Cardiology in the Young

Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)

Journal description

Cardiology in the Young is devoted to cardiovascular issues affecting the young, and the older patient suffering the sequels of congenital heart disease, or other cardiac diseases acquired in childhood. The journal serves the interests of all professionals concerned with these topics. By design, the journal is international and multidisciplinary in its approach, and members of the editorial board take an active role in the its mission, helping to make it the essential journal in paediatric cardiology. All aspects of paediatric cardiology are covered within the journal. The content includes original articles, brief reports, editorials, reviews, and papers devoted to continuing professional development. High-quality colour figures are published on a regular basis, and without charge to the authors. Regular supplements are published containing the abstracts of the annual meetings of the Association for European Paediatric Cardiology, and the proceedings of the meetings organised annually by the Children's Heart Institute of Florida, and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. The Editorial team is currently looking to expand the number of Supplements published each year. These are supplied free to subscribers."

Current impact factor: 0.86

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 0.857
2012 Impact Factor 0.948
2011 Impact Factor 0.759
2010 Impact Factor 0.858
2009 Impact Factor 1.183
2008 Impact Factor 0.956
2007 Impact Factor 0.912
2006 Impact Factor 0.884
2005 Impact Factor 0.471
2004 Impact Factor 0.433
2003 Impact Factor 0.595
2002 Impact Factor 0.73
2001 Impact Factor 0.665
2000 Impact Factor 0.615
1999 Impact Factor 0.642

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.06
Cited half-life 5.80
Immediacy index 0.12
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.39
Website Cardiology in the Young website
Other titles Cardiology in the young (Online)
ISSN 1467-1107
OCLC 55143040
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Cambridge University Press (CUP)

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's Pre-print on author's personal website, departmental website, social media websites, institutional repository, non-commercial subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, Europe PMC or arXiv
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website on acceptance of publication
    • Author's post-print on departmental website, institutional repository, non-commercial subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, Europe PMC or arXiv, after a 6 months embargo
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published abstract may be deposited
    • Pre-print to record acceptance for publication
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with set statement, for deposit of Authors Post-print or Publisher's version/PDF
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher last reviewed on 07/10/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Cambridge University Press (CUP)'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 36-year-old woman, who had a history of myomectomy, presented with lightheadedness after changing position from sitting to standing and effort-related shortness of breath. Echocardiography demonstrated a hyperechoic elongated mobile mass extending from the inferior caval vein to the right atrium. The mass was surgically removed, and histological examination established the diagnosis of intravenous leiomyomatosis. This case caught the attention of our cardiology group to consider the diagnosis when an inferior caval vein or right atrium mass is found in a patient with a history of uterine leiomyomatosis.
    Cardiology in the Young 08/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001407
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the domain of paediatric and congenital cardiac care, the stakes are huge. Likewise, the care of these children assembles a group of "A+ personality" individuals from the domains of cardiac surgery, cardiology, anaesthesiology, critical care, and nursing. This results in an environment that has opportunity for both powerful collaboration and powerful conflict. Providers of healthcare should avoid conflict when it has no bearing on outcome, as it is clearly a squandering of individual and collective political capital. Outcomes after cardiac surgery are now being reported transparently and publicly. In the present era of transparency, one may wonder how to balance the following potentially competing demands: quality healthcare, transparency and accountability, and teamwork and shared decision-making. An understanding of transparency and public reporting in the domain of paediatric cardiac surgery facilitates the implementation of a strategy for teamwork and shared decision-making. In January, 2015, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) began to publicly report outcomes of paediatric and congenital cardiac surgery using the 2014 Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (STS-CHSD) Mortality Risk Model. The 2014 STS-CHSD Mortality Risk Model facilitates description of Operative Mortality adjusted for procedural and patient-level factors. The need for transparency in reporting of outcomes can create pressure on healthcare providers to implement strategies of teamwork and shared decision-making