Parasitology

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Description

  • Impact factor
    2.36
  • 5-year impact
    2.46
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.72
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.72
  • ISSN
    1469-8161
  • OCLC
    166102937
  • Material type
    Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Cambridge University Press

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  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • K Mackenzie, C Kalavati
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Myxosporeans are among the most common parasites of marine fish. Their economic importance is mainly as pathogens of both wild and farmed fish, but they have also been used as biological tags in population studies of their fish hosts. Here we review the literature and show the distribution of different families of Myxosporea infecting marine fishes in the world's oceans - the North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Pacific, South Pacific and Indian. We also analyse their distribution in different orders of marine fishes. New families, genera and species of marine Myxosporea are continually being described and many more await description. Some regions, in particular the North Atlantic, have been more thoroughly investigated than others, so the analyses we present may not reflect the true distributions and we acknowledge that these may change considerably as other regions are investigated more fully. The distribution of myxosporean families in different taxonomic groups of marine fishes can indicate phylogenetic relationships between parasite and host and suggest the origins of different myxosporean taxa. We present some examples, while recognizing that new molecular information on phylogenetic relationships within the Myxozoa will lead to major changes in classification.
    Parasitology 09/2014;
  • A P Lopes, J P Dubey, M-L Dardé, L Cardoso
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no recent general population-based serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in humans in Portugal. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii in animals and humans. In the present paper, we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Portugal. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, physicians and veterinarians.
    Parasitology 09/2014;
  • Jennifer E Stockdale, Jenny C Dunn, Simon J Goodman, Antony J Morris, Danaë K Sheehan, Philip V Grice, Keith C Hamer
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Studies incorporating the ecology of clinical and sub-clinical disease in wild populations of conservation concern are rare. Here we examine sub-clinical infection by Trichomonas gallinae in a declining population of free-living European Turtle Doves and suggest caseous lesions cause mortality in adults and nestlings through subsequent starvation and/or suffocation. We found a 100% infection rate by T. gallinae in adult and nestling Turtle Doves (n = 25) and observed clinical signs in three adults and four nestlings (28%). Adults with clinical signs displayed no differences in any skeletal measures of size but had a mean 3·7% reduction in wing length, with no overlap compared to those without clinical signs. We also identified T. gallinae as the suggested cause of mortality in one Red-legged Partridge although disease presentation was different. A minimum of four strains of T. gallinae, characterized at the ITS/5·8S/ITS2 ribosomal region, were isolated from Turtle Doves. However, all birds with clinical signs (Turtle Doves and the Red-legged Partridge) carried a single strain of T. gallinae, suggesting that parasite spill over between Columbidae and Galliformes is a possibility that should be further investigated. Overall, we highlight the importance of monitoring populations for sub-clinical infection rather than just clinical disease.
    Parasitology 09/2014;
  • Peter L Chiodini
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Light microscopy of stained blood films is still the mainstay of malaria diagnosis in many regions, but its pre-eminence is threatened by accurate and sensitive rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) based on immunochromatography which are now widely used in the field. In well-resourced regions, nucleic acid detection easily out performs microscopy and RDTs. This paper reviews the main in vitro methods for parasite detection and considers future trends in diagnostics, both for sophisticated laboratory settings and for field use.
    Parasitology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Monepantel (MOP), a new anthelmintic drug from a group of amino-acetonitrile derivatives, has been intensively studied during last years. Many authors examined this new drug from different perspectives, e.g. efficacy against different species and stages of parasites, mode of action, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, toxicity, resistance, ecotoxicity, etc. MOP is an anthelmintic for livestock (currently only sheep and goats), with molecular mode of action which is different to all other anthelmintics. MOP has a broad-spectrum of activity against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep, including adults and L4 larvae of the most important species. The key feature of MOP is its full effectiveness against strains of nematodes resistant to benzimidazoles, levamisole, macrocyclic lactones and closantel. After oral administration, MOP is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream and quickly metabolized to MOP sulfone that has a similar efficacy as the parent molecule. Several other MOP metabolites formed in ovine hepatocytes were described. MOP and its metabolites are considered to be non-toxic to environment and its components, such as soil microflora, aquatic organisms, dung organisms, vegetation, etc. The aim of the presented review was not to collect all reported data but to bring an overview of various approaches in the study of MOP and to evaluate their principal results.
    Parasitology 09/2014;
  • Parasitology 09/2014; 141(11):1355-8.
