BMC Medical Imaging (BMC Med Imag)

Publisher: BioMed Central

Journal description

BMC Medical Imaging publishes original research articles in the use, development, and evaluation of imaging techniques to diagnose and manage disease.

Current impact factor: 1.31

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.312
2013 Impact Factor 0.983

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 4.50
Immediacy index 0.10
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.00
Website BMC Medical Imaging website
Other titles BMC medical imaging, BioMed Central medical imaging, Medical imaging
ISSN 1471-2342
OCLC 48748135
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

BioMed Central

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    • Creative Commons Attribution License
    • Copy of License must accompany any deposit.
    • All titles are open access journals
    • 'BioMed Central' is an imprint of 'Springer Verlag (Germany)'
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To set up a method for measuring radiographic displacement of unstable pelvic ring fractures based on standardized X-ray images and then test its reliability and validity using a software-based measurement technique. Twenty-five patients that were diagnosed as AO/OTA type B or C pelvic fractures with unilateral pelvis fractured and dislocated were eligible for inclusion by a review of medical records in our clinical centre. Based on the input pelvic preoperative CT data, the standardized X-ray images, including inlet, outlet, and anterior-posterior (AP) radiographs, were simulated using Armira software (Visage Imaging GmbH, Berlin, Germany). After representative anatomic landmarks were marked on the standardized X-ray images, the 2-dimensional (2D) coordinates of these points could be revealed in Digimizer software (Model: Mitutoyo Corp., Tokyo, Japan). Subsequently, we developed a formula that indicated the translational and rotational displacement patterns of the injured hemipelvis. Five separate observers calculated the displacement outcomes using the established formula and determined the rotational patterns using a 3D-CT model based on their overall impression. We performed 3D reconstruction of all the fractured pelvises using Mimics (Materialise, Haasrode, Belgium) and determined the translational and rotational displacement using 3-matic suite. The interobserver reliability of the new method was assessed by comparing the continuous measure and categorical outcomes using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and kappa statistic, respectively. The interobserver reliability of the new method for translational and rotational measurement was high, with both ICCs above 0.9. Rotational outcome assessed by the new method was the same as that concluded by 3-matic software. The agreement for rotational outcome among orthopaedic surgeons based on overall impression was poor (kappa statistic, 0.250 to 0.426). Compared with the 3D reconstruction outcome, the interobserver reliability of the formula method for translational and rotational measures was perfect with both ICCs more than 0.9. The new method for measuring displacement using a formula was reliable, and could minimise the measurement errors and maximise the precision of pelvic fracture description. Furthermore, this study was useful for standardising the operative plan and establishing a theoretical basis for robot-assisted pelvic fracture surgery based on 2-D radiographs.
    BMC Medical Imaging 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12880-015-0084-x
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    ABSTRACT: Contributing reviewers The editors of BMC Medical Imaging would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 14 (2014).
    BMC Medical Imaging 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12880-015-0043-6
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    ABSTRACT: Aortic valve area (AVA) estimation in patients with aortic stenosis may be obtained using several methods. This study was undertaken to verify the cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) planimetry of aortic stenosis by comparing the findings with invasive catheterization, transthoracic (TTE) as well as tranesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and anatomic CMR examination of autopsy specimens. Our study was performed in eight patients with aortic valve stenosis. Aortic stenosis was determined by TTE and TEE as well as catheterization and CMR. Especially, after aortic valve replacement, the explanted aortic valves were examined again with CMR ex vivo model. The mean AVA determined in vivo by CMR was 0.75 ± 0.09 cm(2) and ex vivo by CMR was 0.65 ± 0.09 cm(2) and was closely correlated (r = 0.91, p < 0.001). The mean absolute difference between AVA derived by CMR ex vivo and in vivo was -0.10 ± 0.04 cm(2). The mean AVA using TTE was 0.69 ± 0.07 with a significant correlation between CMR ex vivo (r = 0.85, p < 0.007) and CMR in vivo (r = 0.86, p < 0.008). CMR ex vivo and in vivo had no significant correlation with AVA using Gorlin formula by invasive catheterization or using planimetry by TEE. In this small study using an ex vivo aortic valve stenosis model, the aortic valve area can be reliably planimetered by CMR in vivo and ex vivo with a well correlation between geometric AVA by CMR and the effective AVA calculated by TTE.
