Journal of Urban Health

Publisher: New York Academy of Medicine, Springer Verlag

Journal description

Current impact factor: 1.90

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.902
2013 Impact Factor 1.943
2012 Impact Factor 1.887
2011 Impact Factor 2.13
2010 Impact Factor 2.068
2009 Impact Factor 2.205
2008 Impact Factor 2.409
2007 Impact Factor 1.585
2006 Impact Factor 1.9
2005 Impact Factor 2.485
2004 Impact Factor 1.341
2003 Impact Factor 1.286
2002 Impact Factor 1.181
2001 Impact Factor 0.677
2000 Impact Factor 0.345
1999 Impact Factor 0.125

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.60
Cited half-life 7.50
Immediacy index 0.16
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.97
Other titles Journal of urban health (Online)
ISSN 1468-2869
OCLC 41983101
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's pre-print on pre-print servers such as
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on any open access repository after 12 months after publication
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version (see policy)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Nicole Markwick · Ryan McNeil · Will Small · Thomas Kerr
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    ABSTRACT: Private security guards occupy an increasingly prominent role in the policing of private and public spaces. There are growing concerns regarding security guards' potential to shape violence, discrimination, and adverse health outcomes among vulnerable populations, including people who use drugs (PWUD). This is relevant in Vancouver, Canada, where private security guards have increasingly been employed by private organizations to manage public and private spaces, including those within urban drug scenes. This qualitative study sought to understand interactions between PWUD and private security guards and explore their impacts on health care access, risks, and harms among PWUD. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 PWUD recruited from two ongoing prospective cohort studies. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a coding framework comprised of a priori and emergent categories. Study data indicate that participants experience pervasive, discriminatory profiling and surveillance by security guards, which exacerbates existing social marginalization and structural vulnerability, particularly among PWUD of Aboriginal ancestry. Participants reported that security guards restrict PWUD's access to public and private spaces, including pharmacies and hospitals. PWUD also reported that their interactions with security guards often involved interpersonal violence and aggression, experiences that served to increase their vulnerability to subsequent risks and harms. Our findings highlight that private security forces contribute significantly to the everyday violence experienced by PWUD within drug scenes and elsewhere and do so in a manner very similar to that of traditional police forces. These findings point to the urgent need for greater oversight and training of private security guards in order to protect the health and safety of PWUD.
    Journal of Urban Health 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11524-015-9992-x
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    ABSTRACT: We explored whether overweight and obesity were associated with the physical and social environment at neighborhood level. Data from Maastricht municipality survey (the Netherlands) were used (n = 9771 adults). Multinomial regression models were computed (outcome being normal weight, overweight, or obese). We found inconsistent associations between neighborhood social and physical environment characteristics and overweight and obesity in the total sample. The effects were more consistent and stronger for older residents (>65) and obesity as an outcome. Better scores on traffic nuisance, green space, social cohesion, nuisance, and safety were associated with lower odds of obesity among elderly (OR ranged between 0.71 [95 % CI 0.44 to 0.93] to 0.85 [95 % CI 0.74 to 0.96] for each point of improvement in neighborhood social and physical environment (scale 0-10)). We showed that there are neighborhood-level factors that are associated with obesity, particularly in elderly residents. These could be targeted in preventive strategies outside health care settings.
    Journal of Urban Health 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11524-015-9991-y
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    ABSTRACT: Little research investigates whether sleep mediates the adverse effect of perceived discrimination on health and even less is known about whether sleep quality and sleep duration mediate the relationships in the same fashion. We applied a recently developed mediation analysis approach to a survey administered in 2008 in Philadelphia, PA, that includes 9042 adults. Health was measured with self-rated health, stress, and mental illness. Perceived discrimination was operationalized with self-reported discriminatory experience in two social contexts, namely health care system and housing market. Sleep quality and duration were measured with a five-point Likert scale and the self-reported sleep time at night, respectively. After controlling for one's demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related characteristics, the mediation analysis quantified how much sleep quality and duration can account for the effect of perceived discrimination on these health outcomes. The key findings are: (a) sleep quality and duration accounted for approximately 15 to 25 % of the adverse effect of perceived discrimination. (b) Sleep quality is more important than sleep duration in mediating the relationship between perceived discrimination and health. (c) The proportion of the effect mediated by sleep differs by the social context where perceived discrimination occurred. It was confirmed that sleep mediates the relationship between perceived discrimination and health and the interventions to improve sleep, particularly sleep quality, should help to attenuate the effect of perceived discrimination on health.
