Drug and Alcohol Review (Drug Alcohol Rev )

Publisher: Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs, Taylor & Francis

Description

Now in its eighteenth year of publication Drug and Alcohol Review is an international meeting ground for the views, expertise and experience of all those involved in the study of treatment of alcohol, tobacco and drug problems. Contributors to the journal examine and report on alcohol and drug abuse from a wide range of clinical, biomedical, psychological and sociological standpoints. Drug and Alcohol Review particularly encourages the submission of papers which have a harm reducation perspective. However, all philosophies will find a place in the journal: the principal criterion for publication of papers is their quality.

  • Impact factor
    1.55
  • 5-year impact
    2.04
  • Cited half-life
    5.30
  • Immediacy index
    0.78
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.67
  • Website
    Drug and Alcohol Review website
  • Other titles
    Drug and alcohol review (Online), Drug and alcohol review, Drug & alcohol review
  • ISSN
    1465-3362
  • OCLC
    47916431
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 month embargo for STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Journals
    • 18 month embargo for SSH journals
  • Conditions
    • Some individual journals may have policies prohibiting pre-print archiving
    • Pre-print on authors own website, Institutional or Subject Repository
    • Post-print on authors own website, Institutional or Subject Repository
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On a non-profit server
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statements to accompany deposits (see policy)
    • Publisher will deposit to PMC on behalf of NIH authors.
    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • SSH: Social Science and Humanities
    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IssuesRates of non-attendance are among the highest in substance misuse services. Non-attendance is costly and results in the inefficient use of limited resources. Patients who frequently miss their appointments have worse outcomes including treatment dropout and decreased likelihood of achieving long-term abstinence.ApproachThis narrative review evaluates interventions targeting non-attendance in addiction services and draws upon the wider health-care literature to identify interventions that could be adapted for substance-abusing populations.Key FindingsBoth fixed value and intermittent reinforcement contingency management demonstrate potential for improving attendance. However, small sample sizes and heterogeneous populations make it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Appointment reminders by letter or telephone have demonstrated moderate evidence for improving attendance in substance-abusing populations. Text message appointment reminders are extensively utilised in general health-care settings and consistently improve attendance; however, there is a paucity of research examining the feasibility and effectiveness of text message reminders in addiction services.ImplicationsA lack of evidence for methods to improve attendance is reflected in the continuing challenge faced by addiction services attempting to manage high rates of non-attendance.Conclusions Non-attendance remains a persistent issue for addiction services. While there is limited evidence that contingency management improves attendance, more rigorous research is needed to determine the optimal intervention components and effectiveness in different populations, particularly those receiving maintenance treatments. Multicomponent text message interventions incorporating different delivery and content strategies demonstrate a promise for improving non-attendance and poor engagement.
    Drug and Alcohol Review 10/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsIllicit drug use is known to occur among inmate populations of correctional (prison) facilities. Conventional approaches to monitor illicit drug use in prisons include random urinalyses (RUA). Conventional approaches are expected to be prone to bias because prisoners may be aware of which days of the week RUAs are conducted. Therefore, we wanted to compare wastewater loads for methamphetamine and cocaine during days with RUA testing and without.Design and Methods We collected daily 24-h composite samples of wastewater by continuous sampling, computed daily loads for 1 month and compared the frequency of illicit drug detection to the number of positive RUAs. Diurnal data also were collected for 3 days to determine within-day patterns of illicit drugs excretion.ResultsMethamphetamine was observed in each sample of prison wastewater with no significant difference in daily mass loads between RUA testing and non-testing days. Cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine, were observed only at levels below quantification in prison wastewater. Six RUAs were positive for methamphetamine during the month while none were positive for cocaine out of the 243 RUAs conducted.Discussion and Conclusions Wastewater analyses offer data regarding the frequency of illicit drug excretion inside the prison that RUAs alone could not detect.
    Drug and Alcohol Review 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsThis article reports a content analysis of Internet websites related to an emerging designer drug, synthetic cannabinoids. The number of synthetic cannabinoids searchers in the USA has steadily increased from November 2008 to November 2011.Design and Methods To determine the information available on the Internet in relation to synthetic cannabinoids, sites were identified using the Google search engine and the search term ‘herbal incense’. The first 100 consecutive sites were visited and classified by two coders. The websites were evaluated for type of content (retail, information, news, other). US unique monthly visitor data were examined for the top 10 retail sites, and these sites were coded for the quality of information available regarding the legality of synthetic cannabinoids sale and use.ResultsThe Google search yielded 2 730 000 sites for ‘herbal incense’ (for comparison of search terms: ‘synthetic marijuana’, 1 170 000; ‘K2 Spice’, 247 000; and ‘synthetic weed’, 122 000). Moreover, in the Google search, 87% of the sites were retail sites, 5% news, 4% informational and 4% non-synthetic cannabinoid sites.Discussion and Conclusions Many tools found within Google free services hold promise in providing a technique to identify emerging drug markets. We recommend continued surveillance of the Internet using the online tools presented in this brief report by both drug researchers and policy-makers to identify the emerging trends in synthetic drugs' availability and interest.
