Cardiology in the Young

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Description

Cardiology in the Young is devoted to cardiovascular issues affecting the young, and the older patient suffering the sequels of congenital heart disease, or other cardiac diseases acquired in childhood. The journal serves the interests of all professionals concerned with these topics. By design, the journal is international and multidisciplinary in its approach, and members of the editorial board take an active role in the its mission, helping to make it the essential journal in paediatric cardiology. All aspects of paediatric cardiology are covered within the journal. The content includes original articles, brief reports, editorials, reviews, and papers devoted to continuing professional development. High-quality colour figures are published on a regular basis, and without charge to the authors. Regular supplements are published containing the abstracts of the annual meetings of the Association for European Paediatric Cardiology, and the proceedings of the meetings organised annually by the Children's Heart Institute of Florida, and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. The Editorial team is currently looking to expand the number of Supplements published each year. These are supplied free to subscribers."

Impact factor 0.95

  • 5-year impact
    1.06
  • Cited half-life
    5.80
  • Immediacy index
    0.12
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.39
  • Website
    Cardiology in the Young website
  • Other titles
    Cardiology in the young (Online)
  • ISSN
    1467-1107
  • OCLC
    55143040
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Cambridge University Press

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's Pre-print on author's personal website, departmental website, social media websites, institutional repository, non-commercial subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, Europe PMC or arXiv
    • Author's post-print for HSS journals, on author's personal website, departmental website, institutional repository, non-commercial subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, Europe PMC or arXiv, on acceptance of publication
    • Author's post-print for STM journals, on author's personal website on acceptance of publication
    • Author's post-print for STM journals, on departmental website, institutional repository, non-commercial subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, Europe PMC or arXiv, after a 6 months embargo
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published abstract may be deposited
    • Pre-print to record acceptance for publication
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with set statement, for deposit of Authors Post-print or Publisher's version/PDF
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher last reviewed on 07/10/2014
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Victoria C Ziesenitz, Tsvetomir Loukanov, Christiane Gläser, Matthias Gorenflo
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    ABSTRACT: We report the case of a patient with tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve and familial Alagille syndrome who successfully underwent cardiac repair. The patient's sister had liver and congenital heart disease. The father had undergone liver transplantation but showed no significant cardiac abnormalities. A yet-unknown mutation of the JAG1 gene was discovered in this family with variable expression of Alagille syndrome.
    Cardiology in the Young 01/2015;
  • Claire E O'Donovan, Liz Painter, Boris Lowe, Hayley Robinson, Elizabeth Broadbent
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    ABSTRACT: Despite an increasing prevalence of adults living with a CHD, little is known about the psychosocial impact of CHD. We sought to investigate the relative impact of disease severity and patients' perceptions about their condition on depression, anxiety, and quality of life over a period of a year. A total of 110 patients aged over 16 years completed an initial questionnaire containing measures for anxiety, depression, quality of life, and illness perceptions when they attended the Adult Congenital Heart Disease Clinic. Cardiologists rated the patients' disease severity and illness course. A year later, patients were invited to complete the same measures. Regression analyses were performed to determine the relative impact of illness perceptions and disease severity on psychological outcomes a year later. At baseline, 23% of the study population had depressive symptoms and 30% had elevated trait anxiety. After controlling for associations with disease-related variables, illness perceptions explained 28% of the variance in depression, 40% anxiety, and 27% overall quality of life at baseline. Baseline illness perceptions bivariately predicted quality of life, cardiac anxiety, and depression 1 year later, and regression analyses controlling for other factors showed that they were significant predictors of outcomes 1 year later. Symptoms of depression and anxiety are common among adults with CHD. Patients' illness perceptions are related to psychological outcomes, especially cross-sectionally. Future research could investigate whether an intervention to discuss patients' perceptions about their CHD can improve mental health and quality of life.
    Cardiology in the Young 01/2015;
  • Betul Yilmaz, Hari K Narayan, Abigail Wilpers, Christina Wiess, William P Fifer, Ismée A Williams
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    ABSTRACT: To assess foetal electrocardiographic intervals across gestational age among foetuses with and without congenital heart disease, and to investigate differences between groups. A prospective observational cohort study. Center for Prenatal Pediatrics, Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of NewYork-Presbyterian. Population or sample A total of 92 participants with singleton pregnancies, 41 with normal anatomy and 51 with congenital heart disease were included in this study. Using a maternal abdominal monitor, foetal electrocardiogram was obtained serially from foetuses with and without congenital heart disease at 20-24 weeks (F1), 28-32 weeks (F2), and 34-38 weeks (F3) of gestation. A signal-averaged waveform was calculated, and PR, QRS, and QT intervals were measured. Intervals from controls were compared with gestational age norms. Using Pearson's correlation coefficient, we analysed the relationship between gestational age and foetal electrocardiographic intervals. Intervals from control and congenital heart disease foetuses were compared by Student's t-test. PR (r=0.333, p=0.02) and QRS (r=0.248, p=0.05) intervals correlated with gestational age only among controls. QRS intervals in foetuses with congenital heart disease were significantly longer than controls at F1 (63±6 versus 52±5 ms, p<0.001), F2 (61±8 versus 56±7 ms, p=0.02), and F3 (64±10 versus 56±9 ms, p=0.007). PR and QRS intervals lengthen across gestational age among foetuses with normal cardiac anatomy but not in foetuses with congenital heart diseases. As early as 20 weeks of gestation, differences between foetuses with and without congenital heart disease are discernible, with congenital heart disease foetuses demonstrating longer QRS intervals compared with controls.