to assure outstanding results. A simple strategy of shared decision-making was described by Tom Karl and was implemented in multiple domains by Jeff Jacobs and David Cooper. In a critical-care environment, it is not unusual for healthcare providers to disagree about strategies of management of patients. When two healthcare providers disagree, each provider can classify the disagreement into three levels: • SDM Level 1 Decision: "We disagree but it really does not matter, so do whatever you desire!" • SDM Level 2 Decision: "We disagree and I believe it matters, but I am OK if you do whatever you desire!!" • SDM Level 3 Decision: "We disagree and I must insist (diplomatically and politely) that we follow the strategy that I am proposing!!!!!!" SDM Level 1 Decisions and SDM Level 2 Decisions typically do not create stress on the team, especially when there is mutual purpose and respect among the members of the team. SDM Level 3 Decisions are the real challenge. Periodically, the healthcare team is faced with such Level 3 Decisions, and teamwork and shared decision-making may be challenged. Teamwork is a learned behaviour, and mentorship is critical to achieve a properly balanced approach. If we agree to leave our egos at the door, then, in the final analysis, the team will benefit and we will set the stage for optimal patient care. In the environment of strong disagreement, true teamwork and shared decision-making are critical to preserve the unity and strength of the multi-disciplinary team and simultaneously provide excellent healthcare.
    Cardiology in the Young 08/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115000311
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: D is an 8-year-old boy brought to his paediatrician for evaluation. His mother is concerned as his teacher has been frequently complaining that he is very restless and often disturbs the rest of the class by getting up on some pretext or the other. He is unable to concentrate on his work and gets distracted very easily. He makes many careless mistakes and can hardly finish his tasks on time. He is frequently reprimanded for talking during class. He often answers out of turn or before the question has been completed; however, so far, he has been managing to get passing grades. At home, he is constantly on the go while he is awake. If he is forced to sit, like at mealtimes, he fidgets a lot. He also needs to be constantly nagged to do everything, even his daily activities such as brushing his teeth, or he forgets to do them or leaves them incomplete. He takes ages to finish his food. It is a major job to get him to do his homework. His mother says that at home he has been like that since the last 2 to 3 years, but now she is concerned because of the difficulties he is experiencing at school as well. After obtaining his medical history, examination, and getting response from parents and teachers - using Vanderbuilt Assessment Scales - the paediatrician diagnoses him to have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Besides behavioural interventions, he considers medications for his management. The paediatrician is debating the merits of performing electrocardiogram and/or referring the boy to a cardiologist before starting stimulant medications. If you were caring for this patient, how would you proceed?
    Cardiology in the Young 08/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001274
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies investigating the known risk factors of atherosclerosis in phenylketonuria patients have shown conflicting results. The primary aim of our study was to investigate the serum atherogenic markers in adolescent classical phenylketonuria patients and compare these parameters with healthy peers. The secondary aim was to compare these atherogenic markers in well-controlled and poorly controlled patients. A total of 59 patients (median age: 12.6 years, range: 11-17 years) and 44 healthy controls (median age: 12.0 years, range: 11-15 years) were enrolled in our study. Phenylketonuria patients were divided into two groups: well-controlled (serum phenylalanine levels below 360 µmol/L; 24 patients) and poorly controlled patients (serum phenylalanine levels higher than 360 µmol/L). The mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of well-controlled patients (1.0±0.2 mmol/L) were significantly lower compared with poorly controlled patients and controls (1.1±0.2 mmol/L, p=0.011 and 1.4±0.2 mmol/L, p<0.001, respectively). Poorly controlled patients had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than healthy controls (p=0.003). Homocysteine levels of both well-controlled (9.8±6.4 µmol/L) and poorly controlled (9.2±5.6 µmol/L) patients were higher compared with controls (5.8±1.8 µmol/L, p<0.01). The mean platelet volume of well-controlled patients (9.5±1.1 fL) was higher than that of poorly controlled patients and controls (8.9±0.8 fL, p=0.024 and 7.7±0.6 fL, p<0.001, respectively). Lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and higher homocysteine and mean platelet volume levels were detected in phenylketonuria patients. In particular, these changes were more prominent in well-controlled patients. We conclude that phenylketonuria patients might be at risk for atherosclerosis, and therefore screening for atherosclerotic risk factors should be included in the phenylketonuria therapy and follow-up in addition to other parameters.