    BMC Medical Imaging 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12880-015-0076-x
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    ABSTRACT: Positron emission tomography scanners collect measurements of a patient’s in vivo radiotracer distribution. The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radionuclide (tracer), which is introduced into the body on a biologically active molecule, and the tomograms must be reconstructed from projections. The reconstruction of tomograms from the acquired PET data is an inverse problem that requires regularization. The use of tightly packed discrete detector rings, although improves signal-to-noise ratio, are often associated with high costs of positron emission tomography systems. Thus a sparse reconstruction, which would be capable of overcoming the noise effect while allowing for a reduced number of detectors, would have a great deal to offer. In this study, we introduce and investigate the potential of a homotopic non-local regularization reconstruction framework for effectively reconstructing positron emission tomograms from such sparse measurements. Results obtained using the proposed approach are compared with traditional filtered back-projection as well as expectation maximization reconstruction with total variation regularization. A new reconstruction method was developed for the purpose of improving the quality of positron emission tomography reconstruction from sparse measurements. We illustrate that promising reconstruction performance can be achieved for the proposed approach even at low sampling fractions, which allows for the use of significantly fewer detectors and have the potential to reduce scanner costs.
    BMC Medical Imaging 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12880-015-0052-5
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate and precise detection of brain lesions on MR images (MRI) is paramount for accurately relating lesion location to impaired behavior. In this paper, we present a novel method to automatically detect brain lesions from a T1-weighted 3D MRI. The proposed method combines the advantages of both unsupervised and supervised methods. First, unsupervised methods perform a unified segmentation normalization to warp images from the native space into a standard space and to generate probability maps for different tissue types, e.g., gray matter, white matter and fluid. This allows us to construct an initial lesion probability map by comparing the normalized MRI to healthy control subjects. Then, we perform non-rigid and reversible atlas-based registration to refine the probability maps of gray matter, white matter, external CSF, ventricle, and lesions. These probability maps are combined with the normalized MRI to construct three types of features, with which we use supervised methods to train three support vector machine (SVM) classifiers for a combined classifier. Finally, the combined classifier is used to accomplish lesion detection. We tested this method using T1-weighted MRIs from 60 in-house stroke patients. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the proposed method can achieve an average Dice coefficient of 73.1 % when compared to lesion maps hand-delineated by trained neurologists. Furthermore, we tested the proposed method on the T1-weighted MRIs in the MICCAI BRATS 2012 dataset. The proposed method can achieve an average Dice coefficient of 66.5 % in comparison to the expert annotated tumor maps provided in MICCAI BRATS 2012 dataset. In addition, on these two test datasets, the proposed method shows competitive performance to three state-of-the-art methods, including Stamatakis et al., Seghier et al., and Sanjuan et al. In this paper, we introduced a novel automated procedure for lesion detection from T1-weighted MRIs by combining both an unsupervised and a supervised component. In the unsupervised component, we proposed a method to identify lesioned hemisphere to help normalize the patient MRI with lesions and initialize/refine a lesion probability map. In the supervised component, we extracted three different-order statistical features from both the tissue/lesion probability maps obtained from the unsupervised component and the original MRI intensity. Three support vector machine classifiers are then trained for the three features respectively and combined for final voxel-based lesion classification.
