Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)

Current impact factor: 2.56

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 2.56
2013 Impact Factor 2.35
2012 Impact Factor 2.355
2011 Impact Factor 2.961
2010 Impact Factor 2.522
2009 Impact Factor 1.607
2008 Impact Factor 2.071
2007 Impact Factor 2.081
2006 Impact Factor 1.786
2005 Impact Factor 1.703
2004 Impact Factor 1.685
2003 Impact Factor 1.821
2002 Impact Factor 1.828
2001 Impact Factor 2.114
2000 Impact Factor 1.944
1999 Impact Factor 1.868
1998 Impact Factor 1.867
1997 Impact Factor 2.206

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.54
Cited half-life >10.0
Immediacy index 0.98
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.76
ISSN 1469-8161
OCLC 166102937
Material type Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Cambridge University Press (CUP)

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    • Author's Pre-print on author's personal website, departmental website, social media websites, institutional repository, non-commercial subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, Europe PMC or arXiv
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website on acceptance of publication
    • Author's post-print on departmental website, institutional repository, non-commercial subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, Europe PMC or arXiv, after a 6 months embargo
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    • Published abstract may be deposited
    • Pre-print to record acceptance for publication
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with set statement
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher last reviewed on 07/10/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Cambridge University Press (CUP)'
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) involved in gluconeogenesis in higher vertebrates opposedly plays a significant role in glucose oxidation of the cestode parasite, Raillietina echinobothrida. Considering the importance of the enzyme in the parasite and lack of its structural details, there exists an urgent need for understanding the molecular details and development of possible modulators. Hence, in this study, PEPCK gene was obtained using rapid amplification of cDNA ends, and various biocomputational analyses were performed. Homology model of the enzyme was generated, and docking simulations were executed with its substrate, co-factor, and modulators. Computer hits were generated after structure- and ligand-based screening using Discovery Studio 4.1 software; the predicted interactions were compared with those of the existing structural information of PEPCK. In order to evaluate the docking simulation results of the modulators, PEPCK gene was cloned and the overexpressed protein was purified for kinetic studies. Enzyme kinetics and in vitro studies revealed that out of the modulators tested, tetrahydropalmatine (THP) inhibited the enzyme with lowest inhibition constant value of 93 nM. Taking the results together, we conclude that THP could be a potential inhibitor for PEPCK in the parasite.
    Parasitology 11/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The recent completion of high-coverage draft genome sequences for several alveolate protozoans – namely, the chromerids, Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis ; the perkinsid Perkinsus marinus ; the apicomplexan, Gregarina niphandrodes , as well as high coverage transcriptome sequence information for several colpodellids, allows for new genome-scale comparisons across a rich landscape of apicomplexans and other alveolates. Genome annotations can now be used to help interpret fine ultrastructure and cell biology, and guide new studies to describe a variety of alveolate life strategies, such as symbiosis or free living, predation, and obligate intracellular parasitism, as well to provide foundations to dissect the evolutionary transitions between these niches. This review focuses on the attempt to identify extracellular proteins which might mediate the physical interface of cell–cell interactions within the above life strategies, aided by annotation of the repertoires of predicted surface and secreted proteins encoded within alveolate genomes. In particular, we discuss what descriptions of the predicted extracellular proteomes reveal regarding a hypothetical last common ancestor of a pre-apicomplexan alveolate – guided by ultrastructure, life strategies and phylogenetic relationships – in an attempt to understand the evolution of obligate parasitism in apicomplexans.
    Parasitology 11/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0031182015001213
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Variations in levels of parasitism among individuals in a population of hosts underpin the importance of parasites as an evolutionary or ecological force. Factors influencing parasite richness (number of parasite species) and load (abundance and biomass) at the individual host level ultimately form the basis of parasite infection patterns. In fish, diet range (number of prey taxa consumed) and prey selectivity (proportion of a particular prey taxon in the diet) have been shown to influence parasite infection levels. However, fish diet is most often characterized at the species or fish population level, thus ignoring variation among conspecific individuals and its potential effects on infection patterns among individuals. Here, we examined parasite infections and stomach contents of New Zealand freshwater fish at the individual level. We tested for potential links between the richness, abundance and biomass of helminth parasites and the diet range and prey selectivity of individual fish hosts. There was no obvious link between individual fish host diet and helminth infection levels. Our results were consistent across multiple fish host and parasite species and contrast with those of earlier studies in which fish diet and parasite infection were linked, hinting at a true disconnect between host diet and measures of parasite infections in our study systems. This absence of relationship between host diet and infection levels may be due to the relatively low richness of freshwater helminth parasites in New Zealand and high host-parasite specificity.
    Parasitology 11/2015; DOI:10.1017/S003118201500150X
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The reproductive effort of Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Müller O. F., 1776), a caligid copepod, which is commonly found infecting the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), is studied in detail for the first time. Seasonal variation in body dimensions and reproductive effort are analysed. Data for 120 ovigerous females, 30 from each season of the year, were considered in the analyses. Females were larger and produced a larger number of smaller eggs in winter, than during the summer. The relationship between egg number and egg size is similar to that recorded for other copepods exploiting fish hosts. Much of the recorded variation was also similar to that reported for a copepod parasitic on an invertebrate host, which suggests the possibility of a general trend in copepod reproduction. Overall, our results provide further support for the hypothesis that there is an alternation of summer and winter generations.
    Parasitology 11/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0031182015001493
