Parasitology

Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)

Journal description

Current impact factor: 2.36

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2011 Impact Factor 2.961

Additional details

5-year impact 2.46
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.72
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.72
ISSN 1469-8161
OCLC 166102937
Material type Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Cambridge University Press (CUP)

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the activities of important enzymes involved in the phosphoryl transfer network (adenylate kinase and creatine kinase (CK)), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), respiratory chain complexes and biomarkers of cardiac function in rat experimentally infected by Trypanosoma evansi. Rat heart samples were evaluated at 5 and 15 days post-infection (PI). At 5 day PI, there was an increase in LDH and CK activities, and a decrease in respiratory chain complexes II, IV and succinate dehydrogenase activities. In addition, on day 15 PI, a decrease in the respiratory chain complex IV activity was observed. Biomarkers of cardiac function were higher in infected animals on days 5 and 15 PI. Considering the importance of the energy metabolism for heart function, it is possible that the changes in the enzymatic activities involved in the cardiac phosphotransfer network and the decrease in respiratory chain might be involved partially in the role of biomarkers of cardiac function of T. evansi-infected rats.
    Parasitology 03/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0031182015000220
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Eight strains of mice, of contrasting genotypes, infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri were studied to determine whether the anthelmintic efficacy of papaya latex varied between inbred mouse strains and therefore whether there is an underlying genetic influence on the effectiveness of removing the intestinal nematode. Infected mice were treated with 330 nmol of crude papaya latex or with 240 nmol of papaya latex supernatant (PLS). Wide variation of response between different mouse strains was detected. Treatment was most effective in C3H (90·5-99·3% reduction in worm counts) and least effective in CD1 and BALB/c strains (36·0 and 40·5%, respectively). Cimetidine treatment did not improve anthelmintic efficacy of PLS in a poor drug responder mouse strain. Trypsin activity, pH and PLS activity did not differ significantly along the length of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract between poor (BALB/c) and high (C3H) drug responder mouse strains. Our data indicate that there is a genetic component explaining between-mouse variation in the efficacy of a standard dose of PLS in removing worms, and therefore warrant some caution in developing this therapy for wider scale use in the livestock industry, and even in human medicine.
    Parasitology 03/2015; DOI:10.1017/S003118201500013X
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Emergence of malaria parasites resistant to artemisinin necessitates the need for development of new antimalarial therapies. Ciprofloxacin (CFX) a second generation quinolone antibiotic possesses some antimalarial activities. We investigated the in vivo antimalarial activities of CFX in combination with amodiaquine in mice infected with chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Animals were treated orally with 80 or 160 mg kg-1 body weight of CFX alone given twice daily or in combination with amodiaquine (AQ) 10 mg kg-1 body weight. Parasitological activity and survival of the animals were assessed over 21 days. Peak parasitaemia in the untreated control group was 72·51%. Treatment with AQ alone resulted in clearance of parasitaemia by day 4 while treatment with CFX 80 and 160 mg kg-1 alone suppressed parasitaemia by 13·94-54·64% and 35·6-92·7%, respectively. However, the combination of CFX with AQ significantly enhanced response of infection in the animals to treatment (P < 0·05) resulting in complete resolution of parasitaemia throughout follow up period with CFX 160 mg kg-1, delayed recrudescence time with CFX 80 mg kg-1 and significant increase in survival rate of the animals. The results demonstrate beneficial interaction between AQ and CFX which may provide a clinically relevant antimalarial/antibiotic therapeutic option in the management of malaria.
    Parasitology 03/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0031182015000062
