Ethnicity and Health (Ethn Health )

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Description

Ethnicity & Health is an international academic journal designed to meet the fast-growing interest in the health of ethnic groups world-wide. Embracing original papers in the fields of medicine, public health, epidemiology, statistics, population sciences, social sciences and other areas of interest to health professionals, the journal also covers issues of culture, religion, lifestyle and racism, in so far as they relate to health and its anthropological and social aspects. The journal addresses issues of direct relevance to the health and welfare of ethnic communities, including prevention, Access to and equity in health care and models of appropriate and effective care. Also covered is the expanding field of migration studies, looking at the health and welfare of refugees and asylum-seekers.

  • Impact factor
    1.20
  • 5-year impact
    2.16
  • Cited half-life
    6.30
  • Immediacy index
    0.36
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.82
  • Website
    Ethnicity and Health website
  • Other titles
    Ethnicity & health (Online), Ethnicity and health
  • ISSN
    1465-3419
  • OCLC
    43493727
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 month embargo for STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Journals
    • 18 month embargo for SSH journals
  • Conditions
    • Some individual journals may have policies prohibiting pre-print archiving
    • Pre-print on authors own website, Institutional or Subject Repository
    • Post-print on authors own website, Institutional or Subject Repository
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On a non-profit server
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statements to accompany deposits (see policy)
    • Publisher will deposit to PMC on behalf of NIH authors.
    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • SSH: Social Science and Humanities
    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. To describe levels of risky sexual behaviour, HIV testing and HIV knowledge among men and women in Guatemala by ethnic group and to identify adjusted associations between ethnicity and these outcomes. Design. Data on 16,205 women aged 15-49 and 6822 men aged 15-59 from the 2008-2009 Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil were used to describe ethnic group differences in sexual behaviour, HIV knowledge and testing. We then controlled for age, education, wealth and other socio-demographic factors in a multivariate logistic regression model to examine the effects of ethnicity on outcomes related to age at sexual debut, number of lifetime sex partners, comprehensive HIV knowledge, HIV testing and lifetime sex worker patronage (men only). Results. The data show low levels of risky sexual behaviour and low levels of HIV knowledge among indigenous women and men, compared to other respondents. Controlling for demographic factors, indigenous women were more likely than other women never to have been tested for HIV and to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge. They were less likely to report early sexual debut and three or more lifetime sexual partners. Indigenous men were more likely than other men to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge and demonstrated lower odds of early sexual debut, 10 or more lifetime sexual partners and sex worker patronage. Conclusions. The Mayan indigenous population in Guatemala, while broadly socially vulnerable, does not appear to be at elevated risk for HIV based on this analysis of selected risk factors. Nonetheless, low rates of HIV knowledge and testing may be cause for concern. Programmes working in indigenous communities should focus on HIV education and reducing barriers to testing. Further research into the factors that underlie ethnic self-identity and perceived ethnicity could help clarify the relative significance of these measures for HIV risk and other health outcomes.
    Ethnicity and Health 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To explore similarities and differences in the use and perception of communication channels to access weight-related health promotion among women in three ethnic minority groups. The ultimate aim was to determine whether similar channels might reach ethnic minority women in general or whether segmentation to ethnic groups would be required. Design Eight ethnically homogeneous focus groups were conducted among 48 women of Ghanaian, Antillean/Aruban, or Afro-Surinamese background living in Amsterdam. Our questions concerned which communication channels they usually used to access weight-related health advice or information about programs and whose information they most valued. The content analysis of data was performed. Results The participants mentioned four channels - regular and traditional health care, general or ethnically specific media, multiethnic and ethnic gatherings, and interpersonal communication with peers in the Netherlands and with people in the home country. Ghanaian women emphasized ethnically specific channels (e.g., traditional health care, Ghanaian churches). They were comfortable with these channels and trusted them. They mentioned fewer general channels - mainly limited to health care - and if discussed, negative perceptions were expressed. Antillean women mentioned the use of ethnically specific channels (e.g., communication with Antilleans in the home country) on balance with general audience-oriented channels (e.g., regular health care). Perceptions were mixed. Surinamese participants discussed, in a positive manner, the use of general audience-oriented channels, while they said they did not use traditional health care or advice from Surinam. Local language proficiency, time resided in the Netherlands, and approaches and messages received seemed to explain channel use and perception. Conclusions The predominant differences in channel use and perception among the ethnic groups indicate a need for channel segmentation to reach a multiethnic target group with weight-related health promotion. The study results reveal possible segmentation criteria besides ethnicity, such as local language proficiency and time since migration, worthy of further investigation.
