the effect of dialysate temperature on removal of both small and large-sized toxins. Successful completion of this research will provide important knowledge pertaining to dialysate temperature prescription. Results can also lead to the hypothesis that cool dialysate may help in by preventing intra-dialytic hypotensive episodes, but prolonged prescription of cool dialysate may lead to comorbidities associated with excess toxin accumulation. The new knowledge will encourage for personalized dialysate temperature profiling. Trial registration Identifier - NCT02064153.
    BMC Nephrology 12/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12882-015-0017-5
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease throughout the world; however, the reversibility of diabetic nephropathy remains controversial. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DN. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is derived from Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bge, a widely used traditional herbal medicine in China, and has diverse pharmacological activities including the attenuation of podocyte injury and amelioration of proteinuria in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. The present study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of AS-IV on proteinuria in the rat streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model of diabetes. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control (Normal group), diabetic nephropathy (Model group), diabetic nephropathy plus AS-IV treatment (AS-IV group) and diabetic nephropathy plus 4-phenyl butyric acid treatment (PBA group). ER stress was induced in cultured human podocytes, pretreated with or without AS-IV, with tunicamycin (TM). At the end of 8 weeks, serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and 24-hour urinary protein excretion rate (UAER) were determined. Renal morphology was examined after periodic acid-Schiff staining of kidney sections. Apoptosis of podocytes was measured by flow cytometry. The total expression and phosphorylation of eIF2a, PERK and JNK, and the expression of CHOP and cleaved caspase-3 were determined by western blotting. The expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and 150 kDa oxygen-regulated protein (ORP150) mRNA and protein was determined by real-time PCR and western blotting respectively. Results: AS-IV treatment significantly reduced urinary albumin excretion, plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels, and prevented the mesangial matrix expansion and increase in mean mesangial induced by STZ. AS-IV also prevented the phosphorylation of eIF2a, PERK and JNK, and inhibited the expression of GRP78 and ORP150 markedly, both in vivo and in vitro. AS-IV inhibited the TM-induced apoptosis of podocytes, concomitant with decreased CHOP expression and cleaved caspase-3. Conclusions: This study supports the hypothesis that AS-IV reduces proteinuria and attenuates diabetes, which is associated with decreased ER stress. This might be an important mechanism in the renoprotective function of AS-IV in the pathogenesis of DN.
    BMC Nephrology 12/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12882-015-0031-7
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    ABSTRACT: Patient registries have great potential for providing data that describe disease burden, treatments, and outcomes; which can be used to improve patient care. Many renal registries exist, but a central repository of their scope, quality, and accessibility is lacking. The objective of this study was to identify and assess worldwide renal registries reporting on renal replacement therapy and compile a list of those most suitable for use by a broad range of researchers. Renal registries were identified through a systematic literature review and internet research. Inclusion criteria included information on dialysis use (yes/no), patient counts ≥300, and evidence of activity between June 2007 and June 2012. Public availability of information on dialysis modality, outcomes, and patient characteristics as well as accessibility of patient-level data for external research were evaluated. Of 144 identified renal registries, 48 met inclusion criteria, 23 of which were from Europe. Public accessibility to annual reports, publications, or basic data was good for 17 registries and moderate for 22. Patient-level data were available to external researchers either directly or through application and review (which may include usage fees) for 13 of the 48 registries, and were inaccessible or accessibility was unknown for 25. The lack of available data, particularly in emerging economies, leaves information gaps about health care and outcomes for patients with renal disease. Effective multistakeholder collaborations could help to develop renal registries where they are absent, or enhance data collection and dissemination for currently existing registries to improve patient care.
    BMC Nephrology 12/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12882-015-0028-2
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Irisin, an exercise induced myokine, has broad implications for metabolism and energy homeostasis. Available evidence about the association of serum irisin with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is limited. Methods: Cross-sectional data on socio-demographic, lifestyle, clinical characteristics and serum irisin were collected for 1,115 community-living obese Chinese adults (waist circumference >= 90 cm for men and >= 80 cm for women). CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and/or the presence of albuminuria. Associations of serum irisin and body composition measurements with CKD were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Results: The overall prevalence of CKD were 23.1% (26.6% in females and 15.5% in males, p < 0.001). Subjects within quartile 4 group of serum irisin had significantly the lowest prevalence of CKD (22.9%, 22.2%, 28.7% and 18.7% for quartile 1-4 groups, respectively, p = 0.046). With adjustment for potential confounders, compared with those within quartile 1 group of serum irisin, subjects within quartile 4 group showed significantly decreased risk of CKD and marginally decreased risk of albuminuria, with the adjusted odds ratios (ORs, 95% CI) of 0.572 (0.353-0.927, p = 0.023) and 0.611 (0.373-1.000, p = 0.050), respectively. As for body composition measurements, only body fat percentage was significantly associated with both albuminuira and CKD, with ORs (95% CI) of 1.046 (1.002-1.092, p = 0.039) and 1.049 (1.006-1.093, p = 0.025), respectively. No statistically significant interaction effect between serum irisin and body composition measurements on CKD was found. Conclusions: Our results imply that high serum irisin level was associated with reduced risk of CKD, and should be confirmed in future studies. Furthermore, adiposity per se, rather than body weight or body shape, is independently associated with increased risk of CKD. Future studies should examine whether decreasing body fat percentage may prevent or slow CKD.
    BMC Nephrology 12/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12882-015-0009-5
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    ABSTRACT: Kimura's disease (KD) is a slowly progressing rare, benign inflammatory disorder of the soft tissues. It typically presents as subcutaneous tumor-like nodules, located most frequently in the head and neck region. KD is often accompanied by increased peripheral eosinophilia and elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E. There is renal involvement in approximately 12-16% of KD cases. We report the case of a 23-year-old Chinese man who was found to have KD associated with nephrotic syndrome. Case presentation A 23-year-old Chinese man presented with edema in both legs and a mass in ulnar side of his right upper arm on August 8th 2013. Before admission to our hospital, an ultrasound examination revealed swollen lymph nodes in the medial aspect of his right upper arm, proximal to the elbow. The patient was admitted on August 19th 2013 as a result of edema, severe proteinuria, and low serum albumin levels. He had a white blood cell count of 7.7 × 109 cells/L, 48.5% eosinophils, 4+ albuminuria, 24-hour urinary protein excretion 9.3 g, serum protein 50.3 g/L; serum albumin 16 g/L and IgE 1,510 IU/ml. A biopsy of the epitrochlear nodes revealed eosinophilic hyperplastic lymphogranulomatous tissue. A renal biopsy indicated focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (cellular variant) with no infiltration of eosinophil in renal interstitium. The results of immune-staining on the renal biopsy were negative for IgG, IgA, IgM, C3 and C1q. The electron microscopic analysis showed podocyte effacement. His final diagnosis was Kimura's disease associated with nephrotic syndrome. He received methylprednisolone therapy as well as symptomatic treatment, and was discharged with key indicators in normal range on September 17th 2013. During the year following, he had methylprednisolone at a maintenance dose of 8 mg/day, and no relapses occurred up to now. Methylprednisolone therapy is effective in KD associated with nephrotic syndrome, and long-term administration of methylprednisolone at maintenance dose may be a way to prevent relapses of KD.
    BMC Nephrology 12/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12882-015-0007-7