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY The uniform morphology of the developmental stages of Haemogregarina species and the insufficient information supplied by the simplistic descriptions of previous authors complicates their differential diagnosis and proper species identification. In this study, we detected Haemogregarina spp. in 6 out of 22 (27·2%) examined turtles originating from Southeast Asia, Malayemys subtrijuga (n = 4), Sacalia quadriocellata (n = 1) and Platysternon megacephalum (n = 1), and compared them with the available literature data. Microscopic analysis of our isolates distinguished 2 morphological species, Haemogregarina pellegrini and one new species, being described in this paper as Haemogregarina sacaliae sp. n. Phylogenetic analyses based on 1210 bp long fragment of 18S rDNA sequences placed both haemogregarines firmly within the monophyletic Haemogregarina clade. Isolates of H. pellegrini from 2 distantly related turtle hosts, M. subtrijuga and P. megacephalum, were genetically identical. Despite the fact that numerous Haemogregarina species of turtles have been described, the incompleteness of the morphological data and relatively low host specificity provides the space for large synonymy within this taxon. Therefore, a complex approach combining microscopic analyses together with molecular-genetic methods should represent the basic standard for all taxonomic studies.
    Parasitology 03/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0031182014001930
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY It is well established that pregnant women are at an increased risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection when compared to non-pregnant individuals and limited epidemiological data suggest Plasmodium vivax risk also increases with pregnancy. The risk of P. falciparum declines with successive pregnancies due to the acquisition of immunity to pregnancy-specific P. falciparum variants. However, despite similar declines in P. vivax risk with successive pregnancies, there is a paucity of evidence P. vivax-specific immunity. Cross-species immunity, as well as immunological and physiological changes that occur during pregnancy may influence the susceptibility to both P. vivax and P. falciparum. The period following delivery, the postpartum period, is relatively understudied and available epidemiological data suggests that it may also be a period of increased risk of infection to Plasmodium spp. Here we review the literature and directly compare and contrast the epidemiology, clinical pathogenesis and immunological features of P. vivax and P. falciparum in pregnancy, with a particular focus on studies performed in areas co-endemic for both species. Furthermore, we review the intriguing epidemiology literature of both P. falciparum and P. vivax postpartum and relate observations to the growing literature pertaining to malaria immunology in the postpartum period.
    Parasitology 03/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0031182015000074
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Hosts strongly influence parasite fitness. However, it is challenging to disentangle host effects on genetic vs plasticity-driven traits of parasites, since parasites can evolve quickly. It remains especially difficult to determine the causes and magnitude of parasite plasticity. In successive generations, parasites may respond plastically to better infect their current type of host, or hosts may produce generally 'good' or 'bad' quality parasites. Here, we characterized parasite plasticity by taking advantage of a system in which the parasite (the yeast Metschnikowia bicuspidata, which infects Daphnia) has no detectable heritable variation, preventing rapid evolution. In experimental infection assays, we found an effect of rearing host genotype on parasite infectivity, where host genotypes produced overall high or low quality parasite spores. Additionally, these plastically induced differences were gained or lost in just a single host generation. Together, these results demonstrate phenotypic plasticity in infectivity driven by the within-host rearing environment. Such plasticity is rarely investigated in parasites, but could shape epidemiologically important traits.
    Parasitology 02/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0031182015000013
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas' disease, a parasitic disease that remains a serious health concern with unsatisfactory treatment. Drugs that are currently used to treat Chagas' disease are partially effective in the acute phase but ineffective in the chronic phase of the disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitrypanosomal activity and morphological, ultrastructural and biochemical alterations induced by a new molecule, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (BZTS), derived from S-(-)-limonene against epimastigote, trypomastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of T. cruzi. BZTS inhibited the growth of epimastigotes (IC50 = 9·2 μ m), intracellular amastigotes (IC50 = 3·23 μ m) and inhibited the viability of trypomastigotes (EC50 = 1·43 μ m). BZTS had a CC50 of 37·45 μ m in LLCMK2 cells. BZTS induced rounding and distortion of the cell body and severely damaged parasite mitochondria, reflected by extensive swelling and disorganization in the inner mitochondrial membrane and the presence of concentric membrane structures inside the organelle. Cytoplasmic vacuolization, endoplasmic reticulum that surrounded organelles, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased mitochondrial O2 •- production were also observed. Our results suggest that BZTS alters the ultrastructure and physiology of mitochondria, which could be closely related to parasite death.
