Drug and Alcohol Review (Drug Alcohol Rev )

Publisher: Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs, Taylor & Francis

Description

Now in its eighteenth year of publication Drug and Alcohol Review is an international meeting ground for the views, expertise and experience of all those involved in the study of treatment of alcohol, tobacco and drug problems. Contributors to the journal examine and report on alcohol and drug abuse from a wide range of clinical, biomedical, psychological and sociological standpoints. Drug and Alcohol Review particularly encourages the submission of papers which have a harm reducation perspective. However, all philosophies will find a place in the journal: the principal criterion for publication of papers is their quality.

Impact factor 1.55

  • 5-year impact
    2.04
  • Cited half-life
    5.30
  • Immediacy index
    0.78
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.67
  • Website
    Drug and Alcohol Review website
  • Other titles
    Drug and alcohol review (Online), Drug and alcohol review, Drug & alcohol review
  • ISSN
    1465-3362
  • OCLC
    47916431
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Some individual journals may have policies prohibiting pre-print archiving
    • On author's personal website or departmental website immediately
    • On institutional repository or subject-based repository after either 12 months embargo for STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Journals or 18 months embargo for SSH journals
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On a non-profit server
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statements to accompany deposits (see policy)
    • The publisher will deposit in on behalf of authors to a designated institutional repository including PubMed Central, where a deposit agreement exists with the repository
    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • SSH: Social Science and Humanities
    • Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsSynthetic cannabinoid dependence and withdrawal are not well described in the literature. We aimed to report on the characteristics and treatment course of clients attending a detoxification service for support with synthetic cannabinoid withdrawal in Auckland, New Zealand.Design and MethodsA retrospective audit of electronic and paper files for clients presenting for treatment in association with problematic synthetic cannabinoid use between May 2013 and May 2014 was conducted. Demographic information, reported synthetic cannabinoid use, other substance use, reported adverse effects, withdrawal symptoms and treatment information were recorded using a piloted template. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the characteristics of the audit sample.ResultsIn the 12 month period, 47 people presented to detoxification services reporting problems withdrawing from synthetic cannabinoids. Twenty clients were admitted for medical management within an inpatient setting. Coexisting substance dependence apart from nicotine dependence was low. The most common withdrawal symptoms were agitation, irritability, anxiety and mood swings. Withdrawal symptoms were managed with diazepam and quetiapine.Discussion and Conclusions The harm associated with use of synthetic cannabinoids has had a direct impact on the utilisation of specialist alcohol and drug services in Auckland, New Zealand. Many clients with synthetic cannabinoid withdrawal symptoms required intensive support including medication and admission to an inpatient detoxification unit. Clients withdrawing from synthetic cannabinoids were the third largest group of clients admitted to inpatient detoxification services in Auckland, New Zealand, between May 2013 and May 2014. [Macfarlane V, Christie G. Synthetic cannabinoid withdrawal: A new demand on detoxification services. Drug Alcohol Rev 2015]
    Drug and Alcohol Review 02/2015;
  • Drug and Alcohol Review 02/2015;
  • Drug and Alcohol Review 01/2015; 34(1).
  • Drug and Alcohol Review 01/2015; 34(1).