    BMC Medical Imaging 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12880-015-0092-x
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    ABSTRACT: In thalassemia patients, R2* liver iron concentration (LIC) measurement is a common clinical tool for assessing iron overload and for determining necessary chelator dose and evaluating its efficacy. Despite the importance of accurate LIC measurement, existing methods suffer from LIC variability, especially at the severe iron overload range due to inclusion of vessel parts in LIC calculation. In this study, we build upon previous Fuzzy C-Mean (FCM) clustering work to formulate a scheme with superior performance in segmenting vessel pixels from the parenchyma. Our method (MIX-FCM) combines our novel 2D-FCM with the existing 1D-FCM algorithm. This study further assessed possible optimal clustering parameters (OP scheme) and proposed a semi-automatic (SA) scheme for routine clinical application. Segmentation of liver parenchyma and vessels was performed on T2* images and their LIC maps in 196 studies from 147 thalassemia major patients. We used manual segmentation as the reference. 1D-FCM clustering was performed on the acquired image alone and 2D-FCM used both the acquired image and its LIC data. To execute the MIX-FCM method, the best outcome (OP-MIX-FCM) was selected from the aforementioned methods and was compared to the SA-MIX-FCM scheme. We used the percent value of the normalized interquartile range (nIQR) to its median to evaluate the variability of all methods. 2D-FCM clustering is more effective than 1D-FCM clustering at the severe overload range only, but inferior for other ranges (where 1D-FCM provides suitable results). This complementary performance between the two methods allows MIX-FCM to improve results for all ranges. OP-MIX-FCM clustering error was 2.1 ± 2.3 %, compared with 10.3 ± 9.9 % and 7.0 ± 11.9 % from 1D- and 2D-FCM clustering, respectively. SA-MIX-FCM result was comparable to OP-MIX-FCM result, with both schemes showing ability to decrease overall nIQR by approximately 30 %. Our proposed 2D-FCM algorithm is not as superior to 1D-FCM as hypothesized. In contrast, our MIX-FCM method benefits from the best of both methods to obtain the highest segmentation accuracy at all ranges. Moreover, segmentation accuracy of the practical scheme (SA-MIX-FCM) is comparable to segmentation accuracy of the reference scheme (OP-MIX-FCM). Finally, we confirmed that segmentation is crucial to improving LIC assessments, especially at the severe iron overload range.
    BMC Medical Imaging 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12880-015-0097-5
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial meningitis is a fatal infectious disease of the central nervous system complicating intravascular involvements. Multiple microbleeds are rarely identified as complications because of the limited detection threshold of conventional imaging modalities. We report the first case of meningococcal meningitis with successful identification of multiple microbleeds in the cerebellum by susceptibility-weighted imaging. Case presentation A 19-year-old Japanese female was brought to our emergency department because of fever and coma. A spinal tap was performed and turbid yellow fluid was collected. A diagnosis of bacterial meningitis was established and the patient was admitted to an intensive care unit. Dexamethasone and Antibiotics were administered and Neisseria meningitides was cultured from the spinal fluid. On day 10, postcontrast magnetic resonance imaging identified enhanced subarachnoid space in the cerebellum. Susceptibility-weighted imaging showed spotty low-intensity signals in the cerebellar tissue, indicating microbleeds. The patient made a full recovery from coma and was discharged without neurological sequelae on day 24. Meningococcal meningitis can cause multiple microbleeds in the cerebellum. In this report, we successfully identified microbleeds by susceptibility-weighed imaging. Using this imaging modality, further investigations will clarify its clinical incidence and significance.
    BMC Medical Imaging 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12880-015-0090-z
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    ABSTRACT: For optimizing and evaluating image quality in medical imaging, one can use visual grading experiments, where observers rate some aspect of image quality on an ordinal scale. To analyze the grading data, several regression methods are available, and this study aimed at empirically comparing such techniques, in particular when including random effects in the models, which is appropriate for observers and patients. Data were taken from a previous study where 6 observers graded or ranked in 40 patients the image quality of four imaging protocols, differing in radiation dose and image reconstruction method. The models tested included linear regression, the proportional odds model for ordinal logistic regression, the partial proportional odds model, the stereotype logistic regression model and rank-order logistic regression (for ranking data). In the first two models, random effects as well as fixed effects could be included; in the remaining three, only fixed effects. In general, the goodness of fit (AIC and McFadden’s Pseudo R 2 ) showed small differences between the models with fixed effects only. For the mixed-effects models, higher AIC and lower Pseudo R 2 was obtained, which may be related to the different number of parameters in these models. The estimated potential for dose reduction by new image reconstruction methods varied only slightly between models. The authors suggest that the most suitable approach may be to use ordinal logistic regression, which can handle ordinal data and random effects appropriately.