    Parasitology 02/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0031182015000141
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Cystic echinococcosis is a chronic infectious disease that results from a host/parasite interaction. Vaccination with ferritin derived from Echinococcus granulosus is a potential preventative treatment. To understand whether ferritin is capable of inducing a host immune response, we investigated the response of dendritic cells (DCs) to both recombinant ferritin protein and the hydatid fluid (HF) of E. granulosus. We evaluated the immunomodulatory potential of these antigens by performing, immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy and in vivo imaging of monocyte-derived murine DCs. During antigen stimulation of DCs, ferritin cause DCs maturation and induced higher levels of surface marker expression and activated T-cell proliferation and migration. On contrary, HF failed to induce surface marker expression and to stimulate T-cell proliferation. In response to HF, DCs produced interleukin-6 (IL-6), but no IL-12 and IL-10. DCs stimulated with ferritin produced high levels of cytokines. Overall, HF appears to induce host immunosuppression in order to ensure parasite survival via inhibits DC maturation and promotes Th2-dependent secretion of cytokines. Although ferritin also promoted DC maturation and cytokine release, it also activates CD4+T-cell proliferation, but regard of the mechanism of the Eg.ferritin induce host to eradicate E. granulosus were not clear.
    Parasitology 02/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0031182014002005
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Most animals are concurrently infected with multiple parasites, and interactions among them may influence both disease dynamics and host fitness. However, the sublethal costs of parasite infections are difficult to measure and the effects of concomitant infections with multiple parasite species on individual physiology and fitness are poorly described for wild hosts. To understand the costs of co-infection, we investigated the relationships among 189 European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from Mar Menor, parasites (richness and intensity) and eel's 'health status' (fluctuant asymmetry, splenic somatic index and the scaled mass index) by partial least squares regression. We found a positive relationship with 44% of the health status variance explained by parasites. Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) was the strongest predictor variable (44·72%) followed by Bucephalus anguillae (Platyhelminthes: Bucephalidae), (29·26%), considered the two most relevant parasites in the analysis. Subsequently, 15·67 and 12·01% of the response variables block were explained by parasite richness and Deropristis inflata (Platyhelminthes: Deropristiidae), respectively. Thus, the presence of multiple parasitic exposures with little effect on condition, strongly suggests that eels from Mar Menor tolerate multiparasitism.
    Parasitology 02/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0031182015000098
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (MS) markers. By PCR-RFLP typing, 7 isolates from Portugal chickens were identified as type II (ToxoDB #1 or #3), 4 were type III (ToxoDB #2) and the remaining 4 isolates have unique genotype pattern were designated as ToxoDB #254. One mouse virulent isolate from a bovine fetus (Bos taurus) in Portugal was type I (ToxoDB #10) at all loci and designated as TgCowPr1. All 67 isolates from Austria and 7 from Israel were type II (ToxoDB #1 or #3). By MS typing, many additional genetic variations were revealed among the type II and type III isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that isolates from the same geographical locations tend to cluster together, and there is little overlapping of genotypes among different locations. This study demonstrated that the MS markers can provide higher discriminatory power to reveal association of genotypes with geographical locations. Future studies of the type II strains in Europe by these MS markers will be useful to reveal transmission patterns of the parasite.
    Parasitology 02/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0031182015000050