    Drug and Alcohol Review 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsThe present analysis contributes to understanding the societal distribution of alcohol-attributable harm by investigating socioeconomic inequality and related gender differences in alcohol-attributable mortality.Design and MethodsA systematic literature search was performed on Web of Science, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and ETOH from their inception until February 2013. Articles were included when they reported data on alcohol-attributable mortality by socioeconomic status (SES), operationalised as education, occupation, employment status or income. Gender-specific relative risks (RR) comparing low with high SES were pooled using random effects meta-analyses. Gender differences were additionally investigated in random effects meta-regressions.ResultsNineteen articles from 14 countries were included. For women, significant RRs across all measures of SES, except employment status, were found, ranging between 1.75 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21–2.54; occupation] and 4.78 (95% CI 2.57–8.87; income). For men, all measures of SES showed significant RRs ranging between 2.88 (95% CI 2.45–3.40; income) and 12.25 (95% CI 11.45–13.10; employment status). While RRs for men were in general slightly higher, only for occupation this gender difference was above chance (P = 0.01). Results refer to deaths 100% attributable to alcohol.Discussion and Conclusions The results are predominantly based on data from high-income countries, limiting generalisability. Alcohol-attributable mortality is strongly distributed to the disadvantage of persons with a low SES. Marked gender differences in this inequality were found for occupation. Possibly male-dominated occupations of low SES were more strongly related to risky drinking cultures compared with female-dominated occupations of the same SES.
    Drug and Alcohol Review 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsTo investigate the predictors of both initiation of cannabis use and transition to cannabis use disorder (CUD) in a nationally representative sample using discrete-time survival analyses.Design and Methods Data from a nationally representative sample of 6935 Australian adults. Retrospective data on age of first cannabis use and onset of CUD were used to construct pseudo-longitudinal datasets and survival models used to evaluate factors associated with age of first use and time from first use to onset of CUD.ResultsThe oldest cohort (born 1942–1951) had lower cannabis use than younger cohorts, with first use also occurring at an older age. Multivariable discrete-time survival models showed other substance use, tobacco and alcohol use at very young ages, and mental disorders were associated with increased risk of cannabis use. There were 7.5% of those <65 years old at interview who had a lifetime CUD; mean time from first use to the onset of CUD was 3.3 years, with 90% of cases within eight years. Younger age of initiation and other substance use were strong predictors of the transition from use to CUD. Women with depression were more likely to develop a CUD; social phobia and panic disorder were also associated with transition from cannabis use to CUD.Discussion and Conclusions Patterns of cannabis use differ across birth cohorts. There are multiple factors associated with use and transition to CUD, with other substance use a strong predictor. Mental disorders also predict initiation and progression to CUD. [Butterworth P, Slade T, Degenhardt L. Factors associated with the timing and onset of cannabis use and cannabis use disorder: Results from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014;33:555-563]
    Drug and Alcohol Review 09/2014; 33(5).
  • Drug and Alcohol Review 09/2014; 33(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsPsychoactive prescription drug (PPD) abuse-related overdose deaths have increased in many countries in recent decades. We aimed to investigate the role of personally prescribed psychoactive drugs in abuse-related overdose mortality and explore any associations with level of social disadvantage.Design and Methods This register linkage study included all 243 people who had died of abuse-related drug-induced poisoning in Finland in 2000 and 2008. Data on registered purchases of psychoactive drugs within one and three years of death were linked to data on the psychoactive drug/s contributing to death in each case. Social disadvantage was measured by receipt of income support, long-term unemployment and disability pension.ResultsThirty-six percent of those abusers who had died of a drug overdose had purchased a similarly acting drug within three years of death. In all overdoses, the proportion increased from 20% in 2000 to 49% in 2008 (P < 0.001). A similar increase was seen in purchases within one year of death; from one-tenth in 2000 to one-third of all cases in 2008 (P < 0.001). The majority (83%) of the deceased had received income support, while only 13–14% were long-term unemployed or on disability pension. Disability pension recipients had significantly more prescribed psychoactive drug purchases than non-recipients (P < 0.001 for three and one years within death).Discussion and Conclusions Personally prescribed PPDs pose a potential threat to people who abuse drugs. Health-care services should invest greater effort in identifying people who abuse drugs and in monitoring their drug prescriptions. [Rönkä S, Karjalainen K, Vuori E, Mäkelä P. Personally prescribed psychoactive drugs in overdose deaths among drug abusers: A retrospective register study. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014]
    Drug and Alcohol Review 09/2014;
  • Drug and Alcohol Review 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsFew studies of the implementation of alcohol brief interventions (ABI) have been conducted in community settings such as mental health, social work and criminal justice teams. This qualitative interview study sought to explore the impact of training on ABI delivery by staff from a variety of such teams.Design and Methods Fifteen semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out with trained practitioners and with managers to explore the use of, perceived need for and approaches to ABI delivery and recording with clients, and compatibility of ABIs with current practice. Interviews were analysed thematically using an inductive approach.ResultsVery few practitioners reported delivery of any ABIs following training primarily because they felt ABIs to be inappropriate for their clients. According to practitioners, this was either because they drank too much or too little to benefit. Practitioners reported a range of current activities relating to alcohol, and some felt that their knowledge and confidence were improved following training. One practitioner reported ABI delivery and was considered a training success, while expectations of ABIs did not fit with current practice including assessment procedures for the remainder.Discussion and Conclusions Identified barriers to ABI delivery included issues relating to individual practitioners, their teams, current practice and the ABI model. They are likely to be best addressed by strategic team- and setting-specific approaches to implementation, of which training is only one part.