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionEnvironmental and societal factors are significant determinants of children's initiation to and use of alcohol. Schools are important settings for promoting well-being and substantial resources have been devoted to curriculum-based alcohol programs, but the effects of these in reducing the misuse of alcohol have been modest. Adults can and do consume alcohol at school events when students are present, but there is a dearth of evidence about parents' level of support for the practice. The aim of this study was to examine parents' level of support for the purchase and consumption of alcohol at primary school fundraising events when children are present.Methods Four hundred seventy-nine Australian parents of children aged 0–12 years participated in an online survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the impact of parent characteristics on the level of agreement with parental purchase and consumption of alcohol at school fundraising events when children are present.ResultsThe majority of parents (60%) disagreed/strongly disagreed with the practice of adults being able to purchase and consume alcohol at school fundraising events when children were present. The 21% of parents who supported the practice were more likely to be daily smokers and/or have higher (>6) Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test—alcohol consumption scores.Conclusions Despite the fact that the majority of parents disagree with this practice, published reports suggest that adults' use of alcohol at primary school events is an emerging issue. It is important that school decision-makers are mindful of the financial and educational value of fundraising activities. [Ward B, Kippen R, Buykx P, Gilligan C, Chapman K. Parents' level of support for adults' purchase and consumption of alcohol at primary school events when children are present. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014]
    Drug and Alcohol Review 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsInternational research has shown that gay, bisexual and other homosexually active men (hereafter ‘gay men’) report disproportionately higher rates of risky alcohol use and associated problems compared with heterosexual men. However, little is known about alcohol use among this population in Australia. This study aimed to examine rates of risky alcohol use among a community-based sample of gay men in Sydney and characteristics of men reporting high-risk alcohol use and adverse consequences.Design and MethodsA cross-sectional survey of gay men was conducted in Sydney in August 2013 as part of the ongoing Gay Community Periodic Surveys (n = 1546 eligible respondents). The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test–Consumption questions were used to assess alcohol use in the previous 12 months.ResultsNine per cent of respondents were categorised as abstinent from alcohol, 33% as low-risk drinkers, 42% as moderate-risk drinkers and 16% as high-risk drinkers. In separate multivariate logistic regression analyses, high-risk drinking and reporting ≥4 adverse alcohol consequences were associated with younger age, being Australian-born, recruitment from licensed premises and having met men for sex at gay bars and dance parties. Fifty-eight per cent of high-risk drinkers reported a desire to reduce their alcohol use.Discussion and Conclusions In this community-based sample of gay men, we found high levels of moderate- to high-risk alcohol use. The results suggest that gay men should be a priority population for health promotion campaigns and treatment services. [Lea T, Ryan D, Prestage G, Zablotska I, Mao L, de Wit J, Holt M. Alcohol use among a community-based sample of gay men: Correlates of high-risk use and implications for service provision. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014]
    Drug and Alcohol Review 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsFew studies have described those seeking treatment for codeine dependence. This study aimed to compare patients presenting for treatment where either codeine or a strong pharmaceutical opioid (oxycodone or morphine) was the principal drug of concern to understand if codeine users may have unique treatment needs.Design and Methods Retrospective case review of 135 patients from three geographical areas in New South Wales, Australia. Cases where the principal drug of concern was codeine (n = 53) or a strong pharmaceutical opioid (oxycodone or morphine, n = 82) were compared. Differences in demographic characteristics, pain history, mental health, substance use history and, subsequently, the treatment that was received were examined.ResultsPeople whose principal drug of concern was codeine were more likely to be female (66% vs. 37%, P < 0.001), employed (43% vs. 22%, P < 0.01) and use only one pharmaceutical opioid (91% vs. 49%, P < 0.001). There was no difference in age between the codeine group (mean 38.6 years) and the strong opioid group (39.3 years). Opioid substitution therapy was the most common treatment received by both groups although codeine patients were more likely to be treated with buprenorphine than methadone (odds ratio = 7.7, 95% confidence interval 2.2–27.2, P < 0.001) and more likely to attempt withdrawal (odds ratio = 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.2–5.3, P = 0.010).Discussion and Conclusions There are important differences between codeine-dependent patients and strong prescription opioid-dependent patients. Further work should explore the outcomes of withdrawal versus maintenance treatment for codeine users. [Nielsen S, Murnion B, Dunlop A, Degenhardt L, Demirkol A, Muhleisen P, Lintzeris N. Comparing treatment-seeking codeine users and strong opioid users: Findings from a novel case series. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014]
    Drug and Alcohol Review 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: New amendments to child welfare policy in New South Wales turn a spotlight on parents who use drugs and raise concerns about adequate provision of services for families facing issues with alcohol and other drug use. Sections of the new legislation are explicitly focused on parents who use illicit drugs, expanding the reach of child protection services over expectant parents during pregnancy. This targeting of women who are ‘addicted’ highlights the ambiguous scientific and moral attention to drug use in pregnancy. It also raises practical questions about the potential for the legislation to increase stigma towards drug use and disproportionately affect vulnerable and disadvantaged families. [Olsen A. Punishing parents: Child removal in the context of drug use. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014]