    Journal of Urban Health 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11524-015-9986-8
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    ABSTRACT: Racial-ethnic disparities in physical activity present important challenges to population health. Public parks provide access to free or low-cost physical activity opportunities, but it is unclear to what extent parks are utilized by various race-ethnic groups in diverse urban settings. Here, we examine racial ethnic differences in park use and physical activity among adult residents (n = 7506) living within 1 mi of 50 parks in the city of Los Angeles. In multivariate analyses, we find few differences among race-ethnic groups in terms of their frequency of having visited the park in the past 7 days; however, we find numerous differences in how the groups used the park and in their levels of physical activity: Blacks and English-speaking Latinos were less likely than whites to report being physically active, exercising in the park, and exercising outside the park; Spanish-speaking Latinos were equally likely as whites to report exercising in park but less likely to report exercising outside the park and more likely to report using the parks for social interactions; Asians/Pacific Islanders (PI)/others were more likely than whites to report visiting the park in the past 7 days and using the parks for social interactions. Urban parks appear to be an important resource for physical activity and socialization, in particular among Spanish-speaking Latino and Asians/PI groups. Additional efforts may be needed for other racial-ethnic minorities to experience the same benefits.
    Journal of Urban Health 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11524-015-9994-8
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    ABSTRACT: Commercial sex workers (CSWs) in the Russian Federation are at high risk of HIV infection and transmission as a result of unsafe sexual and injecting behaviors. Their clients might be at increased risk of acquiring HIV; however, little is known about the population of men purchasing sex services. This study aims to investigate factors associated with a history of purchasing sex services by men in Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast, Russian Federation. Data were collected as part of a cross-sectional study offering free anonymous rapid HIV testing in Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast in 2014; in total, 3565 men aged 18 years and older provided information about their behaviors associated with risk of acquiring HIV during face-to-face interviews. Prevalence of CSW use in our study was 23.9 %. Multivariable analyses using log-binomial regression were stratified by self-reported HIV testing during the 12 months preceding the study interview. In both strata, older age, multiple sex partners, and a history of sex with an injection drug user (IDU) were associated with an elevated prevalence ratio (PR) for history of purchasing sex services, although the strength of the association differed by strata. Among men who reported recent HIV testing, condom use (PR = 1.22, 90 % confidence interval (CI) 1.0, 1.48) was associated with a history of purchasing sex services, and among men who did not report recent HIV testing, having a consistent sex partner was associated with purchasing sex services (PR = 1.23, 90 % CI 1.1, 1.37). The high prevalence of CSW service use and associations found in this study raise serious concerns about potential for sexual HIV transmission and should be investigated more closely.
    Journal of Urban Health 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11524-015-9990-z
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies documenting sexual minority women's disproportionate risk for a range of medical, mental health, and substance use disorders have not provided a predictive framework for understanding their interrelations and outcomes. The present study aimed to address this gap by testing the syndemic effect of co-occurring psychosocial problems on 7-year health care costs and utilization among sexual minority women. The sample was comprised of sexual minority women (N = 341) who were seen at an urban LGBT-affirmative community health center. Medical and mental health care utilization and cost data were extracted from electronic medical records. Demographically adjusted regression models revealed that co-occurring psychosocial problems (i.e., childhood sexual abuse, partner violence, substance use, and mental health distress [history of suicide attempt]) were all strongly interrelated. The presence of these indicators had a syndemic (additive) effect on medical costs and utilization and mental health utilization over 7-year follow-up, but no effect on 7-year mental health costs. These results suggest that the presence and additive effect of these syndemic conditions may, in part, explain increased medical costs and utilization (and higher medical morbidity) among sexual minority women.
    Journal of Urban Health 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11524-015-9989-5
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    ABSTRACT: African-American men who have sex with men (AA MSM) have been disproportionately infected with and affected by HIV and other STIs in San Francisco and the USA. The true scope and scale of the HIV epidemic in this population has not been quantified, in part because the size of this population remains unknown. We used the successive sampling population size estimation (SS-PSE) method, a new Bayesian approach to population size estimation that incorporates network size data routinely collected in respondent-driven sampling (RDS) studies, to estimate the number of AA MSM in San Francisco. This method was applied to data from a 2009 RDS study of AA MSM. An estimate from a separate study of local AA MSM was used to model the prior distribution of the population size. Two-hundred and fifty-six AA MSM were included in the RDS survey. The estimated population size was 4917 (95 % CI 1267-28,771), using a flat prior estimated 1882 (95 % CI 919-2463) as a lower acceptable bound, and a large prior estimated 6762 (95 % CI 1994-13,863) as an acceptable upper bound. Point estimates from the SS-PSE were consistent with estimates from multiplier methods using external data. The SS-PSE method is easily integrated into RDS studies and therefore provides a simple and appealing tool to rapidly produce estimates of the size of key populations otherwise difficult to reach and enumerate.