    BMC Medical Imaging 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12880-015-0083-y
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    ABSTRACT: Ossifying metaplasia is an unusual feature of urothelial carcinoma, with only a few cases reported. The largest series included 17 cases and was published in 1991. The mechanism of ossification is unknown and hypotheses of osteogenic precursor cells, inducing bone formation, are proposed. A 75 year-old patient was treated for a high grade transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder by surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Histology showed foci of bone metaplasia, both at the periphery of the tumor, and in a lymph node metastasis. 1 year later, a heterotopic bone formation was discovered in the right retroperitoneal space, near the lumbar spine, increasing rapidly in size during follow-up. Several imaging exams were performed (2 CT, 1 MRI, 1 Pet-CT), but in the absence of typical features of sarcoma, diagnosis remained unclear. Histology of a CT-guided percutaneous biopsy showed urothelial carcinoma and mature lamellar bone. Integration of these findings with the radiological description of extraosseous localization was consistent with a diagnosis of osseous metaplasia of an urothelial carcinoma metastasis. The absence of bone atypia in both the primary and metastases argues against sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma with osteosarcomatous differentiation. Osseous metaplasia of an urothelial carcinoma metastasis is unusual, and difficult to distinguish from radiotherapy induced sarcoma, or from sarcomatoid carcinoma. Rapid progression, sheathing of adjacent structures such as vessels (like inferior vena cava in our case) and nerves and bony feature of lymph node metastases necessitate histological confirmation and rapid treatment. Our case illustrates this disease and evaluates the imaging features. In addition we discuss the differential diagnosis of osseous retroperitoneal masses.
    BMC Medical Imaging 12/2015; 15(1):30. DOI:10.1186/s12880-015-0072-1
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    ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the most common cancer which has the highest mortality rate. With the development of computed tomography (CT) techniques, the case detection rates of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) has constantly increased and the diagnosis accuracy of SPN has remained a hot topic in clinical and imaging diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of low-dose spectral CT and ASIR (Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction) algorithm in the diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN). 62 patients with SPN (42 cases of benign SPN and 20 cases of malignant SPN, pathology confirmed) were scanned by spectral CT with a dual-phase contrast-enhanced method. The iodine and water concentration (IC and WC) of the lesion and the artery in the image that had the same density were measured by the GSI (Gemstone Spectral Imaging) software. The normalized iodine and water concentration (NIC and NWC) of the lesion and the normalized iodine and water concentration difference (ICD and WCD) between the arterial and venous phases (AP and VP) were also calculated. The spectral HU (Hounsfield Unit ) curve was divided into 3 sections based on the energy (40–70, 70–100 and 100–140 keV) and the slopes (λHU) in both phases were calculated. The IC AP , IC VP , WC AP and WC VP , NIC and NWC, and the λHU in benign and malignant SPN were compared by independent sample t-test. The iodine related parameters (IC AP , IC VP , NIC AP , NIC VP , and the ICD) of malignant SPN were significantly higher than that of benign SPN (t = 3.310, 1.330, 2.388, 1.669 and 3.251, respectively, P <0.05). The 3 λHU values of venous phase in malignant SPN were higher than that of benign SPN (t = 3.803, 2.846 and 3.205, P <0.05). The difference of water related parameters (WC AP , WC VP , NWC AP , NWC VP and WCD) between malignant and benign SPN were not significant (t = 0.666, 0.257, 0.104, 0.550 and 0.585, P >0.05). The iodine related parameters and the slope of spectral curve are useful markers to distinguish the benign from the malignant lung diseases, and its application is extremely feasible in clinical applications.