    Ethnicity and Health 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Many Haitian migrants live and work as undocumented laborers in the Dominican Republic. This study examines the legacy of anti-Haitian discrimination in the Dominican Republic and association of discrimination with mental health among Haitian migrants. Design This study used mixed methods to generate hypotheses for associations between discrimination and mental health of Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 Haitian and 18 Dominican community members and clinicians. One hundred and twenty-seven Haitian migrants participated in a pilot cross-sectional community survey. Instruments included culturally adapted Kreyòl versions of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and a locally developed function impairment scale. Results Haitian migrants described humiliation (imilyasyon) as a reason for mental distress and barrier to health care. Dominicans reported that discrimination (discriminación) was not a current social problem and attributed negative social interactions to sociocultural, behavioral, and biological differences between Dominicans and Haitians. These qualitative findings were supported in the quantitative analyses. Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression severity and functional impairment. Perceived mistreatment by Dominicans was associated with a 6.6-point increase in BDI score (90% confidence interval [CI]: 3.29, 9.9). Knowing someone who was interrogated or deported was associated with a 3.4-point increase in BAI score (90% CI: 0.22, 6.64). Conclusion Both qualitative and quantitative methods suggest that perceived discrimination and the experience of humiliation contribute to Haitian migrant mental ill-health and limit access to health care. Future research should evaluate these associations and identify intervention pathways for both improved treatment access and reduction of discrimination-related health risk factors.
    Ethnicity and Health 04/2014;
  • Ethnicity and Health 04/2014; 19(2):119-21.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To identify differences in delay for surgical treatment of breast cancer between ethnic groups and to evaluate the role of health system, sociodemographic and tumour factors in ethnic inequities in breast cancer treatment. Methods A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register for cancers diagnosed in the Waikato region in New Zealand (NZ) from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2010. Results Approximately 95% (1449 out of 1514) of women with breast cancer diagnosed in the Waikato over the study period were included. Of women undergoing primary surgery (n = 1264), 59.6% and 98.2% underwent surgery within 31 and 90 days of diagnosis, respectively. Compared with NZ European women (mean 30.4 days), significantly longer delays for surgical treatment were observed among Māori (mean = 37.1 days, p = 0.005) and Pacific women (mean = 42.8 days, p = 0.005). Māori women were more likely to experience delays longer than 31 (p = 0.048) and 90 days (p = 0.286) compared with NZ European women. Factors predicting delays longer than 31 and 90 days in the multivariable model included public sector treatment (OR 5.93, 8.14), DCIS (OR 1.53, 3.17), mastectomy (OR 1.75, 6.60), higher co-morbidity score (OR 2.02, 1.02) and earlier year of diagnosis (OR 1.21, 1.03). Inequities in delay between Māori and NZ European women were greatest for women under 50 years and those older than 70 years. Conclusion This study shows that significant inequities in timely access to surgical treatment for breast cancer exist in NZ, with Māori and Pacific women having to wait longer to access treatment than NZ European women. Overall, a high proportion of women did not receive surgical treatment for breast cancer within the guideline limit of 31 days. Urgent steps are needed to reduce ethnic inequities in timely access to breast cancer treatment, and to shorten treatment delays in the public sector for all women.
    Ethnicity and Health 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives In recent years, a growing body of literature has been calling for ethnic diversity in health systems, especially in multicultural contexts. Ethnic diversity within the health care workforce is considered to play an important role in reducing health disparities among different ethnic groups. Methods The present study explores the topic using quantitative data on participation of Arab employees in the Israeli health system and qualitative data collected through semi-structured interviews with Arab physicians working in the predominantly Jewish Israeli health system. Results We show that despite the underrepresentation of Arabs in the Israeli health system, Arab physicians who hold positions in Israeli hospitals do not perceive themselves as representatives of the Arab sector; moreover, they consider themselves as having broken through the 'glass ceiling' and reject stereotyping as Arab 'niche doctors.' Conclusions We conclude that minority physicians may prefer to promote culturally competent health care through integration and advocacy of interaction with the different cultures represented in the population, rather than serving as representatives of their own ethnic minority population. These findings may concern various medical contexts in which issues of ethnic underrepresentation in the health system are relevant, as well as sociological contexts, especially those regarding minority populations and professions.
    Ethnicity and Health 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective There are huge regional disparities in under-five mortality in Nigeria. While a region within the country has as high as 222 under-five deaths per 1000 live births, the rate is as low as 89 per 1000 live births in another region. Nigeria is culturally diverse as there are more than 250 identifiable ethnic groups in the country; and various ethnic groups have different sociocultural values and practices which could influence child health outcome. Thus, the main objective of this study was to examine the ethnic differentials in under-five mortality in Nigeria. Design The study utilized 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample drawn from 33,385 women aged 15-49 that had a total of 104,808 live births within 1993-2008. In order to examine ethnic differentials in under-five mortality over a sufficiently long period of time, our analysis considered live births within 15 years preceding the 2008 NDHS. The risks of death in children below age five were estimated using Cox proportional regression analysis. Results were presented as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The study found substantial differentials in under-five mortality by ethnic affiliations. For instance, risks of death were significantly lower for children of the Yoruba tribes (HR: 0.39, CI: 0.37-0.42, p < 0.001), children of Igbo tribes (HR: 0.58, CI: 0.55-0.61, p < 0.001) and children of the minority ethnic groups (HR: 0.66, CI: 0.64-0.68, p < 0.001), compared to children of the Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri tribes. Besides, practices such as plural marriage, having higher-order births and too close births showed statistical significance for increased risks of under-five mortality (p < 0.05). Conclusion The findings of this study stress the need to address the ethnic norms and practices that negatively impact on child health and survival among some ethnic groups in Nigeria.