    Journal of Urban Health 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11524-015-9981-0
  • Journal of Urban Health 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11524-015-9993-9
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    ABSTRACT: Residents of poor and minority neighborhoods have less access to healthy, affordable food than their counterparts in more advantaged neighborhoods, and these disparities translate into population-level health disparities by race and socioeconomic status. Current research debates the extent of these disparities and how they translate into unequal health outcomes, but it has paid less attention to the micro-level decision-making processes and strategies residents employ to access food in the context of constrained personal and neighborhood resources. We examined this gap in the literature using data from in-depth qualitative interviews with 66 poor residents of three urban neighborhoods with varying nutritional environments. We found that economic and geographic constraints strongly influenced where and how residents shopped, but within those constraints, residents developed a number of adaptive strategies to maximize the quality and variety of their groceries. We also found that higher-quality stores and purchases were important to residents not only for their material benefits-such as health and cost-but also for their symbolic value. The presence of many stores, close stores, and high-quality stores offered opportunities for symbolic consumption and boosted neighborhood reputations but also created settings for social exclusion. These results illuminate how inequalities in nutritional environments shape residents' lived experiences and highlight residents' agency and resourcefulness in responding to such constraints.
    Journal of Urban Health 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11524-015-9984-x
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    ABSTRACT: Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are at increased risk for blood-borne virus (BBV) infections and overdose resulting from high-risk injecting practices. Studies of prefilled syringe use ([PFSU] using a syringe that already contained drug solution when it was obtained by the user), an injection practice previously described in Eastern Europe, suggest that it increases susceptibility to BBV. However, little is known about this practice in the USA. Data were obtained from an ongoing cohort study of PWID to determine the prevalence and assess correlates of PFSU in San Diego, CA. Baseline interviews assessed socio-demographics and drug use behaviors. Logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with ever using a prefilled syringe (yes/no). Participants (n = 574) were predominately males (73.9 %) and white (50.9 %) with a mean age of 43.4 years (range 18-80); 33.3 % reported ever using prefilled syringes, although only 4.9 % reported use in the past 6 months. In multivariable analyses, PFSU was independently associated with ever having a rushed injection due to police presence [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.51, 95 % CI 1.66, 3.79], ever being in prison (AOR = 1.80, 95 % CI 1.23, 2.63), injecting most often in public versus private places in the past 6 months (AOR = 1.66, 95 % CI 1.11, 2.48), and injecting drugs in Mexico (AOR = 1.70, 95 % CI 1.16, 2.49). Results indicate that a history of PFSU is common and associated with environmental factors that may also increase risk for adverse health outcomes. Studies are needed to better understand PFSU in order to develop interventions to prevent adverse outcomes associated with their use.
    Journal of Urban Health 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11524-015-9988-6
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    ABSTRACT: Social and economic inequalities in condom use by adolescents have been reported previously. Also, condom use has declined during the last decade. The aim of the study was to describe trends in the use of condoms in our setting, and how these trends may differ between socioeconomic groups in boys, and separately in girls, aged 17-19 years attending school in Barcelona between 2004 and 2012. We analyzed data from three annual surveys on risk factors in secondary students, which included a representative sample of the city's population; individuals who had previously had sexual intercourse (n = 1570) were included in the study. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and their confidence intervals (95 % CI) using robust Poisson regression models. The prevalence of condom use among boys was 87.0 % in 2004 and 76.2 % in 2012, and 76.7 and 64.7 % among girls, respectively. This decrease was greater in adolescents with a low socioeconomic level, both in boys (aPR = 0.80) and girls (aPR = 0.84). The observed increase of socioeconomic inequalities in condom use in adolescents highlights a possible deterioration in good sexual practices and policies during the studied period.
    Journal of Urban Health 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11524-015-9985-9
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    ABSTRACT: A more diverse health science-related workforce including more underrepresented race/ethnic minorities, especially from low socioeconomic backgrounds, is needed to address health disparities in the USA. To increase such diversity, programs must facilitate youth interest in pursuing a health science-related career (HSRC). Minority youth from low socioeconomic families may focus on the secondary gains of careers, such as high income and status, given their low socioeconomic backgrounds. On the other hand, self-determination theory suggests that it is the intrinsic characteristics of careers which are most likely to sustain pursuit of an HSRC and lead to job satisfaction. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for pursuing an HSRC (defined in this study as health professional, health scientist, and medical doctor) was examined in a cohort of youth from the 10th to 12th grade from 2011 to 2013. The sample was from low-income area high schools, had a B- or above grade point average at baseline, and was predominantly: African American (65.7 %) or Hispanic (22.9 %), female (70.1 %), and children of foreign-born parents (64.7 %). In longitudinal general estimating equations, intrinsic motivation (but not extrinsic motivation) consistently predicted intention to pursue an HSRC. This finding provides guidance as to which youth and which qualities of HSRCs might deserve particular attention in efforts to increase diversity in the health science-related workforce.