    Cardiology in the Young 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Prolongation of the QT interval and development of torsades de pointes are known in patients with complete heart block and profound bradycardia. We report the case of a patient with complete heart block and torsades, with long QT seen during a period of junctional tachycardia at a rate faster than the minimum pacemaker rate.
    Cardiology in the Young 01/2015;
  • Massimiliano Cantinotti, Henry L Walters, Maura Crocetti, Marco Marotta, Bruno Murzi, Aldo Clerico
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    ABSTRACT: Interest in brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in the management of children with CHD has increased. There are, however, no current guidelines for their routine use. The aim of this review article is to provide an update on the data regarding the use of BNP/NT-proBNP in the evaluation and surgical treatment of children with CHD. BNP/NT-proBNP levels in children with CHD vary substantially according to age, laboratory assay methods, and the specific haemodynamics associated with the individual congenital heart lesion. The accuracy of BNP/NT-proBNP as supplemental markers in the integrated screening, diagnosis, management, and follow-up of CHD has been established. In particular, the use of BNP/NT-proBNP as a prognostic indicator in paediatric cardiac surgery has been widely demonstrated, as well as its role in the subsequent follow-up of surgical patients. Most of the data, however, are derived from single-centre retrospective studies using multivariable analysis; prospective, randomised clinical trials designed to evaluate the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of routine BNP/NT-proBNP use in CHD are lacking. The results of well-designed, prospective clinical trials should assist in formulating guidelines and expert consensus recommendations for its use in patients with CHD. Finally, the use of new point-of-care testing methods that use less invasive sampling techniques - capillary blood specimens - may contribute to a more widespread use of the BNP assay, especially in neonates and infants, as well as contribute to the development of screening programmes for CHD using this biomarker.
    Cardiology in the Young 01/2015;
  • Adam T James, John D Corcoran, Patrick J McNamara, Orla Franklin, Afif F El-Khuffash
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Milrinone may be an appropriate adjuvant therapy for infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. We aimed to describe the effect of milrinone administration on right and left ventricular function in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension not responding to inhaled nitric oxide after 4 hours of administration. Materials and methods This is a retrospective review of infants born after or at 34 weeks of gestation with persistent pulmonary hypertension who received milrinone treatment. The primary endpoint was the effect of milrinone on myocardial performance and haemodynamics, including right and left ventricular outputs, tissue Doppler velocities, right ventricle and septal strain, and strain rate. Secondary endpoints examined included duration of inhaled nitric oxide and oxygen support. A total of 17 infants with a mean (standard deviation) gestation and birth weight of 39.8 (2.0) weeks and 3.45 (0.39) kilograms, respectively, were included in the study. The first echocardiogram was performed 15 hours after the commencement of nitric oxide inhalation. Milrinone treatment was started at a median time of 1 hour after the echocardiogram and was associated with an increase in left ventricular output (p=0.04), right ventricular output (p=0.004), right ventricle strain (p=0.01) and strain rate (p=0.002), and left ventricle s` (p<0.001) and a` (p=0.02) waves. There was a reduction in nitric oxide dose and oxygen requirement over the subsequent 72 hours (all p<0.05). The use of milrinone as an adjunct to nitric oxide is worth further exploration, with preliminary evidence suggesting an improvement in both oxygenation and myocardial performance in this group of infants.