    Drug and Alcohol Review 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsThe high prevalence of trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among clients of alcohol and other drug (AOD) services is well documented. Less is known, however, about the impact this has on workers who assess and treat such clients. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of secondary traumatic stress (STS) among AOD workers in Australia.Design and Methods An anonymous web-based survey was undertaken and completed by 412 Australian AOD workers. The questionnaire assessed current levels of trauma training, extent of exposure to clients with a history of trauma history, AOD workers' own history of trauma exposure and PTSD, and current STS. Analyses compared individuals who currently met criteria for experiencing STS with those who did not.ResultsDespite the high volume of traumatised clients accessing AOD services, less than two-thirds of AOD workers reported having ever received trauma training. The prevalence rate of STS was 19.9% and was independently predicted by a higher traumatised client workload, fewer hours of clinical supervision, and stress and anxiety levels of the worker.Discussion and Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of providing adequate trauma training and clinical supervision to AOD workers in order to maintain their health and welfare and ensure optimal treatment to clients with PTSD. [Ewer PL, Teesson M, Sannibale C, Roche A, Mills KL. The prevalence and correlates of secondary traumatic stress among alcohol and other drug workers in Australia. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014]
    Drug and Alcohol Review 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsAcross the world, it has been estimated that approximately 270 million people participate in community football clubs. However, the community sports club setting is associated with high levels of risky alcohol consumption. The study examined if sporting club alcohol management practices are associated with risky consumption of alcohol by club members while at the club, and also whether such consumption is directly and indirectly associated with club member overall hazardous alcohol consumption.Design and Methods Telephone surveys were conducted with a representative from 72 community football clubs in New South Wales, Australia, and 1428 club members. A path and mediation analysis was undertaken to determine the association between 11 club alcohol management practices and member alcohol consumption, at the club and overall hazardous consumption.ResultsThree alcohol management practices were associated with an increased probability of risky drinking while at the club: having alcohol promotions; serving intoxicated patrons; and having bar open longer than 4 h. A mediation analyses identified that risky drinking at the club as a result of these three practices was also linked to increase risk in being an overall hazardous drinker.Discussion and Conclusion Modifying alcohol management practices in community football clubs has the potential to reduce both risky alcohol consumption by members in this setting and the prevalence of overall hazardous alcohol consumption. Coordinated, multi-strategic interventions are required to support community football clubs to modify their alcohol management practices and hence contribute to reducing the burden of alcohol-related harm in the community.
    Drug and Alcohol Review 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsWastewater analysis (WWA) is intended to be a direct and objective method of measuring substance use in large urban populations. It has also been used to measure prison substance use in two previous studies. The application of WWA in this context has raised questions as to how best it might be used to measure illicit drug use in prisons, and whether it can also be used to measure prescription misuse. We applied WWA to a small regional prison to measure the use of 12 licit and illicit substances. We attempted to measure the non-medical use of methadone and buprenorphine and to compare our findings with the results of the prison's mandatory drug testing (MDT).Design and Methods Representative daily composite samples were collected for two periods of 12 consecutive days in May to July 2013 and analysed for 18 drug metabolites. Prescription data and MDT results were obtained from the prison and compared with the substance use estimates calculated from WWA data.ResultsDaily use of methamphetamine, methadone, buprenorphine and codeine was detected, while sporadic detection of ketamine and methylone was also observed. Overall buprenorphine misuse appeared to be greater than methadone misuse.Discussion and Conclusions Compared with MDT, WWA provides a more comprehensive picture of prison substance use. WWA also has the potential to measure the misuse of medically prescribed substances. However, a great deal of care must be exercised in quantifying the usage of any substance in small populations, such as in prisons. [van Dyken E, Lai FY, Thai PK, Ort C, Bruno R, Hall W, Kirkbride KP, Mueller JF, Prichard J. Challenges and opportunities in using wastewater analysis to measure drug use in a small prison facility. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014]
