Cardiology in the Young

Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)

Journal description

Cardiology in the Young is devoted to cardiovascular issues affecting the young, and the older patient suffering the sequels of congenital heart disease, or other cardiac diseases acquired in childhood. The journal serves the interests of all professionals concerned with these topics. By design, the journal is international and multidisciplinary in its approach, and members of the editorial board take an active role in the its mission, helping to make it the essential journal in paediatric cardiology. All aspects of paediatric cardiology are covered within the journal. The content includes original articles, brief reports, editorials, reviews, and papers devoted to continuing professional development. High-quality colour figures are published on a regular basis, and without charge to the authors. Regular supplements are published containing the abstracts of the annual meetings of the Association for European Paediatric Cardiology, and the proceedings of the meetings organised annually by the Children's Heart Institute of Florida, and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. The Editorial team is currently looking to expand the number of Supplements published each year. These are supplied free to subscribers."

Current impact factor: 0.84

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 0.835
2013 Impact Factor 0.857
2012 Impact Factor 0.948
2011 Impact Factor 0.759
2010 Impact Factor 0.858
2009 Impact Factor 1.183
2008 Impact Factor 0.956
2007 Impact Factor 0.912
2006 Impact Factor 0.884
2005 Impact Factor 0.471
2004 Impact Factor 0.433
2003 Impact Factor 0.595
2002 Impact Factor 0.73
2001 Impact Factor 0.665
2000 Impact Factor 0.615
1999 Impact Factor 0.642

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 0.98
Cited half-life 6.70
Immediacy index 0.09
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.36
Website Cardiology in the Young website
Other titles Cardiology in the young (Online)
ISSN 1467-1107
OCLC 55143040
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Cambridge University Press (CUP)