    Cardiology in the Young 08/2015; DOI:10.1017/S104795111500150X
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe the case of an asymptomatic girl with sinus bradycardia and short QT interval at birth, junctional bradycardia in infancy requiring single-chamber pacemaker, atrial fibrillation in adolescence, and V141M mutation in the KCNQ1 gene. Atrial fibrillation recurred and became unresponsive to electrical or anti-arrhythmic therapy. During 20 years of follow-up, a progressive evolution from sinus node dysfunction to low-rate atrial fibrillation was observed.
    Cardiology in the Young 08/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001432
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Advancements in paediatric heart failure management have resulted in improved survival and a focus on long-term outcomes including health-related quality of life. We compared health-related quality of life in children with heart failure with healthy patients, children with chronic conditions, and children with cardiovascular disease. Families (n=63) and children (n=73) aged 2-20 years with heart failure were enrolled and compared with data previously published for healthy patients (n=5480), those with chronic conditions (n=247), and those with cardiovascular disease (n=347). Patients and parents completed the PedsQL 4.0 and the Cardiac 3.0 Module health-related quality-of-life questionnaires. PedsQL scores including Total, Psychosocial Health Summary, and Physical were compared between groups. In general, patients with heart failure had lower scores than the healthy population (p=0.001), and comparable scores with those with chronic conditions. Parents perceived no difference in physical scores for children with heart failure when compared with healthy children, and perceived higher scores for children with heart failure when compared with those with chronic conditions (p⩽0.003). Furthermore, children with heart failure had decremental health-related quality-of-life scores as the American Heart Association stage of heart failure increased, such that patients with stage C heart failure had scores similar to children with severe cardiovascular disease. Children with heart failure reported significantly impaired health-related quality of life compared with healthy children and similar scores compared with children with chronic conditions. Parental perceptions appear to underestimate these impairments. Children with heart failure appear to have progressive impairment of health-related quality of life with advancing stage of heart failure.
    Cardiology in the Young 08/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001468
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy or transient apical ballooning syndrome very rarely presents in children. In all patients with takotsubo, it is estimated that only 3.5% will have recurrence. In this study, we describe a case of recurrent takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a child, likely triggered by status epilepticus.
    Cardiology in the Young 08/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001377
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aneurysmal dilation of the right ventricular outflow tract complicates assessment of right ventricular function in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion is commonly used to estimate ejection fraction. We hypothesised that tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measured by cardiac MRI approximates global and segmental right ventricular function, specifically right ventricular sinus ejection fraction, in children with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was measured retrospectively on cardiac MRIs in 54 patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Values were compared with right ventricular global, sinus, and infundibular ejection fractions. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was indexed to body surface area, converted into a fractional value, and converted into published paediatric Z-scores. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measurements had good agreement between observers. Right ventricular ejection fraction did not correlate with the absolute or indexed tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and correlated weakly with fractional tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (r=0.41 and p=0.002). Segmental right ventricular function did not appreciably improve correlation with any of the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measures. Paediatric Z-scores were unable to differentiate patients with normal and abnormal right ventricular function. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion measured by cardiac MRI correlates poorly with global and segmental right ventricular ejection fraction in children with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion is an unreliable approximation of right ventricular function in this patient population.
