Cardiology in the Young

Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)

Journal description

Cardiology in the Young is devoted to cardiovascular issues affecting the young, and the older patient suffering the sequels of congenital heart disease, or other cardiac diseases acquired in childhood. The journal serves the interests of all professionals concerned with these topics. By design, the journal is international and multidisciplinary in its approach, and members of the editorial board take an active role in the its mission, helping to make it the essential journal in paediatric cardiology. All aspects of paediatric cardiology are covered within the journal. The content includes original articles, brief reports, editorials, reviews, and papers devoted to continuing professional development. High-quality colour figures are published on a regular basis, and without charge to the authors. Regular supplements are published containing the abstracts of the annual meetings of the Association for European Paediatric Cardiology, and the proceedings of the meetings organised annually by the Children's Heart Institute of Florida, and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. The Editorial team is currently looking to expand the number of Supplements published each year. These are supplied free to subscribers."

Current impact factor: 0.84

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 0.835
2013 Impact Factor 0.857
2012 Impact Factor 0.948
2011 Impact Factor 0.759
2010 Impact Factor 0.858
2009 Impact Factor 1.183
2008 Impact Factor 0.956
2007 Impact Factor 0.912
2006 Impact Factor 0.884
2005 Impact Factor 0.471
2004 Impact Factor 0.433
2003 Impact Factor 0.595
2002 Impact Factor 0.73
2001 Impact Factor 0.665
2000 Impact Factor 0.615
1999 Impact Factor 0.642

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 0.98
Cited half-life 6.70
Immediacy index 0.09
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.36
Website Cardiology in the Young website
Other titles Cardiology in the young (Online)
ISSN 1467-1107
OCLC 55143040
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Cambridge University Press (CUP)

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    • Author's Pre-print on author's personal website, departmental website, social media websites, institutional repository, non-commercial subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, Europe PMC or arXiv
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website on acceptance of publication
    • Author's post-print on departmental website, institutional repository, non-commercial subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, Europe PMC or arXiv, after a 6 months embargo
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published abstract may be deposited
    • Pre-print to record acceptance for publication
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with set statement
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher last reviewed on 07/10/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Cambridge University Press (CUP)'
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Different echocardiographic parameters have been studied and validated for assessing the severity of mitral stenosis; however, scant data are available for these markers in the context of balloon mitral valvuloplasty in juvenile age groups (ages ⩽20 years). Objectives: The aim of the present study was to find out the utility of echocardiographic parameters such as mitral valve separation index, left atrial volume, right ventricular systolic pressure, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, tricuspid annular systolic velocity, and right ventricular Tei index in predicting success of balloon mitral valvuloplasty and their relation to mitral valve area in juvenile mitral stenosis. Methods: We carried out a prospective single-centre study involving 52 juvenile mitral stenosis patients undergoing elective valvuloplasty. Success was defined as an increase in mitral valve area ⩾50% or ⩾1.5 cm2. Echocardiographic measurements were taken before and 24 hours after the procedure and statistical analyses were carried out. Results: The mean age of the study population was 14.3 years (SD ±4.55), ranging from 7 to 20 years. Valvuloplasty was successful in 49 out of 52 patients. The mean valve area improved from 0.89 (SD ±0.16) to 1.73 (SD ±0.22) cm2/m2 (p<0.01), and the mean mitral valve gradient decreased from 19.87 (SD ±7.89) to 7.45 (SD ±2.07) (p=0.021). All the surrogate parameters improved favourably after valvuloplasty (p<0.01). The decrease in right ventricular systolic pressure was a better indicator of the success followed by the increase in valve separation index (area under the curve 0.81 and 0.76, respectively). Conclusions: All the surrogate markers studied showed favourable improvement, and right ventricular systolic pressure reduction and improved mitral valve separation index were better indicators of successful valvuloplasty.
    Cardiology in the Young 11/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115002243
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed parental attitudes towards congenital cardiovascular malformations in their children in a cross-sectional study in Egypt. Parents face many problems related to concerns about their child's prognosis, but these associations with parental stress have never been evaluated in Egypt or examined in relation to religiosity in a predominantly Muslim society. Accordingly, we conducted interviews in Cairo with mothers of 99 sequential infants born with conotruncal heart malformations (cases) and 65 mothers of age-matched controls. The survey assessed healthcare access and usage, knowledge of congenital cardiovascular malformations, religiosity, the Locus of Control Scale, and the Parenting Stress Index. Results showed that 45% of the mothers of cases had correct knowledge about their child's diagnosis; 85% were satisfied with the clinical care; and 79% reported that the cost of care was burdensome. Compared with parents of cases, parents of controls were more likely to report stress overall and all its subscales. Regarding belief about locus of control over health, God as a determining factor was given the highest endorsement. Mothers in the congenital cardiovascular malformations group reported a higher level of parental locus of control than did those in the control group. The correlations between stress and locus of control were stronger in the control than in the case group. Religiosity was related neither to stress nor to locus of control. Future studies can explore the roles that personal, familial, and societal factors play in exacerbating or reducing stress levels among parents of sick children, particularly in developing countries where economic pressures are acute.
    Cardiology in the Young 11/2015; DOI:10.1017/S104795111500253X
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    ABSTRACT: Methods: We carried out a systematic search of the literature published in Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Library's Database (1990-2013); two authors independently extracted data from the included studies. We used the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for quality assessment of studies. A random effects meta-analysis model was used. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2-test. Results: We included 18 studies with 1786 patients. The studies were of acceptable-to-good quality. The meta-analysis of six studies on quality of life showed no significant difference - mean difference: -1.31; 95% confidence intervals: -6.51 to +3.89, I2=90.9% - between adolescents and young adults with CHD and controls. Similar results were found in 10 studies not eligible for the meta-analysis. In subdomains, it seems that patients had reduced physical quality of life; however, social functioning was comparable or better compared with controls. Conclusion: For the first time in a meta-analysis, we have shown that quality of life in adolescents and young adults with CHD is not reduced when compared with age-matched controls.
    Cardiology in the Young 11/2015; DOI:10.1017/S104795111500181X