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's Pre-print on author's personal website, departmental website, social media websites, institutional repository, non-commercial subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, Europe PMC or arXiv
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website on acceptance of publication
    • Author's post-print on departmental website, institutional repository, non-commercial subject-based repositories, such as PubMed Central, Europe PMC or arXiv, after a 6 months embargo
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published abstract may be deposited
    • Pre-print to record acceptance for publication
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with set statement
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher last reviewed on 07/10/2014
    • This policy is an exception to the default policies of 'Cambridge University Press (CUP)'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In general, solitary right aortic arch carries the left-sided ductus arteriosus communicating between the left subclavian and pulmonary arteries or the right-sided ductus connecting the descending aorta to the left pulmonary artery. Serial sections of fifteen 5- to 6-week-old embryos and ten 8- to 9-week-old fetuses suggested that the pathogenesis was unrelated to inversion due to dysfunction in gene cascades that control the systemic left/right axis. With inversion, conversely, the ductus or the sixth pharyngeal arch artery should connect to the right pulmonary artery. The disappearance of the right aortic arch started before the caudal migration of the aortic attachment of the ductus. Sympathetic nerve ganglia developed immediately posterior to both aortae, with a single embryonic specimen showing a large ganglion at the midline close to the union of the aortic arches. These ganglia may interfere with blood flow through the distal left arch, resulting in the ductus ending at the descending aorta behind the oesophagus. In another fetus examined, a midline shift of the ductus course resulted in the trachea curving posteriorly. Therefore, solitary right arch is likely to accompany abnormalities of the surrounding structures. The timing and site of the obstruction should be different between types: an almost midline obstruction near the aortic union needed for the development of the left-sided ductus and a distal obstruction near the left subclavian arterial origin needed for the development of the right-sided ductus. A mass effect of the sympathetic ganglia may explain the pathogenesis of any type of anomalous ductus arteriosus shown in previous reports of the solitary right arch.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115002152
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that elevated red blood cell distribution width is associated with poor outcome in cardiovascular diseases. In order to assess the predictive value of red blood cell distribution width, before treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins, for coronary artery lesions in patient with Kawasaki disease, we compared 83 patients with coronary artery lesions and 339 patients without coronary artery lesions before treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. Clinical, echocardiographic, and biochemical values were evaluated along with red blood cell distribution width. A total of 422 consecutive patients with Kawasaki disease were enrolled into our study. According to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the optimal red blood cell distribution width cut-off value for predicting coronary artery lesions was 14.55% (area under the curve was 0.721; p=0.000); eighty-three patients (19.7%) had coronary artery lesions, and 70% of the patients with coronary artery lesions had red blood cell distribution width level >14.55%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that fever duration >14 days (odds ratio was 3.42, 95% confidence interval was 1.27-9.22; p=0.015), intravenous immunoglobulin resistance (odds ratio was 2.33, 95% confidence interval was 1.02-5.29; p=0.04), and red blood cell distribution width >14.55% (odds ratio was 3.49, 95% confidence interval was 2.01-6.05; p=0.000) were independent predictors of coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease. In Conclusion, red blood cell distribution width may be helpful for predicting coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115002140
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    ABSTRACT: Chest pain in young adults presents a unique diagnostic challenge, placing young patients at an increased risk to be misdiagnosed, as this patient population typically does not demonstrate the traditional risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease. This study details the case of a 16-year-old male who presented with new-onset chest pain and ST elevation on electrocardiogram. His history was unremarkable for known cardiac risk factors, but laboratory evaluation demonstrated markedly elevated troponins and electrocardiographic findings confirmed ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography demonstrated 100% occlusion of the left anterior descending artery, which was managed with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, thrombectomy, and bare-metal stenting. The patient had an uneventful recovery. This study examines the major causes of ST elevation myocardial infarction in young adults and reviews the major differences between younger and older myocardial infarction populations with emphasis on risk factor profile, pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical presentation, angiographic findings, and prognosis. This review highlights the need for consideration of a wide differential in younger subsets of the population presenting with chest pain and ST elevation. The implementation of current adult management protocols and guidelines for ST elevation myocardial infarction should not be overlooked due to age. Given the potential for premature death and long-term disability with resulting individual and societal consequences, it is crucial to understand the importance of correct diagnostic evaluation in this clinical scenario.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001626
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    ABSTRACT: We recently diagnosed two cases of isolated unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery just after birth. Through the therapy, we could not prevent obstruction of the pulmonary artery and lead to complications. There have been no symptoms attributed to isolated unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery so far. We should carefully consider the strategy for therapeutic intervention for asymptomatic cases.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2015; 25(7):1399-1402. DOI:10.1017/S1047951114002091