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Certain trypanosomatids co-evolve with an endosymbiotic bacterium in a mutualistic relationship that is characterized by intense metabolic exchanges. Symbionts were able to respire for up to 4 h after isolation from Angomonas deanei. FCCP (carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone) similarly increased respiration in wild-type and aposymbiotic protozoa, though a higher maximal O2 consumption capacity was observed in the symbiont-containing cells. Rotenone, a complex I inhibitor, did not affect A. deanei respiration, whereas TTFA (thenoyltrifluoroacetone), a complex II activity inhibitor, completely blocked respiration in both strains. Antimycin A and cyanide, inhibitors of complexes III and IV, respectively, abolished O2 consumption, but the aposymbiotic protozoa were more sensitive to both compounds. Oligomycin did not affect cell respiration, whereas carboxyatractyloside (CAT), an inhibitor of the ADP-ATP translocator, slightly reduced O2 consumption. In the A. deanei genome, sequences encoding most proteins of the respiratory chain are present. The symbiont genome lost part of the electron transport system (ETS), but complex I, a cytochrome d oxidase, and FoF1-ATP synthase remain. In conclusion, this work suggests that the symbiont influences the mitochondrial respiration of the host protozoan.
    Parasitology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY The unique environment of the Mediterranean Sea makes fish stock assessment a major challenge. Stock identification of Mediterranean fisheries has been based mostly from data on biology, morphometrics, artificial tags, otolith shape and fish genetics, with less effort on the use of parasites as biomarkers. Here we use some case studies comparing Mediterranean vs Atlantic fish stocks in a multidisciplinary framework. The generalized Procrustes Rotation (PR) was used to assess the association between host genetics and larval Anisakis spp. datasets on demersal (hake) and pelagic (horse mackerel, swordfish) species. When discordant results emerged, they were due to the different features of the data. While fish population genetics can detect changes over an evolutionary timescale, providing indications on the cohesive action of gene flow, parasites are more suitable biomarkers when considering fish stocks over smaller temporal and spatial scales, hence giving information of fish movements over their lifespan. Future studies on the phylogeographic analysis of parasites suitable as biomarkers, and that of their fish host, performed on the same genes, will represent a further tool to be included in multidisciplinary studies on fish stock structure.
    Parasitology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Host specificity is a fundamental component of a parasite's life history. However, accurate assessments of host specificity, and the factors influencing it, can be obscured by parasite cryptic species complexes. We surveyed two congeneric species of intertidal snail intermediate hosts, Zeacumantus subcarinatus and Zeacumantus lutulentus, throughout New Zealand to identify the number of genetically distinct echinostome trematodes infecting them and determine the levels of snail host specificity among echinostomes. Two major echinostome clades were identified: a clade consisting of an unidentified species of the subfamily Himasthlinae and a clade consisting of five species of the genus Acanthoparyphium. All five Acanthoparyphium species were only found in a single snail species, four in Z. subcarinatus and one in Z. lutulentus. In contrast, the Himasthlinae gen. sp. was found in both hosts, but was more prevalent in Z. lutulentus (97 infections) than Z. subcarinatus (10 infections). At least two of the Acanthoparyphium spp. and the Himasthlinae gen. sp. are widespread throughout New Zealand, and can therefore encounter both snail species. Our results suggest that host specificity is determined by host-parasite incompatibilities, not geographic separation, and that it can evolve in different ways in closely related parasite lineages.
    Parasitology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY The present study aims to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of active components from Costus speciosus against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Bioassay-guided fractionation was employed to identify active compounds from C. speciosus yielding 2 bioactive compounds: Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin. In-vitro assays revealed that Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis at concentrations of 0·8 and 4·5 mg L-1, with median effective concentration (EC50) values of 0·53 and 3·2 mg L-1, respectively. All protomonts and encysted tomonts were killed when the concentrations of Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin were 1·0 and 5·0 mg L-1. In-vivo experiments demonstrated that fish treated with Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin at concentrations of 1·0 and 5·0 mg L-1 carried significantly fewer parasites than the control (P<0·05). Mortality of fish did not occur in the treatment group (Zingibernsis newsaponin at 5·0 mg L-1) during the trial, although 100% of untreated fish died. Acute toxicities (LD50) of Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin for grass carp were 1·64 and 20·7 mg L-1, respectively. These results provided evidence that the 2 compounds can be selected as lead compounds for the development of new drugs against I. multifiliis.