    Cardiology in the Young 01/2015;
  • Joshua Daily, Mike FitzGerald, Kimberly Downing, Eileen King, Javier Gonzalez Del Rey, Richard Ittenbach, Bradley Marino
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    ABSTRACT: Parental understanding of their children's heart disease is inadequate, which may contribute to poor health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine what parental knowledge is important in the care of children with heart disease from the perspective of parents, nurses, and physicians. Focus groups were formed with parents of children with single ventricle congenital heart disease (CHD), biventricular CHD, and heart transplantation, and with nurses and physicians who provide care for these children. A nominal group technique was used to identify and prioritise important parental knowledge items and themes. The voting data for each theme were reported by participant type - parent, nurse, and physician - and patient diagnosis - single ventricle CHD, biventricular CHD, and heart transplantation. The following three themes were identified as important by all groups: recognition of and response to clinical deterioration, medications, and prognosis and plan. Additional themes that were unique to specific groups included the following: medical team members and interactions (parents), tests and labs (parents), neurodevelopmental outcomes and interventions (physicians), lifelong disease requiring lifelong follow-up (physicians and nurses), and diagnosis, physiology, and interventions (single ventricle and biventricular CHD). Parents, nurses, and physicians have both common and unique views regarding what parents should know to effectively care for their children with single ventricle CHD, biventricular CHD, or heart transplantation. Specific targeted parental education that incorporates these findings should be provided to each group. Further development of questionnaires regarding parental knowledge with appropriate content validity is warranted.
    Cardiology in the Young 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Children with a secundum atrial septal defect are usually asymptomatic and are referred for elective closure after 3-4 years of age; however, in premature infants with chronic lung disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or pulmonary hypertension, increased pulmonary blood flow secondary to a left-to-right atrial shunt, may exacerbate their condition. Closure of the atrial septal defect in these patients can result in significant clinical improvement. We report the cases of two premature infants with chronic lung disease, who underwent atrial septal defect closure with the Gore HELEX Septal Occluder and discuss the technical aspects of using the device in these patients and their clinical outcomes.
    Cardiology in the Young 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the optimal drug therapy for intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant Kawasaki disease. Studies regarding drug therapy for intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant Kawasaki disease were selected from medical electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, Elsevier, and Springer Link. The effectiveness in terms of temperature recovery and coronary artery damage was compared between a second intravenous immunoglobulin treatment and glucocorticosteroid treatment for children with intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant Kawasaki disease using meta-analysis with Review Manager 5.3 software. Indices to evaluate the effects were body temperature, biomarker levels, and coronary artery lesions detected by echocardiography. Results are reported as relative risks or odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval and p<0.05. Meta-analysis included 52 patients in the second intravenous immunoglobulin treatment group and 75 patients in the glucocorticosteroid treatment control group from four studies that met our inclusion criteria. Temperatures of patients who received glucocorticosteroid treatment were effectively controlled compared with those who received a second intravenous immunoglobulin treatment (relative risk=0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.58-0.92, p=0.007). There were no differences, however, in the incidence of coronary artery lesions between the two groups (odds ratio=1.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.57-4.20, p=0.39). Glucocorticosteroids are more effective in controlling body temperature compared with intravenous immunoglobulin re-treatment in intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant Kawasaki disease children; however, glucocorticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin re-treatment showed no difference in the prevention of coronary artery lesions.
    Cardiology in the Young 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: No reports on pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect with the combination of double aortic arch and interruption between left and right carotid arteries have been published so far.
    Cardiology in the Young 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Remote monitoring is increasingly used in the follow-up of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices. Data on paediatric populations are still lacking. The aim of our study was to follow-up young patients both in-hospital and remotely to enhance device surveillance. This is an observational registry collecting data on consecutive patients followed-up with the CareLink system. Inclusion criteria were a Medtronic device implanted and patient's willingness to receive CareLink. Patients were stratified according to age and presence of congenital/structural heart defects (CHD). A total of 221 patients with a device - 200 pacemakers, 19 implantable cardioverter defibrillators, and two loop recorders - were enrolled (median age of 17 years, range 1-40); 58% of patients were younger than 18 years of age and 73% had CHD. During a follow-up of 12 months (range 4-18), 1361 transmissions (8.9% unscheduled) were reviewed by technicians. Time for review was 6±2 minutes (mean±standard deviation). Missed transmissions were 10.1%. Events were documented in 45% of transmissions, with 2.7% yellow alerts and 0.6% red alerts sent by wireless devices. No significant differences were found in transmission results according to age or presence of CHD. Physicians reviewed 6.3% of transmissions, 29 patients were contacted by phone, and 12 patients underwent unscheduled in-hospital visits. The event recognition with remote monitoring occurred 76 days (range 16-150) earlier than the next scheduled in-office follow-up. Remote follow-up/monitoring with the CareLink system is useful to enhance device surveillance in young patients. The majority of events were not clinically relevant, and the remaining led to timely management of problems.
    Cardiology in the Young 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that myocardial scars after repair of tetralogy of Fallot are related to impaired cardiac function and adverse clinical outcome.