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine the clinical utility of the Pediatric Symptom Checklist 17 for identifying psychosocial concerns and improving access to psychology services within a paediatric cardiology clinic. Method: Parents of 561 children (aged 4-17 years) presenting for follow-up of CHD, acquired heart disease, or arrhythmia completed the Pediatric Symptom Checklist 17 as part of routine care; three items assessing parental (1) concern for learning/development, (2) questions about adjustment to cardiac diagnosis, and (3) interest in discussing concerns with a behavioural healthcare specialist were added to the questionnaire. A psychologist contacted the parents by phone if they indicated interest in speaking with a behavioural healthcare specialist. Results: Percentages of children scoring above clinical cut-offs for externalising (10.5%), attention (8.7%), and total (9.3%) problems were similar to a "normative" primary-care sample, whereas fewer children in this study scored above the cut-off for internalising problems (7.8%; p<0.01). Sociodemographic, but not clinical, characteristics were associated with Pediatric Symptom Checklist 17 scores. 17% of the parents endorsed concerns about learning/development, and 20% endorsed questions about adjustment to diagnosis. History of cardiac surgery was associated with increased concern about learning/development (p<0.01). Only 37% of the parents expressing psychosocial concerns reported interest in speaking with a psychologist. Conclusions: The Pediatric Symptom Checklist 17 may not be sensitive to specific difficulties experienced by this patient population. A questionnaire with greater focus on learning/development and adjustment to diagnosis may yield improved utility. Psychology integration in clinics serving high-risk cardiac patients may decrease barriers to behavioural healthcare services.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001900
  • Cardiology in the Young 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001493
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    ABSTRACT: Fatal arrhythmias in asymptomatic Kawasaki disease patients with normal left ventricular function have rarely been reported. In this study, we report the cases of two adult patients with largely unpredictable sudden cardiac arrest, despite almost-normal left ventricular function even after the diagnosis of presumed Kawasaki disease, as well as consider the mechanisms involved with reference to the literature.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001602
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    ABSTRACT: Cortical hyperostosis is a very uncommon side-effect of prolonged prostaglandin therapy with distinctive radiological signs that may be accompanied by painful swelling of the limbs and responds rapidly to withdrawal of therapy.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001912
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    ABSTRACT: Methods: A total of 27 asymptomatic patients with latent rheumatic heart disease based on the World Heart Federation criteria and 66 healthy controls were examined by standard cardiac auscultation to detect pathological murmur. Hand-held echocardiography using a focussed protocol that utilises one view - that is, the parasternal long-axis view - and one measurement - that is, mitral regurgitant jet - and a computer-assisted auscultation utilising an automated decision tool were performed on all patients. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of computer-assisted auscultation in latent rheumatic heart disease were 4% (95% CI 1.0-20.4%) and 93.7% (95% CI 84.5-98.3%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the focussed hand-held echocardiography protocol for definite rheumatic heart disease were 92.3% (95% CI 63.9-99.8%) and 100%, respectively. The test reliability of hand-held echocardiography was 98.7% for definite and 94.7% for borderline disease, and the adjusted diagnostic odds ratios were 1041 and 263.9 for definite and borderline disease, respectively. Conclusion: Computer-assisted auscultation has extremely low sensitivity but high specificity for pathological murmur in latent rheumatic heart disease. Focussed hand-held echocardiography has fair sensitivity but high specificity and diagnostic utility for definite or borderline rheumatic heart disease in asymptomatic patients.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001857
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    ABSTRACT: Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumour in children often associated with tuberous sclerosis. Arrhythmia caused by cardiac rhabdomyomas may be the initial sign of tuberous sclerosis. Rhabdomyomas unresponsive to other treatments could be successfully managed with everolimus, which has demonstrated benefit in tuberous sclerosis. We report a case of rhabdomyoma causing severe arrhythmia in a newborn managed successfully with everolimus.
    Cardiology in the Young 10/2015; 25(7):1411-1414. DOI:10.1017/S1047951114002261
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    ABSTRACT: A 14-year-old boy presented to us with a diagnosis of severe asthma and oxygen desaturation of 76% on a 6-minute-walk test. A contrast echocardiogram revealed echocontrast in the left and right atria simultaneously. A secundum atrial septal defect and partial cor triatriatum dexter were diagnosed, and the atrial defect was closed by cardiac catheterisation.
    Cardiology in the Young 09/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001870
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Surgical correction was the treatment of choice for pulmonary stenosis until three decades ago, when balloon valvuloplasty was implemented. The natural history of surgically relieved pulmonary stenosis has been considered benign but is actually unknown, as is the need for re-intervention. The objective of this study was to investigate the morbidity and mortality of patients with surgically treated pulmonary stenosis operated at Aarhus University Hospital between 1957 and 2000. Results: The total study population included 80 patients. In-hospital mortality was 2/80 (2.5%), and an additional four patients died after hospital discharge; therefore, the long-term mortality was 5%. The maximum follow-up period was 57 years, with a median of 33 years. In all, 16 patients (20%) required at least one re-intervention. Pulmonary valve replacement due to pulmonary regurgitation was the most common re-intervention (67%). Freedom from re-intervention decreased >20 years after the initial repair. In addition, 45% of patients had moderate/severe pulmonary regurgitation, 38% had some degree of right ventricular dilatation, and 40% had some degree of tricuspid regurgitation, which did not require re-intervention at the present stage. Conclusion: Surgical relief for pulmonary stenosis is efficient in relieving outflow obstruction; however, this efficiency is achieved at the cost of pulmonary regurgitation, leading to right ventricular dilatation and tricuspid regurgitation. When required, pulmonary valve replacement is performed most frequently >20 years after the initial surgery. Lifelong follow-up of patients treated surgically for pulmonary stenosis is emphasised in this group of patients, who might otherwise consider themselves cured.
    Cardiology in the Young 09/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001158
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We sought to analyse the variation in the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus over three recent time points and characterise ductal ligation practices in preterm infants in the United States, adjusting for demographic and morbidity factors. Methods: Using the Kids' Inpatient Database from 2003, 2006, and 2009, we identified infants born at ⩽32 weeks of gestation with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus and ligation code. We examined patient and hospital characteristics and identified patient and hospital variables associated with ligation. Results: Of 182,610 preterm births, 30,714 discharges included a patent ductus arteriosus diagnosis. The rate of patent ductus arteriosus diagnosis increased from 14% in 2003 to 21% in 2009 (p<0.001). A total of 4181 ligations were performed, with an overall ligation rate of 14%. Ligation rate in infants born at ⩽28 weeks of gestation was 20% overall, increasing from 18% in 2003 to 21% in 2009 (p<0.001). The ligation rate varied by state (4-28%), and ligation was associated with earlier gestational age, associated diagnoses, hospital type, teaching hospital status, and region (p<0.001). Conclusion: The rates of patent ductus arteriosus diagnosis and ligation have increased in the recent years. Variation exists in the practice of patent ductus arteriosus ligation and is influenced by patient and non-patient factors.