    Drug and Alcohol Review 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsThere is substantial research showing that low socioeconomic position is a predictor of negative outcomes from alcohol consumption, while alcohol consumption itself does not exhibit a strong social gradient. This study aims to examine socioeconomic differences in self-reported alcohol-related risk-taking behaviour to explore whether differences in risk-taking while drinking may explain some of the socioeconomic disparities in alcohol-related harm.Design and Methods Cross-sectional data from current drinkers (n = 21 452) in the 2010 wave of the Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used. Ten items on risk-taking behaviour while drinking were combined into two risk scores, and zero-inflated Poisson regression was used to assess the relationship between socioeconomic position and risk-taking while controlling for age, sex and alcohol consumption.ResultsSocioeconomically advantaged respondents reported substantially higher rates of alcohol-related hazardous behaviour than socioeconomically disadvantaged respondents. Controlling for age, sex, volume of drinking and frequency of heavy drinking, respondents living in the most advantaged quintile of neighbourhoods reported significantly higher rates of hazardous behaviour than those in the least advantaged quintile. A similar pattern was evident for household income.Discussion and Conclusions Socioeconomically advantaged Australians engage in alcohol-related risky behaviour at higher rates than more disadvantaged Australians even with alcohol consumption controlled. The significant socioeconomic disparities in negative consequences linked to alcohol consumption cannot in this instance be explained via differences in behaviour while drinking. Other factors not directly related to alcohol consumption may be responsible for health inequalities in outcomes with significant alcohol involvement. [Livingston M. Socioeconomic differences in alcohol-related risk-taking behaviours. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014]
    Drug and Alcohol Review 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IssuesRates of non-attendance are among the highest in substance misuse services. Non-attendance is costly and results in the inefficient use of limited resources. Patients who frequently miss their appointments have worse outcomes including treatment dropout and decreased likelihood of achieving long-term abstinence.ApproachThis narrative review evaluates interventions targeting non-attendance in addiction services and draws upon the wider health-care literature to identify interventions that could be adapted for substance-abusing populations.Key FindingsBoth fixed value and intermittent reinforcement contingency management demonstrate potential for improving attendance. However, small sample sizes and heterogeneous populations make it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Appointment reminders by letter or telephone have demonstrated moderate evidence for improving attendance in substance-abusing populations. Text message appointment reminders are extensively utilised in general health-care settings and consistently improve attendance; however, there is a paucity of research examining the feasibility and effectiveness of text message reminders in addiction services.ImplicationsA lack of evidence for methods to improve attendance is reflected in the continuing challenge faced by addiction services attempting to manage high rates of non-attendance.Conclusions Non-attendance remains a persistent issue for addiction services. While there is limited evidence that contingency management improves attendance, more rigorous research is needed to determine the optimal intervention components and effectiveness in different populations, particularly those receiving maintenance treatments. Multicomponent text message interventions incorporating different delivery and content strategies demonstrate a promise for improving non-attendance and poor engagement.
    Drug and Alcohol Review 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsThe US Drug Enforcement Agency classifies marijuana as an illegal substance, yet in 22 states marijuana is legal for medicinal use. In 1996, California legalised the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes, but population-based data describing medical marijuana users in the state has not been available. Our aim was to examine the demographic differences between users and non-users of medical marijuana in California utilising population-based data.Design and Methods We used data from the California Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012, an annual, random-digit-dial state-wide telephone survey that collects health data from a representative adult sample (n = 7525). Age-adjusted prevalence rates were estimated.ResultsFive percent of adults in California reported ever using medical marijuana, and most users believed that medical marijuana helped alleviate symptoms or treat a serious medical condition. Prevalence was similar when compared by gender, education and region. Prevalence of ever using medical marijuana was highest among white adults and younger adults ages 18–24 years, although use was reported by every racial/ethnic and age group examined in our study and ranged from 2% to 9%.Conclusions Our study's results lend support to the idea that medical marijuana is used equally by many groups of people and is not exclusively used by any one specific group. As more states approve marijuana use for medical purposes, it is important to track medical marijuana use as a health-related behaviour and risk factor. [Ryan-Ibarra S, Induni M, Ewing D. Prevalence of medical marijuana use in California, 2012. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014]
    Drug and Alcohol Review 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IssueSince the mid-1990s, there have been calls to make naloxone, a prescription-only medicine in many countries, available to heroin and other opioid users and their peers and family members to prevent overdose deaths.ContextIn Australia there were calls for a trial of peer naloxone in 2000, yet at the end of that year, heroin availability and harm rapidly declined, and a trial did not proceed. In other countries, a number of peer naloxone programs have been successfully implemented. Although a controlled trial had not been conducted, evidence of program implementation demonstrated that trained injecting drug-using peers and others could successfully administer naloxone to reverse heroin overdose, with few, if any, adverse effects.ApproachIn 2009 Australian drug researchers advocated the broader availability of naloxone for peer administration in cases of opioid overdose. Industrious local advocacy and program development work by a number of stakeholders, notably by the Canberra