    Drug and Alcohol Review 09/2014;
  • Drug and Alcohol Review 09/2014; 33(5).
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    ABSTRACT: IssuesReviews recommend controlling alcohol availability to limit alcohol-related harm. However, the translation of this evidence into policy processes has proved challenging in some jurisdictions.ApproachThis paper presents a critical review of empirical spatial and temporal availability research to identify its features and limitations for informing alcohol availability policies. The UK is used as an example jurisdiction. It reviews 138 studies from a 2008 systematic review of empirical availability research and our update of this to January 2014. Data describing study characteristics (settings, measures, design) were extracted and descriptively analysed.Key FindingsImportant limitations in current evidence were identified: (i) outlet-level temporal availability was only measured in three studies, and there has been little innovation in measurement of spatial availability; (ii) empirical analyses focus on acute harms with few studies of longer-term harms; (iii) outlets are typically classified at aggregated levels with little empirical analysis of variation within outlet categories; (iv) evidence comes from a narrow range of countries; and (v) availability away from home, online availability and interactions between availability, price and place are all relatively unexamined.ImplicationsGreater innovation in study and measure design and enhanced data quality are required. Greater engagement between researchers and policy actors when developing studies would facilitate this.Conclusions Research and data innovations are needed to address a series of methodological gaps and limitations in the alcohol availability evidence base, advance this research area and enable findings to be translated effectively into policy processes. [Holmes J, Guo Y, Maheswaran R, Nicholls J, Meier PS, Brennan A. The impact of spatial and temporal availability of alcohol on its consumption and related harms: A critical review in the context of UK licensing policies. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014;33:515–25]
    Drug and Alcohol Review 09/2014; 33(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsThe medical complications of injecting preparations from crushed tablets can be severe, and most can be attributed to the injection of insoluble particles and micro-organisms. Previously we have shown that most of the particles can be removed by filtration, but it was not known whether bacteria could also be filtered in the presence of a high particle load. This study aims to determine the feasibility of filtration to remove bacteria from injections prepared from tablets.Design and Methods Injections were prepared from crushed slow-release morphine tablets, in mixed bacterial suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The injection suspensions were passed through syringe filters of porosity 0.45 or 0.20 μm, or combined 0.8 then 0.2 μm, and the bacterial load was counted.ResultsBacterial concentrations in unfiltered injections were 2.5–4.3 × 106 colony forming units mL−1. Both the 0.20 and 0.45 μm filters blocked unless a prefilter (cigarette filter) was used first. The 0.2 μm filter and the combined 0.8/0.2 μm filter reduced the bacteria to the limit of detection (10 colony forming units mL−1) or below. Filtration through a 0.45 μm filter was slightly less effective.Discussion and Conclusions Use of a 0.2 μm filter, together with other injection hygiene measures, offers the prospect of greatly reducing the medical complications of injecting crushed tablets and should be considered as a highly effective harm reduction method. It is very likely that these benefits would also apply to other illicit drug injections, although validation studies are needed.
    Drug and Alcohol Review 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsPrescription drug misuse is a considerable problem among young adults, and the identification of types of misuse among this population remains important for prevention and intervention efforts. We use latent class analysis to identify possible distinct latent groups of prescription drug misusers across multiple prescription drug types (pain killers, sedatives and stimulants).Design and Methods Our data are comprised of a sample of 404 young adults recruited from nightlife scenes via time–space sampling. Through the specification of a zero-inflated Poisson latent class analysis, we evaluate differences in class membership by various demographic factors as well as assess the relationship between class membership and health outcomes, including indications of dependence, problems associated with substance use and mental health.ResultsOur assessment of fit indices led to a four-class solution (dabblers, primary stimulant users, primary downers users and extensive regulars). No demographic differences existed between latent classes. The extensive regular class report the greatest number of symptoms related to dependence, greatest number of problems related to misuse and the greatest mental health problems. The dabblers report the fewest problems and symptoms, while the other two classes experiences problems and symptoms in between the classes on the extremes.Discussion and Conclusions Prevention efforts should take into account that young adults who misuse prescription drug have different profiles of misuse, and there may be a need for varied interventions to target these different types of misuse.