    Cardiology in the Young 09/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001869
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Management of individuals with long QT syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy may involve exercise restriction and/or β-blocker therapy. Objective: This study assessed the practices of a group of paediatric electrophysiologists regarding the management of genotype-positive/phenotype-positive and genotype-positive/phenotype-negative individuals with these conditions. Method: An online survey was circulated to members of the Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society in May, 2014. The survey included questions addressing the respondents' approach regarding exercise recommendations and prescription of β-blocker therapy. Results: A total of 45 cardiologists completed the survey. The majority of respondents restricted symptomatic patients from competitive sports; however, only approximately half restricted phenotype-negative mutation carriers from this level of activity. Recommendations were less consistent regarding other types of activities. A trend was identified regarding physician physical activity and exercise recommendations for phenotype-negative mutation carriers. Less-active physicians were more likely to restrict exercise. β-blocker therapy was discussed by the majority of respondents for symptomatic patients and a significant number of asymptomatic patients. Conclusion: Exercise restriction for patients with long QT syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy varies based on several factors including phenotype, type of exercise, guidelines referred to, and physicians' own level of activity.
    Cardiology in the Young 09/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001894
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    ABSTRACT: Mitral atresia is commonly seen as a part of the spectrum of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and it is usually associated with multiple levels of systemic outflow tract obstruction. Isolated mitral atresia with a normal aortic valve is extremely rare. We report the rare combination of mitral atresia, transposition of the great arteries, and unobstructed systemic and pulmonary blood flow.
    Cardiology in the Young 09/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001596
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    ABSTRACT: It has been reported that the presence of intermittent pre-excitation indicates low risk of rapid conduction via the accessory pathway in atrial fibrillation. We report a case of a 10-year-old boy with a history of intermittent pre-excitation who presented with atrial fibrillation with very rapid conduction.
    Cardiology in the Young 09/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001754
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics, progression, treatment, and outcomes in isolated coronary artery fistula cases diagnosed prenatally. Methods: We carried out a retrospective review of babies diagnosed prenatally with coronary artery fistulas between January, 2000 and December, 2013; five fetuses were included. Echocardiographic features and measurements were noted during pregnancy and after birth. Treatment and outcome were noted. Results: Gestational age at initial diagnosis was between 19 and 22 weeks; four coronary artery fistulas originated from the right and one from the left circumflex coronary artery. Drainage was into the right atrium in four cases and into the left ventricle in one case. There was cardiomegaly in two cases at the initial scan. The size of the fistulas increased during pregnancy in all except one. All prenatal diagnoses were confirmed postnatally. Among all, two patients developed congestive cardiac failure soon after birth and required transcatheter closure of the coronary artery fistula, 5 and 17 days after birth, respectively; three patients remained asymptomatic, and all of them showed progressive dilation of the feeding artery and had closure of the fistula at 20 months, 4 years, and 7 years of age, respectively. During the follow-up period, which ranged 2-14 years, all the patients were alive and well. Conclusions: Coronary artery fistulas can be diagnosed accurately during fetal life. Some babies may develop congestive cardiac failure soon after birth requiring early treatment. Those treated conservatively should be kept under review as intervention may be required later.
    Cardiology in the Young 09/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001535
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    ABSTRACT: Methods: The inclusion criteria for this study were as follows: patients older than 14 years of age with a structural CHD with or without associated hypoxaemia. Results: In total, 27 hypoxaemic and 48 non-hypoxaemic CHD patients were included in order to compare blood and 24-hour urine analytical data. Among hypoxaemic patients, 13 (48.1%) were male, two (7.4%) had diabetes mellitus, one of whom was a smoker, one (3.7%) had systemic arterial hypertension, and 11 (40.7%) showed pulmonary arterial hypertension. The mean follow-up time was 3.1±1.9 years. Hypoxaemic CHD patients showed higher proteinuria concentrations (g/24 hours) (0.09 (0.07; 0.46) versus 0.08 (0.07; 0.1), p=0.054) and 24-hour albumin excretion rate (µg/min) (16.5 (11.2; 143.5) versus 4.4 (0.0; 7.6), p<0.001) compared with non-hypoxaemic CHD patients; however, no significant differences were found in the proteinuria levels and in the 24-hour albumin excretion rate in CHD patients with associated hypoxaemia, both at baseline and at follow-up. When divided into groups, hypoxaemic patients with palliative shunts showed significantly higher proteinuria concentrations compared with hypoxaemic patients not operated on or with Fontan procedures (p=0.01). No significant differences were seen in 24-hour proteinuria and 24-hour albumin excretion rate during the follow-up of patients with palliative shunts. Conclusions: Hypoxaemic CHD patients have significant higher 24-hour proteinuria concentration and 24-hour albumin excretion rate compared with non-hypoxaemic CHD patients. Among hypoxaemic CHD patients, those with palliative shunts showed the highest 24-hour proteinuria concentrations.
    Cardiology in the Young 09/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1047951115001948
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    ABSTRACT: Acute heart failure is a common and serious complication of congenital and acquired heart disease, and it is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and costs. When a patient is admitted to the hospital with acute heart failure, there are several important goals for the hospital admission, including maintaining adequate perfusion, establishing the underlying aetiology for the heart failure, patient and family education, and discharge from the hospital in a stable condition. The pathway to home discharge is variable and may include inotropic therapy, mechanical circulatory support, and/or heart transplantation. This review will cover the epidemiology, presentation, and management of acute heart failure in children.
    Cardiology in the Young 09/2015; 25 Suppl 2:67-73. DOI:10.1017/S1047951115000852