    Ethnicity and Health 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To explore perspectives of Turkish migrants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on adherence to oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA). Design In-depth interviews with 21 T2DM patients of Turkish descent recruited from primary care and community sources in Ghent, Belgium, using a theoretical sampling procedure. Analysis was guided by a grounded theory approach, using Nvivo 8. Results Respondents reported a multitude of barriers and facilitators of adherence to OHA. Some of these barriers are distinctive for T2DM patients of Turkish descent. Respondents' causal beliefs about stress and the Belgian climate often led to non-adherence during less stressful periods, like summer holidays in Turkey. Some respondents adjusted their medication use to food intake or during Ramadan fasting. Concerns about OHA were the main reason for the widespread use of herbal medicine in this sample. The religious framework used to interpret diabetes led, in combination with feelings of depression, to non-adherence in some respondents while it facilitated medication adherence in others. A potential gender effect with respect to the self-management of OHA was observed. Non-distinctive factors include: beliefs about OHA, polypharmacy, beliefs about the course of diabetes, forgetfulness, the perception of the doctor's medical expertise, feelings of depression and social support. Conclusion Health care providers should explore in detail and regularly patients' perspectives on illness beliefs, medication beliefs and their trust in doctors' medical expertise as this will provide useful starting points for promoting medication adherence. Whenever possible health care workers should engage with their patients in therapeutic alliances.
    Ethnicity and Health 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Latinos with disabilities disproportionately report substance use, including binge drinking and drug use. Ecodevelopmental factors, including socioeconomic patterning of poverty, social exclusion, and post-colonial racism, have been shown to impact alcohol and drug use. However, this line of research remains underdeveloped among Latinos with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to obtain rich descriptions of the role of ecodevelopmental factors, including family and community, on alcohol and drug use among Latinos with physical disabilities. Methods We utilized a community-based participatory research design, in conjunction with an innovative methodology referred to as photovoice. Three rounds of photography and focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 17 focus groups. Reflections in each focus group interview were aloud and digitally audiotaped. A total of 28 participants 19-35 years of age (mean age = 27.65, SD = 5.48) participated in each round of photography and focus group interviews. Data analyses followed the tenets of descriptive phenomenology. Results Findings highlight ecodevelopmental family and community risk and protective factors. At the family level, participants reflected on the ways in which family functioning, including family support, communication, and cohesion, can serve as risk and promotive factors for alcohol and drug use. Additionally, participants described in detail how experiences of poverty, stigma and discrimination, violence, accessibility to alcohol and drugs, accessibility for persons with disabilities, transportation, community support and cohesion, and access to health and mental health services constitute risk and promotive factors at the community level. Conclusion Findings are suggestive of how ecodevelopmental family and community factors might increase the risk of alcohol and drug use among Latinos with physical disabilities. From this qualitative research, we derive a series of testable hypotheses. For example, future studies should examine the impact of family functioning on alcohol and drug use among Latinos with physical disabilities over time. Study findings may have great utility to inform the development of preventive interventions for this at-risk group.
    Ethnicity and Health 02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The Chinese ethnic population are among the UK's largest visible minority but there is limited evidence about this population, their views about their interactions with General Practitioners (GPs) and how this impacts on their health. This study aimed to explore Chinese Elders' experiences of and attitudes towards the provision of health services in primary care. Design The method of investigation was a Grounded Theory study using open-ended in-depth interviews. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to recruit thirty-three Chinese Elders from Chinese communities in the North West of England. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and audio-recorded; transcripts were translated, back translated, analysed and coded by all members of the research team to identify concepts following the Grounded Theory approach. Themes were generated from the data and were used to guide the study into the theoretical sampling phase of the investigation. Results Chinese Elders were inclined to present to GPs only when health concerns were perceived as serious. This was defined as being beyond their ability to self-manage. Elders tended to adopt self-management strategies rather than follow professional advice. This was mainly due to communication difficulties, poor understanding of the advice doctors gave, and the way that Chinese patients interpreted and used the advice they were given. Chinese Elders reported that the purpose of contacting doctors was to obtain medicines. They presumed that once medication had been prescribed their symptoms would be cured, and then they believed that they could self-manage their health, usually without further GP or other medical follow up. Conclusion These data suggest that significant misunderstandings between Chinese Elders and GPs exist. The findings highlight the dissatisfaction expressed by Elders regarding their interactions with UK health professionals. Chinese Elders' perceptions are influenced by the way Chinese people think about health and illness, and also by their GPs' assumptions. These findings are of value to UK GPs and family doctors worldwide who are concerned with improving the quality of health services provided to an increasingly ageing migrant Chinese population.