  • Cardiology in the Young 11/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115002450
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the presence of carotid thickening and its relationship with the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth score. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study involving 512 brazilian adolescents. Variables such as sex, body mass index, concentrations of non-high-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin A1c levels that make up the score, and carotid thickening through the intima-media complex measured by ultrasound were evaluated. We adopted two cut-off points to evaluate carotid thickening, being considered altered for those higher or equal to the z-score 2+ and ⩾75th percentile. The association was assessed using the χ2 test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: High cardiovascular risk was present in 10.2% of the adolescents; carotid thickness was present in 4.3% determined by the z-score 2+ and in 25.0% determined by the 75th percentile. When measured by the z-score, carotid thickening was associated with high systolic blood pressure (p=0.024), high-non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.039), and high cardiovascular risk assessed by the score and by the 75th percentile, with body mass index >30 (p=0.005). In the multivariate analysis, high cardiovascular risk was found to be independently associated with the presence of carotid thickness evaluated by the z-score, with risk four times greater (p=0.010) of presenting with this condition compared with individuals with low risk, and this fact was not observed when factors were analysed alone. Conclusion: The presence of high cardiovascular risk in adolescents assessed by the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth score was associated with marked thickening of the carotid artery in healthy adolescents.
    Cardiology in the Young 11/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115002541
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    ABSTRACT: We report the case of a patient with Donohue syndrome who died of heart failure due to obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. A literature survey revealed that hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was present in 30% of these patients and was often fatal. Therefore, every patient with Donohue syndrome should be screened for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
    Cardiology in the Young 11/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115002437