    Cardiology in the Young 08/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001456
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cardiac disorders among children with mid-exertional syncope evaluated by a paediatric cardiologist, determine how often a diagnosis was not established, and define potential predictors to differentiate cardiac from non-cardiac causes. Study design We carried out a single-centre, retrospective review of children who presented for cardiac evaluation due to a history of exertional syncope between 1999 and 2012. Inclusion criteria included the following: (1) age ⩽18 years; (2) mid-exertional syncope; (3) electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and an exercise stress test, electrophysiology study, or tilt test, with exception of long QT, which did not require additional testing; and (4) evaluation by a paediatric cardiologist. Mid-exertional syncope was defined as loss of consciousness in the midst of active physical activity. Patients with peri-exertional syncope immediately surrounding but not during active physical exertion were excluded. A total of 60 patients met the criteria for mid-exertional syncope; 32 (53%) were diagnosed with cardiac syncope and 28 with non-cardiac syncope. A majority of cardiac patients were diagnosed with an electrical myopathy, the most common being Long QT syndrome. In nearly half of the patients, a diagnosis could not be established or syncope was felt to be vasovagal in nature. Neither the type of exertional activity nor the symptoms or lack of symptoms occurring before, immediately preceding, and after the syncopal event differentiated those with or without a cardiac diagnosis. Children with mid-exertional syncope are at risk for cardiac disease and warrant evaluation. Reported symptoms may not differentiate benign causes from life-threatening disease.
    Cardiology in the Young 08/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001481
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This report describes the case of a neonate with d -transposition of the great arteries and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension stabilised in the post-operative period with continuous iloprost nebulisation. To our knowledge, this is the first documented method of treating post-operative severe pulmonary arterial hypertension with continuous inhaled iloprost in a patient with complex CHD. We found this method of delivering the drug very effective in stabilising haemodynamic swings in the setting of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.
    Cardiology in the Young 07/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001250
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 35-day-old boy weighing 4.5 kg was referred to our department from a general paediatric hospital due to low oxygen saturation. His transcutaneous oxygen saturation was 75%. Transthoracic echocardiography showed discordant ventriculo-arterial connections, a non-restrictive atrial septal defect, and patent ductus arteriosus, in addition to a 23 mm×10-mm left atrial appendage aneurysm. As far as we know, this association has not been reported previously in the literature.
    Cardiology in the Young 07/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001420
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Those with cyanotic heart disease have an elevated bleeding risk but also are hypercoaguable. Treating haemodynamically significant thrombi in this unique cohort poses a monumental challenge. Case A 29-year-old women with tricuspid atresia and left pulmonary artery atresia presented with superior caval vein syndrome. She had a right modified Blalock-Taussig shunt as a neonate. A left modified Blalock-Taussig shunt performed later failed to establish flow to her left lung. At age 5, she had a Fontan procedure to the right lung but could not tolerate the physiology and had a low cardiac output syndrome. The Fontan was taken down and she was left with a Glenn anastamosis to the right pulmonary artery. She did well for years until she had dyspnea, upper extremity oedema and "facial fullness". On examination she was tachycardic, hypotensive, and more desaturated than baseline. She also had facial plethora. Decision-making Echocardiogram showed a large 9×3 mm nearly occlusive thrombus in the superior caval vein at the bifurcation of the left and right innominate veins. An emergent venogram confirmed the location and size of the thrombus. Given the thrombus burden and potential for distal embolisation through the Glenn to the single functional lung, we chose to treat the patient with thrombolytics. She had uncomplicated ICU course and was sent home on warfarin. Follow-up echocardiogram showed complete resolution of clot. This case shows the importance of history and physical exam in caring for this complex cohort of adult patients with CHD.
    Cardiology in the Young 07/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115000670
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, "broken heart syndrome", is a well-known diagnosis in adults; however, this entity remains rare and is not well represented in the paediatric population. This report illustrates a case of takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a premature neonate with a brief discussion of the condition.
    Cardiology in the Young 07/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001249
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, three patients presenting with early or late postoperative Fontan complications were identified to suffer from restriction of the native atrial septum. This caused significant obstruction to pulmonary venous return and elevated systemic venous pressure. Dobutamine stress testing was used in one patient to identify this lesion. Transcatheter stenting was performed in the other two patients. Patients improved after relief of the obstruction.