    Drug and Alcohol Review 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsThis study identifies the correlates of caring for harmful drinkers and others, and examines how caring for that person impacts on respondents' well-being and use of services.Design and Methods The study utilises the data from the 2008 Australian Alcohol Harm to Others Survey (n = 2649), in which 778 respondents reported they were harmed because of the drinking of someone they knew. Respondents were asked about the person they were most adversely affected by and whether they spent time caring for this person because of their drinking. Logistic regression models are developed to examine which factors were associated with the prevalence of caring for others.ResultsThe study reveals that the respondents who cared for others because of the other's drinking reported lower quality of life than the respondents who did not have to do this. The results of the logistic regression suggest that respondents were more likely to care for the drinker if the drinker drank more (as the usual quantity of alcohol consumed increased), but less likely to care for the drinker if the drinker drank five or more drinks on more than four days per week.Discussion and Conclusions The findings of the study suggest that the drinking of family and friends can be a substantial burden for their households, families, friends and others. Policy approaches that reduce the amount of heavy drinking, particularly heavy drinking in a single occasion, are likely to reduce the burden of caring for others because of other's drinking.
    Drug and Alcohol Review 08/2014;
  • Drug and Alcohol Review 08/2014;
  • Drug and Alcohol Review 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsTo investigate the impact of point-of-sale promotions on product choice, brand choice and purchase quantity of young adults purchasing alcohol for off-premise consumption in Australia.Design and MethodsA cross-sectional interviewer-completed survey conducted at 24 bottle shops (liquor stores), 12 each in the capital cities of Sydney, New South Wales and Perth, Western Australia. Participants were 509 adults (18 and over) exiting bottle shops having purchased alcohol.ResultsWhen prompted, 26.5% indicated that there was a special offer, price discount, or special promotion connected with a product that they had purchased. Those who participated in point-of-sale promotions purchased a greater quantity of alcohol than those who did not participate: ready to drink, an average of 11.5 standard drinks (SD) compared with an average of 8.9 SD (t = 1.320, P = 0.190); beer, an average of 26.8 SD compared with an average of 16.4 SD; wine, an average of 16.1 SD compared with an average of 13.8 SD (t = 0.924, P = 0.357).Discussion and Conclusions Participation in point-of-sale promotions may be associated with increased purchase quantities, not solely shifting between brands. There is a need for further research to explore changes in purchase and consumption patterns as a result of the availability of price-based promotions. The results of this study, combined with previous research, suggest that regulators—and marketers—should consider the immediate and cumulative effect of point-of-sale promotions on drinking patterns, particularly those of younger drinkers. [Jones SC, Barrie L, Gregory P, Allsop S, Chikritzhs T. The influence of price-related point-of-sale (POS) promotions on bottle shop purchases of young adults. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014]
    Drug and Alcohol Review 08/2014;
  • Drug and Alcohol Review 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsWe studied the prevalence of smoking, the effect of hospital stay on motivation to quit and the exposure to smoking cessation advice in orthopaedic patients who required surgical intervention for acute extremity fractures.Design and Methods This cross-sectional study involved a self-administered pen-and-paper survey assessing smoking status, interest and motivation to quit smoking, and current advice to quit among a consecutive cohort of patients aged 18–65 years old with acute extremity fractures. These patients were admitted to the John Hunter Hospital Level 1 trauma facility in New South Wales, Australia, for surgical intervention over a three month period.ResultsA total of 183 patients (response rate 98%) completed the survey. Sixty-eight patients (37.2%) reported a current smoking habit. The prevalence of smoking was 42.2% among males and 25.5% among females. A total of 40% of smokers reported that they had not received advice to quit from medical staff during hospital admission. Prior to admission, 12.1% of smokers were interested in smoking cessation; this percentage increased to 26.8% post-admission.Discussion and Conclusions The prevalence of smoking among surgical patients with extremity fractures was found to be more than twice the prevalence of the population of New South Wales. Hospital admission had a positive impact on the patient's interest in smoking cessation. Our study suggests that the identification of orthopaedic patients who smoke is suboptimal, and the opportunity to encourage smoking cessation during hospital admission is currently being overlooked.
    Drug and Alcohol Review 08/2014;
  • Drug and Alcohol Review 08/2014;

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