  • Cardiology in the Young 11/2015; DOI:10.1017/S104795111500222X
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation is usually performed from a femoral venous - transfemoral - approach, but this may not be the optimal vascular access option in some patients. This study aimed to determine which group of patients might benefit from an internal jugular - transjugular - approach for transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation. Methods: This multicentre retrospective study included all patients who underwent attempted transcatheter pulmonary valve placement in the right ventricular outflow tract between April 2010 and June 2012 at two large congenital heart centres. Patients were divided into two groups based on venous access site - transfemoral or transjugular. Patient characteristics, procedural outcomes, and complications were compared between groups. Results: Of 81 patients meeting the inclusion criteria (median age 16.4 years), the transjugular approach was used in 14 patients (17%). The transjugular group was younger (median age 11.9 versus 17.3 years), had lower body surface area (mean 1.33 versus 1.61 m2), more often had moderate or greater tricuspid regurgitation (29% versus 7%), and had a higher ratio of right ventricle-to-systemic systolic pressure (mean 82.4 versus 64.7). Patients requiring a transjugular approach after an unsuccessful transfemoral approach had longer fluoroscopic times and procedure duration. Conclusions: The transjugular approach for transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation is used infrequently but is more often used in younger and smaller patients. Technical limitations from a transfemoral approach may be anticipated if there is moderate or greater tricuspid regurgitation or higher right ventricular pressures. In these patients, a transjugular approach should be considered early.
    Cardiology in the Young 11/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001663
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    ABSTRACT: Advanced surgical repair procedures have resulted in the increased survival rate to adulthood of patients with CHD. The resulting new chronic conditions population is greater than one million in the United States of America and >1.2 million in Europe. This review describes the risks and effects of infective endocarditis - a systemic infectious process with high morbidity and mortality - on this population and examines the evidence to determine whether greater patient education on recognition of symptoms and preventative measures is warranted. The literature search included the terms "infective endocarditis" and "adult congenital heart disease". Search refinement, the addition of articles cited by included articles, as well as addition of supporting articles, resulted in utilisation of 24 articles. Infective endocarditis, defined by the modified Duke Criteria, occurs at a significantly higher rate in the CHD population due to congenitally or surgically altered cardiac anatomies and placement of prosthetic valves. This literature review returned no studies in the past five years assessing knowledge of the definition, recognition of symptoms, and preventative measures of infective endocarditis in the adult CHD population. Existing data are more than 15 years old and show significant knowledge deficits. Studies have consistently shown the need for improved CHD patient knowledge with regard to infective endocarditis, and there is no recent evidence that these knowledge deficits have decreased. It is important to address and decrease knowledge deficits in order to improve patient outcomes and decrease healthcare utilisation and costs.
    Cardiology in the Young 11/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115002395
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    ABSTRACT: Common pulmonary vein atresia is a rare and usually fatal congenital anomaly, in which the pulmonary veins come together to form a confluence that does not connect to the left atrium. We report our experience with three cases of common pulmonary vein atresia and review the literature on this anomaly. The diagnosis of common pulmonary vein atresia must be entertained in any newborn that presents with cyanosis, refractory acidosis, and decreased systemic perfusion within the first 48 hours of life. Echocardiography is a useful screening tool, but cardiac catheterisation is the preferred diagnostic tool. Common pulmonary vein atresia can be fatal without surgical intervention, but survival after surgery continues to be poor.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115002334
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    ABSTRACT: Univentricular heart is a rare congenital heart malformation. Nowadays prognosis is considered to be strictly linked to surgical intervention, and survival into late adulthood is unusual. In some patients native haemodynamic circulation balances pulmonary and systemic blood flow, allowing long-term survival without the need for surgery. We report the case of a 74-year-old man with a univentricular heart in natural history, and we discuss the factors that might contribute to his extraordinary long-term survival.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001973
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    ABSTRACT: Results: No significant difference in the distribution of genotypes and allelic frequencies between rheumatic heart disease cases and controls for IL-4 (intron 3) (p=0.17; OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.82-3.74) and IL-10 (-1082) (p=0.49; OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.65-2.71) gene polymorphisms was observed. Further categorisation of patients into mitral valve disease and combined valve disease subgroups showed that cases with mitral valve disease have significantly higher frequency of the RP2 allele of IL-4 (intron 3) (p=0.03; OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.93-6.15) and the G allele of IL-10 (-1082) (p=0.04; OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.62-4.95) when compared with controls. Discussion Our study shows that IL-4 (intron 3) and IL-10 (-1082) gene polymorphisms are not significantly associated with susceptibility to rheumatic heart disease, but they might play a role in the pathogenesis of patients with mitral valve disease.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115002413
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    ABSTRACT: This case demonstrates the development of secondary infundibular stenosis in a 10-year-old male child with documented large non-restrictive perimembranous ventricular septal defect in infancy - the classical Gasul phenomenon.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115002401