    Cardiology in the Young 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital pericardial absence is a rare cardiac defect. Although most patients are asymptomatic, recognising this condition is clinically important as it can cause serious complications. We report the case of an asymptomatic 33-year-old woman seeking medical attention due to a family history of sudden cardiac death. The investigation led us to the diagnosis of congenital absence of the pericardium. The role of imaging in the diagnosis of this rare cardiac malformation is briefly discussed.
    Cardiology in the Young 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The GDF3 gene plays a fundamental role in embryonic morphogenesis. Recent studies have indicated that GDF3 plays a previously unrecognised role in cardiovascular system development. Non-syndromic CHDs might be a clinically isolated manifestation of GDF3 mutations. The purpose of the present study was to identify potential pathological mutations in the GDF3 gene in Chinese children with non-syndromic CHDs, and to gain insight into the aetiology of non-syndromic CHDs.
    Cardiology in the Young 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Although much is known about morbidity and mortality, there are limited data focussing on the financial aspect of the Norwood operation. Our objective is to characterise the hospitalisation and detail the hospital costs.
    Cardiology in the Young 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Although usually shown in embryology textbooks, the presence of the fifth pair of pharyngeal arch arteries has long been controversial. To the best of our knowledge, six pairs of bilaterally symmetrical arteries developing within the pharyngeal arches are yet to be found in any mammalian or avian species. Collateral channels between the distal ends of the fourth and sixth arch arteries, in contrast, have been found in up to half of all developing mouse embryos. In only one human embryo, again to the best of our knowledge, has a channel been found that extends from the aortic sac to the dorsal aorta, and hence qualifies as an arch artery. Despite these confounding factors in terms of the developmental heritage of the fifth arch arteries, the purported channels are invoked with increasing frequency to describe various lesions discovered in the setting of the congenitally malformed heart. Persistence of the artery of the fifth arch was initially proposed to explain double-barrelled aorta. It was subsequently proposed to account for various systemic-to-pulmonary channels feeding the pulmonary circulation in the setting of pulmonary atresia. It has also been claimed to persist so as to explain abnormal branching of the brachiocephalic arteries from the aortic arch. In the light of the ongoing doubts concerning the existence of the arteries of the fifth arch themselves, we have reviewed the various descriptions of purported fifth arch arteries within the world literature. We have then sought to validate the descriptions on the basis of our own understanding of development, for this purpose providing images of the remoulding arch arteries in the mouse so as to substantiate our conclusions. While accepting that our own interpretations are speculative, we suggest that more convincing alternative explanations can be advanced to account for the majority of lesions currently interpreted on the basis of persistence of the arteries of the fifth arches. Although the interpretations do not necessarily change the therapeutic approaches to the channels, appropriate description is important in terms of their classification.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Major and minor coronary artery anomalies in tetralogy of Fallot is a well-described finding. The importance of determining the coronary distribution impacts upon the decision making for surgery and subsequent management. Traditionally, the coronary distribution is relied classically on echocardiography and cardiac catheterisation; however, they have well-known limitations. The use of CT as a first-line investigation modality for coronary artery distribution is discussed.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a rare case of scimitar syndrome in which the scimitar vessel, collecting all the right pulmonary veins, was stenotic at its junction, with the inferior caval vein and two anomalous vessels, connecting to the same venous collector, draining most of the flow to the left atrium. We arbitrarily defined this rare anatomical variant as a congenitally palliated scimitar syndrome.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Accelerated coronary atherosclerosis in patients with Kawasaki disease, in conjunction with coronary artery aneurysm and stenosis that characterise this disease, are potential risk factors for developing coronary artery disease in young adults. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of coronary artery disease in adult patients with Kawasaki disease. Methods: All patients aged 18-55 years of age diagnosed with Kawasaki disease were sampled from Nationwide Inpatient Sample database using International Classification of Diseases 9th revision (ICD 9 code 446.1) from 2009 to 2010. Demographics, prevalence of coronary artery disease, and other traditional risk factors in adult patients with Kawasaki disease were analysed using ICD 9 codes. Results: The prevalence of Kawasaki disease among adults was 0.0005% (n=215) of all in-hospital admissions in United States. The mean age was 27.3 years with women (27.6 years) older than men (27.1 years). Traditional risk factors were hypertension (21%), hyperlipidaemia (15.6%), diabetes (11.5%), tobacco use (8.8%), and obesity (8.8%), with no significant difference between men and women. Coronary artery disease (32.4%), however, was more prevalent in men (44.7%) than in women (12.1%; p=0.03). In multivariate regression analysis, after adjusting for demographics and traditional risk factors, hypertension (OR=13.2, p=0.03) was an independent risk factor of coronary artery disease. Conclusion: There was increased preponderance of coronary artery disease in men with Kawasaki disease. On multivariate analysis, hypertension was found to be the only independent predictor of coronary artery disease in this population after adjusting for other risk factors.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2014;