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    ABSTRACT: The gut epithelial barrier is a strategic place to prevent, or at least to limit, parasite dissemination upon oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Innate immunity to this pathogen results from delicate interactions involving different components of the infecting agent and the host. We herein aimed to examine the molecular mechanism by which protozoan DNA boosts the production of α-defensin-5 (DEFA-5), the main antimicrobial peptide at the target site of infection. The present study shows that DEFA-5 is rapidly upregulated in intestinal epithelial cells following intracellular Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) activation by unmethylated CpG motifs in DNA from T. gondii (CpG-DNA). Concomitantly, CpG-DNA purified from the pathogen markedly increased TLR9 mRNA expression levels in the Caco-2 cell line. We further verified that DEFA-5 production was dependent on interferon-β released from these cells upon treatment with CpG-DNA prepared from tachyzoites. Our results suggest that, in protozoan DNA-stimulated intestinal epithelial cells, the TLR9/interferon-β/DEFA-5 pathway may initiate an innate anti-T. gondii response without the need of parasite invasion. These findings highlight the key role of the gut epithelium in Toxoplasma recognition and amplification of local host defence against this microbe, thereby contributing to gain insight into immunoprotective mechanisms and to improve therapeutic strategies.
    Parasitology 11/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0031182015001456
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite causative of human amoebiasis, disease responsible for 40 000-100 000 deaths annually. The cysteine proteinase-adhesin complex of this parasite (EhCPADH) is a heterodimeric protein formed by a cysteine protease (EhCP112) and an adhesin (EhADH) that plays an important role in the cytopathic mechanism of this parasite. The coding genes for EhCP112 and EhADH are adjacent in the E. histolytica genome, suggesting that their expression may be co-regulated, but this hypothesis has not yet been confirmed. Here, we performed the knockdown of EhCP112 and EhADH using gene-specific short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA), and the effect of these knockdowns on the expression of both complex components as well as on the in vitro and in vivo virulence was analysed. Results showed that the knockdown of one of the EhCPADH components produced a simultaneous downregulation of the other protein. Accordingly, a concomitant reduction in the overall expression of the complex was observed. The downregulation of each component also produced a significant decrease in the in vitro and in vivo virulence of trophozoites. These results demonstrated that the expression of EhCP112 and EhADH is co-regulated and confirmed that the EhCPADH complex plays an important role in E. histolytica virulence.
    Parasitology 11/2015; DOI:10.1017/S003118201500147X
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fifteen dairy buffaloes of a farm in the state of Kerala, India developed fatal oriental theileriosis within 2 months of their procurement. Typical piroplasms of Theileria orientalis were observed in the erythrocytes of all affected animals by Giemsa–Leishman staining of blood smears. Case fatality rate was 87·5% (seven out of eight) in the clinically progressed cases. Therapeutic management with anti-theilerial drugs buparvaquone and oxytetracycline led to recovery of seven other animals in less advanced stages of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the reasons for increased virulence of this pathogen, hitherto considered to be benign. Acute haemolytic anaemia was the predominant haematological finding in the affected animals. Lymphocytic infiltration and degeneration of vital organs leading to functional derangement was the cause of the high mortality. Identification of T. orientalis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA sequencing of the PCR products revealed close identity with already reported sequences of T. orientalis/buffeli N2 genotype. The sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession number KM609973 and KM043772. Rhipicephalus ticks, previously not reported as vectors for oriental theileriosis, were identified as the potential vectors. This is the first report of fatal oriental theileriosis in Asian water buffaloes.
    Parasitology 11/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0031182015001468
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the molecular mechanisms whereby the human blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum is able to survive in the host venous blood system. Protease inhibitors are likely released by the parasite enabling it to avoid attack by host proteolytic enzymes and coagulation factors. Interrogation of the S. japonicum genomic sequence identified a gene, SjKI-1, homologous to that encoding a single domain Kunitz protein (Sjp_0020270) which we expressed in recombinant form in Escherichia coli and purified. SjKI-1 is highly transcribed in adult worms and eggs but its expression was very low in cercariae and schistosomula. In situ immunolocalization with anti-SjKI-1 rabbit antibodies showed the protein was present in eggs trapped in the infected mouse intestinal wall. In functional assays, SjKI-1 inhibited trypsin in the picomolar range and chymotrypsin, neutrophil elastase, FXa and plasma kallikrein in the nanomolar range. Furthermore, SjKI-1, at a concentration of 7·5 µ m, prolonged 2-fold activated partial thromboplastin time of human blood coagulation. We also demonstrate that SjKI-1 has the ability to bind Ca++. We present, therefore, characterization of the first Kunitz protein from S. japonicum which we show has an anti-coagulant properties. In addition, its inhibition of neutrophil elastase indicates SjKI-1 have an anti-inflammatory role. Having anti-thrombotic properties, SjKI-1 may point the way towards novel treatment for hemostatic disorders.
    Parasitology 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0031182015001328
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Utilization of chemical pesticide to control monogenean diseases is often restricted in many countries due to the development of pesticide resistance and concerns of chemical residues and environmental contamination. Thus, the use of antiparasitic agents from plants has been explored as a possible way for controlling monogenean infections. Extracts from Cinnamomum cassia were investigated under in vivo conditions against Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish. The two bioactive compounds, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid, were identified using nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The 48 h median effective concentrations (EC50) for these compounds against D. intermedius were 0·57 and 6·32 mg L-1, respectively. The LD50 of cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid were 13·34 and 59·66 mg L-1 to goldfish in 48 h acute toxicity tests, respectively. These data confirm that cinnamaldehyde is effective against D. intermedius, and the cinnamaldehyde exhibits potential for the development of a candidate antiparasitic agent.
    Parasitology 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0031182015001031