    Parasitology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY This study aimed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo trypanocidal activity of free and nanoencapsulated curcumin against Trypanosoma evansi. In vitro efficacy of free curcumin (CURC) and curcumin-loaded in lipid-core nanocapsules (C-LNCs) was evaluated to verify their lethal effect on T. evansi. To perform the in vivo tests, T. evansi-infected animals were treated with CURC (10 and 100 mg kg-1, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) and C-LNCs (10 mg kg-1, i.p.) during 6 days, with the results showing that these treatments significantly attenuated the parasitaemia. Infected untreated rats showed protein peroxidation and an increase of nitrites/nitrates, whereas animals treated with curcumin showed a reduction on these variables. As a result, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) differs between groups (P<0·05). Infected animals and treated with CURC exhibited a reduction in the levels of alanine aminotransferase and creatinine, when compared with the positive control group. The use of curcumin in vitro resulted in a better parasitaemia control, an antioxidant activity and a protective effect on liver and kidney functions of T. evansi-infected adult male Wistar rats.
    Parasitology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Serine protease inhibitors (serpin) play essential roles in many organisms. Mammalian serpins regulate the blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, inflammation and complement activation pathways. In parasitic helminths, serpins are less well characterized, but may also be involved in evasion of the host immune response. In this study, a Schistosoma japonicum serpin (SjB10), containing a 1212 bp open reading frame (ORF), was cloned, expressed and functionally characterized. Sequence analysis, comparative modelling and structural-based alignment revealed that SjB10 contains the essential structural motifs and consensus secondary structures of inhibitory serpins. Transcriptional profiling demonstrated that SjB10 is expressed in adult males, schistosomula and eggs but particularly in the cercariae, suggesting a possible role in cercarial penetration of mammalian host skin. Recombinant SjB10 (rSjB10) inhibited pancreatic elastase (PE) in a dose-dependent manner. rSjB10 was recognized strongly by experimentally infected rat sera indicating that native SjB10 is released into host tissue and induces an immune response. By immunochemistry, SjB10 localized in the S. japonicum adult foregut and extra-embryonic layer of the egg. This study provides a comprehensive demonstration of sequence and structural-based analysis of a functional S. japonicum serpin. Furthermore, our findings suggest that SjB10 may be associated with important functional roles in S. japonicum particularly in host-parasite interactions.
    Parasitology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY The Leloir pathway enzyme uridine diphosphate (UDP)-galactose 4'-epimerase from the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (FhGALE) was identified and characterized. The enzyme can be expressed in, and purified from, Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme is active: the K m (470 μ m) is higher than the corresponding human enzyme (HsGALE), whereas the k cat (2·3 s-1) is substantially lower. FhGALE binds NAD+ and has shown to be dimeric by analytical gel filtration. Like the human and yeast GALEs, FhGALE is stabilized by the substrate UDP-galactose. Molecular modelling predicted that FhGALE adopts a similar overall fold to HsGALE and that tyrosine 155 is likely to be the catalytically critical residue in the active site. In silico screening of the National Cancer Institute Developmental Therapeutics Program library identified 40 potential inhibitors of FhGALE which were tested in vitro. Of these, 6 showed concentration-dependent inhibition of FhGALE, some with nanomolar IC50 values. Two inhibitors (5-fluoroorotate and N-[(benzyloxy)carbonyl]leucyltryptophan) demonstrated selectivity for FhGALE over HsGALE. These compounds also thermally destabilized FhGALE in a concentration-dependent manner. Interestingly, the selectivity of 5-fluoroorotate was not shown by orotic acid, which differs in structure by 1 fluorine atom. These results demonstrate that, despite the structural and biochemical similarities of FhGALE and HsGALE, it is possible to discover compounds which preferentially inhibit FhGALE.
    Parasitology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY This study reports on the prevalence and severity of infections caused by the parasitic dinoflagellate, Hematodinium in juvenile edible crabs (Cancer pagurus) found in 2 intertidal survey sites (Mumbles Head and Oxwich Bay) in the Bristol Channel, UK. Crabs were assessed for the presence and severity of Hematodinium infections by the histological examination of infected tissues. Such infections were found to exhibit a seasonal trend in the 2 study areas with high numbers of animals (ca. 30%) infected in the spring to summer but with low severity. Conversely, in November only ca. 10% of crabs were infected but these animals had large numbers of parasites in their haemolymph and other tissues. At this time, the carapace and underlying tissues of infected crabs had the chalky, pinkish-orange appearance that is characteristic of this disease. Hematodinium-infected crabs ranged in size from 12 to 74 mm carapace width. Overall, it is concluded that the high prevalence of infection of juvenile crabs in this area may have implications for the sustainability of the edible crab fishery in the Bristol Channel.