    Ethnicity and Health 02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives This study examined the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form (MFSI-SF) in a community-based sample of African-Americans. Design A sample of 340 African-Americans (116 men, 224 women) ranging in age from 18-81 years were recruited from the community (e.g., churches, health fairs, and beauty salons). Participants completed a brief demographic survey, the MFSI-SF and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Results The structural validity of the MFSI-SF for a community-based sample of African-Americans was not supported. The five dimensions of fatigue (General, Emotional, Physical, Mental, Vigor) found for Whites in prior research were not found for African-Americans in this study. Instead, fatigue, while multidimensional for African-Americans, was best represented by a unique four-four profile in which general and emotional fatigue are collapsed into a single dimension and physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and vigor are relatively distinct. Hence, in the absence of modifications, the MFSI-SF cannot be considered to be structurally invariant across ethnic groups. A modified four-factor version of the MFSI-SF exhibited excellent internal consistency reliability and evidence supports its convergent validity. Using the modified four-factor version, gender, and age were not meaningfully associated with MFSI-SF scores. Conclusion Future research should further examine whether modifications to the MFSI-SF would, as the findings suggest, improve its validity as a measure of multidimensional fatigue in African-Americans.
    Ethnicity and Health 02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Depression is a leading cause of ill health and disability. As migrants form an increasing group in Europe, already making up about 8.7% of the population in 2010, knowledge on migrant-related inequalities in depression is of main public health interest. In this study, we first assess whether migrants in Europe are at higher risk for depression compared to the native population. Second, we assess whether the association between migration and depression is dependent on different forms of migrant integration. Migrant integration is looked at both from the individual and from the national level. Design Hierarchical linear regression analyses based on data for 20 countries in the European Social Survey 2006/2007 (N = 37,076 individuals aged 15 or more). Depression is measured using the center for Epidemiologic Depression Scale. We consider migrant integration over time (first- and second-generation migrants, differentiated according to European Union (EU) or non-EU origin), barriers to integration (low educational level, financial difficulties, being out of the labor market, ethnic minority status, discrimination), and the host country environment (national migrant integration policy). Controls are gender, age, partner relationship, social support, and welfare state regime. Results Natives and second-generation migrants do not differ significantly in their risk profile for depression. First-generation migrants show higher levels of depression, with those born outside of Europe to be the worst off. This higher risk for depression is not attributable to ethnic minority status but is mainly due to experienced barriers to socioeconomic integration and processes of discrimination. A country's national policy on migrant integration shows not to soften the depressing effect of being a first-generation migrant nor does it have indirect beneficial health effects by reducing barriers to integration. Conclusion In Europe, first-generation EU and non-EU migrants experience higher levels of depression. Second-generation migrants and natives show similar risk profiles.
    Ethnicity and Health 02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives. Despite their rapid increase in number, workers in personal care and service occupations are underrepresented in research on psychoso- cial work characteristics and occupational health. Some of the research challenges stem from the high proportion of immigrants in these occupations. Language barriers, 15 low literacy, and cultural differences as well as their nontraditional work setting (i.e., providing service for one person in his/her home) make generic questionnaire measures inadequate for capturing salient aspects of personal care and service work. This study presents strategies for (1) identifying psychosocial work characteristics of home care workers that may affect their occupational safety and health and (2) 20 creating survey measures that overcome barriers posed by language, low literacy, and cultural differences. Design and results. We pursued these aims in four phases: (Phase 1) Six focus groups to identify the psychosocial work characteristics affecting the home care workers ’ occupational safety and health; (Phase 2) Selection of questionnaire items 25 (i.e., questions or statements to assess the target construct) and first round of cognitive interviews (n = 30) to refine the items in an iterative process; (Phase 3) Item revision and second round of cognitive interviews (n = 11); (Phase 4) Quantitative pilot test to ensure the scales ’ reliability and validity across three language groups (English, Spanish, and Cantonese; total n = 404). Analysis of the data from each phase informed the nature of 30 subsequent phases. This iterative process ensured that survey measures not only met the reliability and validity criteria across groups, but were also meaningful to home care workers. Conclusion. This complex process is necessary when conducting research with nontraditional and multilingual worker populations.
    Ethnicity and Health 01/2014;
  • Ethnicity and Health 12/2013; 18(6):505-7.

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