    Cardiology in the Young 07/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001262
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe the cases of two children who both presented in infancy with recurrent severe pulmonary hypertensive crises. Exhaustive clinical work-up failed to identify an underlying aetiology. The patients had no clinical response to steroids, immunoglobulins, or pulmonary vasodilators. Post-mortem examination revealed extensive invasive pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis. There was no evidence of pulmonary venous occlusive disease. Given the lethal nature of this condition, early consideration of referral to a lung transplant centre should be considered in selected patients.
    Cardiology in the Young 07/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001006
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cardiac rhabdomyomas in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex are usually detected antenatally or during infancy, with subsequent stabilisation or spontaneous regression. Development of a new cardiac rhabdomyoma beyond infancy is very rare. We report a male child who needed resection of a large rhabdomyoma in neonatal life, and then developed a new-onset rhabdomyoma at 2 years of age in a different location, needing another resection. Routine surveillance for cardiac rhabdomyomas in asymptomatic patients with tuberous sclerosis is essential.
    Cardiology in the Young 07/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001183
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The standard surgical management of patients with transposition of the great arteries, ventricular septal defect, and pulmonary stenosis is the Rastelli operation. Recently, en bloc rotation of the arterial trunk, by cutting out the aortic and the pulmonary root in one block and by rotating it 180°, has been introduced as a new option for anatomical repair. To evaluate the effects of this surgical method on the conduction system, pre-operative, post-operative, and follow-up electrocardiograms as well as patient charts were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 16 consecutive patients with transposition of the great arteries and left outflow tract obstruction were treated with en bloc rotation. During the post-operative period, there were two patients with complete atrio-ventricular block, one with junctional ectopic tachycardia, one with ventricular tachycardia, and one with supraventricular tachycardia. None of the patients had a typical right bundle branch block pattern before surgery; however, this pattern was detectable after surgery in eight out of 16 patients (50%), which persisted during the follow-up. All patients without typical right bundle branch block pattern showed a median QRS duration of 65 ms (54-112 ms) before surgery, 62 ms (54-122 ms) after surgery, and 84 ms (66-128 ms) at the last follow-up visit. This compares well with a similar Rastelli cohort, where a right bundle branch block prevalence of 77% was reported. Out of 16 patients, 12 showed non-specific ST changes and negative T-waves, which persisted during follow-up with an unknown significance for the future. Our data suggest that en bloc rotation of the arterial trunk seems not to have more negative effects on the conduction system than the Rastelli operation.
    Cardiology in the Young 07/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115000578
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study describes the incidence and course of children with small coronary artery fistulae over a period of 6 years who presented at a paediatric tertiary-care centre. Materials and methods Age at diagnosis, mode of presentation, location (origin and drainage), and association with a cardiac defect were documented and analysed. All patients obtained an electrocardiogram, and older patients were further evaluated with an exercise treadmill test. A total of 31 patients were diagnosed with coronary artery fistula via transthoracic echocardiogram and comprised 0.43% of our entire patient group. Mean age was 6.14 years (standard deviation 5.4); 16 patients (52%) had associated cardiac defects. In the remaining 15 patients, the coronary artery fistula was discovered incidentally during diagnostic work-up for heart murmur or chest pain. Among all, 26 patients (84%) had left-sided and five patients (16%) had right-sided coronary artery fistulae. All right coronary artery fistula patients had associated cardiac defects; this was true for 42% of the patients with left coronary artery fistulae. None of the patients required any intervention due to the fistula, and spontaneous closure occurred in 12 patients (39%). Small coronary artery fistulae in children are frequently an incidental finding, and many will close spontaneously. Our data are supportive of a conservative, observant approach in asymptomatic patients with small coronary artery fistula in the paediatric population.
    Cardiology in the Young 07/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001225