    BMC Medical Imaging 12/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12880-015-0096-6
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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that the contrast medium gadobutrol is not inferior compared to Gd-DTPA in identifying and quantifying ischemic late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), even by using a lower dose. We prospectively enrolled 30 patients with chronic myocardial infarction as visualized by LGE during clinical routine scan at 1.5 T with 0.20 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA. Participants were randomized to either 0.15 mmol/kg gadobutrol (group A) or 0.10 mmol/kg gadobutrol (group B). CMR protocol was identical in both exams. LGE was quantified using a semiautomatic approach. Signal intensities of scar, remote myocardium, blood and air were measured. Signal to noise (SNR) and contrast to noise ratios (CNR) were calculated. Signal intensities were not different between Gd-DTPA and gadobutrol in group A, whereas significant differences were detected in group B. SNR of injured myocardium (53.5+/−21.4 vs. 30.1+/−10.4, p = 0.0001) and CNR between injured and remote myocardium (50.3+/−20.3 vs. 27.3+/−9.3, p < 0.0001) were lower in gadobutrol. Infarct size was lower in both gadobutrol groups compared to Gd-DTPA (group A: 16.8+/−10.2 g vs. 12.8+/−6.8 g, p = 0.03; group B: 18.6+/−12.0 g vs. 14.0+/−9.9 g, p = 0.0016). Taking application of 0.2 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA as the reference, the delineation of infarct scar was similar with 0.15 mmol/kg gadobutrol, whereas the use 0.10 mmol/kg gadobutrol led to reduced tissue contrast. Trial registration The study had been registered under EudraCT Number: 2010-020775-22. Registration date: 2010.08.10
    BMC Medical Imaging 11/2015; 15(1):55. DOI:10.1186/s12880-015-0099-3
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The minimally invasive, balloon-assisted reduction and cement-augmented internal fixation of the tibial plateau is an innovative surgical procedure for tibial plateau fractures. The close proximity of balloons and cement to the knee joint poses a potential risk for osteonecrosis; especially in the case of thin bone lamellae. However, there are no studies about the vitality of the cement-surrounding tissue after these tibioplasties. Therefore, our goal was to assess the osseous vitality after cement-augmented balloon tibioplasty using single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) in a series of patients. Methods: This case series evaluated available consecutive patients, whose tibial plateau fractures were treated with balloon-assisted, cement-augmented tibioplasty and received a SPECT/CT. Primary outcome variables were osseous vitality on SPECT/CTs according to the semiquantitative tracer activity analysis. The mean uptake of eight tibial regions of interest was referenced to the mean uptake count on the same region of the contralateral leg to obtain a count ratio. Osteonecrosis was defined as a photopenic area or cold defect. Secondary variables included clinical and radiological follow-up data. Statistics were carried out in a descriptive pattern. Results: Ten patients with a mean age of 59 years and a mean follow up of 18 months were included. Calcium phosphate (CaP) substitute bone cement was used in 60 % and polymethyl methacrylate mixed with hydroxyapatite (PMMA/HA) bone cement in 40 %. Normal to high SPECT/CT activity without photopenic areas were observed in all patients and the mean tracer activity ratio was four, indicating vital bone in all patients. There were no postoperative infections and only one 57 year old patient with hemineglect and CaP cement showed failed osseous consolidation. The mean Tegner and Lysholm as well as the Lysholm scores were three and 80, respectively. Conclusions: This novel study about cement-augmented balloon tibioplasties showed that osseous vitality remains intact according to SPECT/CT analysis; irrespective of the type of cement and even in the presence of thin bone lamellae. This procedure was safe and well-suited for lateral tibial plateau fractures in particular. Surgeons may consider using PMMA/HA bone cement for void filling in elderly fracture patients without concern about bone viability.
    BMC Medical Imaging 11/2015; 15(1):56. DOI:10.1186/s12880-015-0091-y