    Journal of Urban Health 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11524-015-9987-7
  • Journal of Urban Health 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11524-015-9980-1
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    ABSTRACT: The high rate of obesity among black women in the USA is a significant public health problem. However, there is limited research on the relationship between racial residential segregation and disparities in obesity, and the existing evidence is limited and results are mixed. This study examines the relationship between racial residential segregation and obesity among black and white women. We conducted this cross-sectional study by joining data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with data from the 2000 US Census. Multilevel logistic regression models found that for every one-point increase in the black isolation index, there was a 1.06 (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.11) times higher odds of obesity for black women. In order to address the disparately high rates of obesity among black women, health policies need to address the economic, political, and social forces that produce racially segregated neighborhoods.
    Journal of Urban Health 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11524-015-9974-z
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    ABSTRACT: Geographic location is an important factor in understanding disparities in access to health-care and social services. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to evaluate disparities in the geographic distribution of income-related social service agencies relative to populations in need within Boston. Agency locations were obtained from a comprehensive database of social services in Boston. Geographic information systems mapped the spatial relationship of the agencies to the population using point density estimation and was compared to census population data. A multivariate logistic regression was conducted to evaluate factors associated with categories of income-related agency density. Median agency density within census block groups ranged from 0 to 8 agencies per square mile per 100 population below the federal poverty level (FPL). Thirty percent (n = 31,810) of persons living below the FPL have no access to income-related social services within 0.5 miles, and 77 % of persons living below FPL (n = 83,022) have access to 2 or fewer agencies. 27.0 % of Blacks, 30.1 % of Hispanics, and 41.0 % of non-Hispanic Whites with incomes below FPL have zero access. In conclusion, some neighborhoods in Boston with a high concentration of low-income populations have limited access to income-related social service agencies.
    Journal of Urban Health 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11524-015-9971-2
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    ABSTRACT: In light of the emphasis on enforcement-based approaches towards sex work, and the well-known negative impacts of these approaches on women's health, safety and well-being, we conducted a study to investigate the prevalence and correlates of recent incarceration among a cohort of women sex workers in Vancouver, Canada. Data were obtained from an open prospective community cohort of female and transgender women sex workers, known as An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access (AESHA). Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses, using generalized estimating equations (GEE), were used to model the effect of social and structural factors on the likelihood of incarceration over the 44-month follow-up period (January 2010-August 2013). Among 720 sex workers, 62.5 % (n = 450) reported being incarcerated in their lifetime and 23.9 % (n = 172) being incarcerated at least once during the study period. Of the 172 participants, about one third (36.6 %) reported multiple episodes of incarceration. In multivariable GEE analyses, younger age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.04 per year younger, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.06), being of a sexual/gender minority (AOR = 1.62, 95 % CI 1.13-2.34), heavy drinking (AOR = 1.99, 95 % CI 1.20-3.29), being born in Canada (AOR = 3.28, 95 % CI 1.26-8.53), living in unstable housing conditions (AOR = 4.32, 95 % CI 2.17-8.62), servicing clients in public spaces (versus formal sex work establishments) (AOR = 2.33, 95 % CI 1.05-5.17) and experiencing police harassment without arrest (AOR = 1.82, 95 % CI 1.35-2.45) remain independently correlated with incarceration. This prospective study found a very high prevalence and frequency of incarceration among women sex workers in Vancouver, Canada, with the most vulnerable and marginalized women at increased risk of incarceration. Given the well-known social and health harms associated with incarceration, and associations between police harassment and incarceration in this study, our findings further add to growing calls to move away from criminalized and enforcement-based approaches to sex work in Canada and globally.
    Journal of Urban Health 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11524-015-9977-9
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    ABSTRACT: Road injuries are an important cause of global mortality especially in low- and middle-income countries. While these countries undergo major urban transformations, an integral part of their development has often been the implementation of mass transportation systems, including Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems. However, the net effect of BRT systems on road safety is still unclear, and while there is reason to believe that BRT systems improve safety, very few available empirical studies have tested this hypothesis using observational data. Furthermore, the existing evidence is mixed and sparse. This paper reviews the available literature on the links of BRT systems and road safety and calls for more research to strengthen the body of evidence on the effect of BRT systems on road safety in the future.
    Journal of Urban Health 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11524-015-9975-y