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Faecal samples were obtained from 433 wild birds being treated in wildlife recovery centres in Galicia (Northwest Spain), between February 2007 and September 2009. The birds belonged to 64 species representing 17 different orders. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by an immunofluorescence antibody test and identified at the molecular level by established PCR-sequencing methods. The overall prevalence of Giardia was 2·1% and that of Cryptosporidium, 8·3%. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Giardia sp. in Tyto alba and Caprimulgus europaeus; and of Cryptosporidium sp. in Apus apus, Athene noctua, C. europaeus, Falco tinnunculus, Morus bassanus, Parabuteo unicinctus and Strix aluco. Furthermore, the first PCR-sequence confirmed detection of Giardia duodenalis assemblage B in, Buteo buteo, Coturnix coturnix and Pica pica; G. duodenalis assemblage D in Garrulus glandarius; and G. duodenalis assemblage F in Anas platyrhynchos; Cryptosporidium parvum in Accipiter nisus, B. buteo, Milvus migrans, Pernis apivorus and P. pica; and Cryptosporidium meleagridis in Streptopelia turtur. The study findings demonstrate the wide spread of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between wild birds.
    Parasitology 02/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0031182015000049
  • Parasitology 02/2015; 142 Suppl 1(S1):S1-5. DOI:10.1017/S0031182014001516
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Over 30 studies in Australasia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands region have collected and analysed parasite data to determine the ranges of individual fish, many leading to conclusions about stock delineation. Parasites used as biological tags have included both those known to have long residence times in the fish and those thought to be relatively transient. In many cases the parasitological conclusions have been supported by other methods especially analysis of the chemical constituents of otoliths, and to a lesser extent, genetic data. In analysing parasite data, authors have applied multiple different statistical methodologies, including summary statistics, and univariate and multivariate approaches. Recently, a growing number of researchers have found non-parametric methods, such as analysis of similarities and cluster analysis, to be valuable. Future studies into the residence times, life cycles and geographical distributions of parasites together with more robust analytical methods will yield much important information to clarify stock structures in the area.
    Parasitology 01/2015; 142(1):36-53. DOI:10.1017/S003118201400016X
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Trematode tyrosinases (TYRs) play a major role in the tanning process during eggshell formation. We investigated the molecular and biochemical features of Paragonimus westermani TYR (PwTYR). The PwTYR cDNA was composed of 1568-bp encompassing a 1422-bp-long open reading frame (474-amino acid polypeptide). A strong phylogenetic relationship with Platyhelminthes and Deuterostomian orthologues was evident. The recombinant PwTYR expressed in prokaryotic cells promptly oxidized diphenol substrates, with a preferential affinity toward ortho-positioned hydroxyl groups. It demonstrated fairly weak activity for monophenol compounds. Diphenol oxidase activity was augmented with an increase of pH from 5·0 to 8·0, while monophenol oxidase activity was highest at an acidic pH and gradually decreased as pH increased. Transcription profile of PwTYR was temporally upregulated along with worm development. PwTYR was specifically localized in vitellocytes and eggs. The results suggested that conversion of tyrosine to L-dihydroxyphenylalanine by PwTYR monophenol oxidase activity might be rate-limiting step during the sclerotization process of P. westermani eggs. The pH-dependent pattern of monophenol and diphenol oxidase activity further proposes that the initial hydroxylation might slowly but steadily progress in acidic secreted vesicles of vitellocytes and the second oxidation process might be rapidly accelerated by neural or weak alkaline pH environments within the ootype.
    Parasitology 01/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0031182014001942
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in macrogametocyte growth and oocyst wall formation, freshly purified macrogametocytes and oocysts were stained with Oregon Green 514 conjugated phalloidin to visualise F-actin microfilaments, while Evans blue staining was used to detect type 1 WFBs and the outer oocyst wall. The double labelled parasites were then analysed at various stages of sexual development using 3D confocal microscopy. The results showed F-actin filaments were distributed throughout the entire cytoplasm of mature E. maxima macrogametocytes forming a web-like meshwork of actin filaments linking the type 1 WFBs together into structures resembling “beads on a string”. At the early stages of oocyst wall formation, F-actin localisation changed in alignment with the egg-shaped morphology of the forming oocysts with F-actin microfilaments making direct contact with the WFB1s. In tissue oocysts, the labelled actin cytoskeleton was situated underneath the forming outer layer of the oocyst wall. Treatment of macrogametocytes in vitro with the actin depolymerizing agents, Cytochalasin D and Lantrunculin, led to a reduction in the numbers of mature WFB1s in the cytoplasm of the developing macrogametocytes, indicating that the actin plays an important role in WFB1 transport and oocyst wall formation in E. maxima.
    Parasitology 01/2015; In press. DOI:10.1017/S0031182015000207