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    ABSTRACT: At present, three-dimensional mapping is often used during cardiac ablations with an explicit goal of decreasing radiation exposure; three-dimensional mapping was introduced in our institution in 2007, but not specifically to decrease fluoroscopy time. We document fluoroscopy use and catheterisation times in this setting. Data were obtained retrospectively from patients who underwent ablation for atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia from January, 2004 to December, 2011. A total of 93 patients were included in the study. Among them, 18 patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation without three-dimensional mapping were included in Group 1, 13 patients who underwent cryoablation without three-dimensional mapping were included in Group 2, and 62 patients who underwent cryoablation with three-dimensional mapping were included in Group 3. Mean fluoroscopy times differed significantly (34.3, 23.4, and 20.3 minutes, p<0.001) when all the groups were compared. Group 3 had a shorter average fluoroscopy time that did not reach significance when compared directly with Group 2 (p=0.29). An unadjusted linear regression model showed a progressive decrease in fluoroscopy time (p=0.002). Mean total catheterisation times differed significantly (180, 211, and 210 minutes, p=0.02) and were related to increased ablation times inherent to cryoablation techniques. Acute success was achieved in 89, 100, and 97% of patients (p=0.25), and chronic success was achieved in 80, 92, and 93% of patients (p=0.38). Complication rates were similar (17, 23, and 7%, p=0.14). In conclusion, three-dimensional mapping systems decrease fluoroscopy times even without an explicit goal of zero fluoroscopy. Efficacy and safety of the procedure have not changed.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115002449
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Amplatzer Vascular Plug-II used for the closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects. Background: There are no FDA-approved transcatheter devices for the closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects. Several studies have reported on the use of various devices either off-label or under clinical trial protocols. However these reports have described significant adverse events including residual shunts, complete heart block, arrhythmia, and new valve regurgitations. Thus far, no study on the Amplatzer Vascular Plug-II has been reported. Methods: We conducted a 4-year retrospective chart review from August, 2010 to August, 2014, of patients with perimembranous ventricular septal defects associated with ventricular septal aneurysm who underwent transcatheter closure using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug-II. Results: A total of 16 patients underwent Amplatzer Vascular Plug-II transcatheter closure of their perimembranous ventricular septal defects. The median age was 2.56 years (range: 0.5-27.3). Their median weight was 13.0 kg (range: 6.9-71.6). The left ventricular median defect size was 9.3 mm (range: 5.9-14.4). The right ventricular median defect size was 3.6 mm (range: 2.3-5.8). All the patients underwent successful device implantation with 83% of the patients having complete echocardiographic closure at the 1-year follow-up; however, one procedure was complicated by early device embolisation. The device was successfully retrieved and replaced with a larger device. There were no device-related outflow tract obstructions, rhythm abnormalities, or haemolysis. Conclusion: Application of the Amplatzer Vascular Plug-II for closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects appears to be a safe and effective treatment option. Prospective clinical trials and longer follow-up periods are warranted.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115002206
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    ABSTRACT: Methods: Children with cyanotic congenital heart disease admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit with an arterial line in situ were included to our study. Prospective simultaneous recordings of SpO2, measured by the Masimo SET® LNCS Neo peripheral probe, and co-oximeter saturations (SaO2) measured by arterial blood gas analysis were recorded. Results: A total of 527 paired measurements of SpO2 and SaO2 (using an ABL800 FLEX analyser) in 25 children were obtained. The mean bias of the pulse oximeter for all SaO2 readings was +4.7±13.8%. The wide standard deviation indicates poor precision. This mean bias increased to +7.0±13.7% at SaO2 recordings <75%. The accuracy root mean square of the recordings was 3.30% across all saturation levels, and this increased to 4.98% at SaO2 <75%. Conclusions: The performance of the Masimo SET® LNCS Neo pulse oximeter is poor when arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturations are below 75%. It tends to overestimate saturations in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease. This may have serious implications for clinical decisions.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115002188
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    ABSTRACT: Results: Parents (n=68) and nurses (n=63) participated in this study. After the discharge programme implementation, parents had less uncertainty (M=93.3 SD=10.7 versus M=83.6 SD=4.9, p=0.001) and ambiguity (M=40.8 SD=6.8 versus M=33.4 SD=3.7, p=0.001) about their child's illness; however, they rated themselves as being less able to cope with the transition to home (M=24.3 SD=4.1 versus 23.1 SD=2.2, p=0.001) and as having less support at home than that required (M=31.5 SD=9.9 versus 30.9 SD=3.2, p=0.001). Parents' and nurses' perception of parental readiness for hospital discharge were more closely aligned after implementation of a nurse-led discharge programme (r=0.81, p=0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the discharge programme had positive and negative effects on parental perceptions of uncertainty and readiness for discharge. Further examination is warranted to delineate these influences and to design methods for supporting parents during the transition to home care.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115002164
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The objective of this study was to report procedural characteristics and adverse events on the data collected in the IMproving Paediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment registry. Background: The IMproving Paediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment- registry is a catheterisation registry focussed on paediatric and adult patients with congenital heart disease who are undergoing diagnostic catheterisations and catheter-based interventions. This study reports procedural characteristics and adverse events of patients who have undergone selected catheterisation procedures from January, 2011 to June, 2013. Methods: Demographic, clinical, procedural, and institutional data elements were collected at participating centres and entered via either a web-based platform or software provided by the American College of Cardiology-certified vendors, and were collected in a secure, centralised database. For the purpose of this study, procedures that were not classified as one of the 'core' IMproving Paediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment procedures originally chosen for additional data collection were identified and selected for further data analysis. Results: During the time frame of data collection, a total of 8021 cases were classified as other procedures and/or multiple procedures. The most commonly performed case types - isolated or in combination with other procedures - were right ventricular biopsy in 3433 (42.8%), conduit/MPA interventions in 979 (12.3%), and systemic pulmonary artery collateral occlusion in 601 (7.5%). For the whole cohort, adverse events of any severity occurred in 957 (12.0%) cases, whereas major adverse events occurred in 113 (1.4%) cases; six patients (0.1%) died in the catheterisation laboratory. Conclusions: The IMproving Paediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment registry has provided important data on the frequency and spectrum of cardiac catheterisation procedures performed in the present era. For many procedures, more data and work are needed to identify more subtle differences between case categories, especially as it relates to the incidence of major adverse events, and to further develop a risk-adjustment methodology to allow equitable comparisons among institutions.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115002218