Alliance for Harm Minimisation and Advocacy, a drug user organisation, contributed to the rollout of Australia's first prescription naloxone program in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Over the subsequent 18 months, prescription naloxone programs were commenced in four other Australian states.ImplicationsThe development of Australia's first take-home naloxone program in the ACT has been an ‘ice-breaker’ for development of other Australian programs. Issues to be addressed to facilitate future scale-up of naloxone programs concern scheduling and cost, legal protections for lay administration, prescribing as a barrier to scale-up; intranasal administration, administration by service providers and collaboration between stakeholders. [Lenton S, Dietze P, Olsen A, Wiggins N, McDonald D, Fowlie C. Working together: Expanding the availability of naloxone for peer administration to prevent opioid overdose deaths in the Australian Capital Territory and beyond. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014]
    Drug and Alcohol Review 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IssuesEffectiveness of alcohol policy interventions varies across times and places. The circumstances under which effective polices can be successfully transferred between contexts are typically unexplored with little attention given to developing reporting requirements that would facilitate systematic investigation.ApproachUsing purposive sampling and expert elicitation methods, we identified context-related factors impacting on the effectiveness of population-level alcohol policies. We then drew on previous characterisations of alcohol policy contexts and methodological-reporting checklists to design a new checklist for reporting contextual information in evaluation studies.Key FindingsSix context factor domains were identified: (i) baseline alcohol consumption, norms and harm rates; (ii) baseline affordability and availability; (iii) social, microeconomic and demographic contexts; (iv) macroeconomic context; (v) market context; and (vi) wider policy, political and media context. The checklist specifies information, typically available in national or international reports, to be reported in each domain.ImplicationsThe checklist can facilitate evidence synthesis by providing: (i) a mechanism for systematic and more consistent reporting of contextual data for meta-regression and realist evaluations; (ii) information for policy-makers on differences between their context and contexts of evaluations; and (iii) an evidence base for adjusting prospective policy simulation models to account for policy context.Conclusions Our proposed checklist provides a tool for gaining better understanding of the influence of policy context on intervention effectiveness. Further work is required to rationalise and aggregate checklists across interventions types to make such checklists practical for use by journals and to improve reporting of important qualitative contextual data. [Holmes J, Meier PS, Booth A, Brennan A. Reporting the characteristics of the policy context for population-level alcohol interventions: A proposed ‘Transparent Reporting of Alcohol Intervention ContExts’ (TRAICE) checklist. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014]
    Drug and Alcohol Review 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsThis article reports a content analysis of Internet websites related to an emerging designer drug, synthetic cannabinoids. The number of synthetic cannabinoids searchers in the USA has steadily increased from November 2008 to November 2011.Design and Methods To determine the information available on the Internet in relation to synthetic cannabinoids, sites were identified using the Google search engine and the search term ‘herbal incense’. The first 100 consecutive sites were visited and classified by two coders. The websites were evaluated for type of content (retail, information, news, other). US unique monthly visitor data were examined for the top 10 retail sites, and these sites were coded for the quality of information available regarding the legality of synthetic cannabinoids sale and use.ResultsThe Google search yielded 2 730 000 sites for ‘herbal incense’ (for comparison of search terms: ‘synthetic marijuana’, 1 170 000; ‘K2 Spice’, 247 000; and ‘synthetic weed’, 122 000). Moreover, in the Google search, 87% of the sites were retail sites, 5% news, 4% informational and 4% non-synthetic cannabinoid sites.Discussion and Conclusions Many tools found within Google free services hold promise in providing a technique to identify emerging drug markets. We recommend continued surveillance of the Internet using the online tools presented in this brief report by both drug researchers and policy-makers to identify the emerging trends in synthetic drugs' availability and interest.
    Drug and Alcohol Review 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and AimsIllicit drug use is known to occur among inmate populations of correctional (prison) facilities. Conventional approaches to monitor illicit drug use in prisons include random urinalyses (RUA). Conventional approaches are expected to be prone to bias because prisoners may be aware of which days of the week RUAs are conducted. Therefore, we wanted to compare wastewater loads for methamphetamine and cocaine during days with RUA testing and without.Design and Methods We collected daily 24-h composite samples of wastewater by continuous sampling, computed daily loads for 1 month and compared the frequency of illicit drug detection to the number of positive RUAs. Diurnal data also were collected for 3 days to determine within-day patterns of illicit drugs excretion.ResultsMethamphetamine was observed in each sample of prison wastewater with no significant difference in daily mass loads between RUA testing and non-testing days. Cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine, were observed only at levels below quantification in prison wastewater. Six RUAs were positive for methamphetamine during the month while none were positive for cocaine out of the 243 RUAs conducted.Discussion and Conclusions Wastewater analyses offer data regarding the frequency of illicit drug excretion inside the prison that RUAs alone could not detect.
    Drug and Alcohol Review 09/2014;