    Parasitology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Four valid species of Sarcocystis have been reported from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Sarcocystis fusiformis, Sarcocystis buffalonis, Sarcocystis levinei and Sarcocystis dubeyi. Here, we redescribe structure of S. fusiformis sarcocysts by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). Twenty-one macroscopic sarcocysts from oesophagus of the water buffalo in Egypt were examined by light microscopy, SEM and TEM. The sarcocyst wall was up to 9 μm thick, depending on the section and the technique. In 5 μm paraffin-embedded sections, the sarcocyst wall was indistinct, 2–5 μm thick and appeared smooth. In 1 μm plastic-embedded sections stained with toluidine blue, the sarcocystwal l was 2·5–5·2 μm thick and had branched villar protrusions (vp)-like branches of a dead tree. By SEM, the sarcocyst wall had a mesh-like structure with irregularly shaped vp that were folded over the sarcocyst wall. On each vp there were uniform papillomatous structures that were 100 nm wide. By TEM, vp were up to 6 μm long and contained filamentous tubular structures, most of which were parallel to the long axis of the projections; granules were absent from these tubules. By TEM, bradyzoites within the same cyst varied from 11·2 to 16·8 μm in length. By TEM, bradyzoites had a very long (10 μm) convoluted mitochondrion, up to 12 dense granules, but only 2 rhoptries. This redescription should help to differentiate the sarcocysts of S. fusiformis from similar sarcocysts in domestic and wild ruminants.
    Parasitology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY To detect the expression of pro-fibrotic molecules, such as heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in liver specimens, and analyse their correlations with the progression of schistosomal hepatic fibrosis, liver biopsy was performed in 42 chronic schistosomiasis (CS) patients, 16 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and five healthy individuals (HI). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses displayed that the expression of Hsp47, TGF-β1 and CTGF was increased in CS and CHB patients compared with HI. Using real-time PCR, the mRNA levels of Hsp47, TGF-β1 and CTGF were higher in CS patients compared with HI. In CS patients, the mRNA levels of these genes were correlated with the stage of fibrosis, and TGF-β1 mRNA expression was associated with the grade of inflammation. Additional analyses indicated that the mRNA levels of Hsp47 and CTGF were highly correlated with liver stiffness value and spleen thickness diameter, both of which represented the severity of fibrosis. In conclusion, the three molecules are involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis infected by Schistosoma japonicum. TGF-β1 participates not only in the inflammatory process, but also in the fibrotic process in which Hsp47 and CTGF probably play a key role.
    Parasitology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY The aim of this study was to assess the effect of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (ST) supplemented with diphenyl diselenide and sodium selenite in experimental toxoplasmosis, on oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers and cytokine levels. Eighty-four BALB/c mice were divided in seven groups: group A (negative control), and groups B to G (infected). Blood and liver samples were collected on days 4 and 20 post infection (p.i.). Levels of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactive substances and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were assessed in liver samples. Both biomarkers were significantly increased in infected groups on day 4 p.i., while they were reduced on day 20 p.i., compared with group A. Glutathione reductase (GR) activity significantly (P<0·01) increased on day 4 p.i., in group G, compared with group A. INF-γ was significantly increased (P<0·001) in both periods, day 4 (groups B, C, F and G) and 20 p.i. (groups C, F and G). IL-10 significantly reduced (P<0·001) on day 4 p.i. in group B; however, in the same period, it was increased (P<0·001) in groups C and G, compared with group A. On day 20 p.i., IL-10 increased (P<0·001) in groups F and G. Therefore, our results highlighted that these forms of selenium, associated with the chemotherapy, were able to reduce lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, providing a beneficial immunological balance between the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines.
    Parasitology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Cryptosporidium is increasingly recognized as one of the major causes of moderate to severe diarrhoea in developing countries. With treatment options limited, control relies on knowledge of the biology and transmission of the members of the genus responsible for disease. Currently, 26 species are recognized as valid on the basis of morphological, biological and molecular data. Of the nearly 20 Cryptosporidium species and genotypes that have been reported in humans, Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum are responsible for the majority of infections. Livestock, particularly cattle, are one of the most important reservoirs of zoonotic infections. Domesticated and wild animals can each be infected with several Cryptosporidium species or genotypes that have only a narrow host range and therefore have no major public health significance. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing techniques will significantly improve our understanding of the taxonomy and transmission of Cryptosporidium species, and the investigation of outbreaks and monitoring of emerging and virulent subtypes. Important research gaps remain including a lack of subtyping tools for many Cryptosporidium species of public and veterinary health importance, and poor understanding of the genetic determinants of host specificity of Cryptosporidium species and impact of climate change on the transmission of Cryptosporidium.
    Parasitology 08/2014;

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