Avian Pathology (Avian Pathol )

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Description

Avian Pathology is a leading journal that has the aim of disseminating knowledge concerned with the entire field of research on infectious and non-infectious diseases of poultry and all other birds. Original research is published in the form of full papers, short communications and case reports. Subject areas include pathology, immune responses, vaccines, genetics e.g. in relation to disease resistance/susceptibility, epidemiology, diagnosis, detection and characterization of pathogens, gene sequences, and physiology and biochemistry (provided that the physiological and biochemical data refer to disease). Authoritative Reviews, Commentary Articles on topical subjects and Technical Reviews (detection and differentiation of pathogens) are published from time to time.

  • Impact factor
    1.73
  • 5-year impact
    1.95
  • Cited half-life
    9.60
  • Immediacy index
    0.30
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.55
  • Website
    Avian Pathology website
  • Other titles
    Avian pathology (En ligne)
  • ISSN
    1465-3338
  • OCLC
    57214916
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 month embargo for STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Journals
    • 18 month embargo for SSH journals
  • Conditions
    • Some individual journals may have policies prohibiting pre-print archiving
    • Pre-print on authors own website, Institutional or Subject Repository
    • Post-print on authors own website, Institutional or Subject Repository
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On a non-profit server
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statements to accompany deposits (see policy)
    • Publisher will deposit to PMC on behalf of NIH authors.
    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • SSH: Social Science and Humanities
    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oropharyngeal trichomonad isolates of wild birds from Spain were studied. A total of 1688 samples (1214 of predator birds and 474 of prey species) from wildlife recovery centers and scientific bird ringing campaigns were analyzed from 2011 to 2013. The overall infection prevalence was 20.3% (11.4% in predator birds and 43.3% in prey species). Pathognomonic lesions were present in 26% of the infected birds (57.3% in predator birds and 4.9% in prey species). The most commonly parasitized species were the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, 74.5%) and the rock pigeon (Columba livia, 79.4%). Host species in which the parasite has not been previously analyzed by PCR and sequencing in Spain are also reported: Columba palumbus, Streptopelia turtur, Pica pica, Accipiter gentilis, Accipiter nisus, Asio otus, Bubo bubo, Buteo buteo, Circus aeruginosus, Circus cyaneus, Falco naumanni, Falco peregrinus, Neophron percnopterus, Otus scops, Pernis apivorus and Strix aluco. Sequence analysis of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 region revealed five different genotypes and also some mixed infections. A relationship between genotype and host species was observed, but only two genotypes (ITS-OBT-Tg-1; ITS-OBT-Tg-2) were widely distributed. Genotype ITS-OBT-Tg-1 was most frequently found in predator birds and statistically associated with pathognomonic lesions. Non-strict ornithophagous species were at higher risk to develop disease than ornithophagous ones. Genotypes ITS-OBT-Tcl-1, ITS-OBT-Tcl-2 are new reports and ITS-OBT-Tvl-5 is reported for the first time in Spain. They showed higher genetic homology to T. canistomae and T. vaginalis than to T. gallinae, indicating the possibility of new species within this genus.
    Avian Pathology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Turkey arthritis reovirus (TARV) has been isolated from the gastrocnemius tendons and tibiotarsal joint fluid of lame, >12-week-old male turkeys in the Midwest. Two experiments were conducted to compare the pathogenicity in turkeys of three TARVs (TARV-MN2, TARV-MN4 and TARV-O’Neil) one turkey enteric reovirus (TERV), and one chicken arthritis reovirus (CARV) . Two hundred ul of virus was inoculated by oral, intratracheal, or footpad route into 6-day-old poults placed in isolator units. Poults were necropsied at 1 and 4 weeks post infection (PI) in Experiment 1 and at 2 and 4 weeks PI in Experiment 2. Reovirus was detected by RT-PCR and virus isolation in tendons of TARV-inoculated poults at 1, 2 and 4 weeks PI. In general, TARVs produced lymphocytic tenosynovitis of the gastrocnemius and digital flexor tendon sheaths without inflammation of the tendons proper. In Experiment 1, poults inoculated with TARV-MN2 and TARV-O’Neil had significantly higher gastrocnemius tendon inflammation scores, as determined by histology, than those inoculated with TERV-MN1 or CARV-MN1. In Experiment 2, poults inoculated with TARV-MN2 and TARV-O’Neil had significantly higher gastrocnemius tendon inflammation scores than those inoculated with TARV-MN4 and virus-free medium (negative control group). Koch’s postulate was fulfilled when TARV-MN2 and TARV-O’Neil were re-isolated from tendons of poults that had originally been challenged with either of these viruses. Results of these experiments indicate that TARVs have a unique ability to induce gastrocnemius tenosynovitis in turkeys and that administration of TARV-O’Neil through oral or intratracheal route is a reproducible model to study pathogenesis of TARV infection.
    Avian Pathology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In a prospective longitudinal study a broiler breeder flock and its progeny were monitored for the presence of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA and antibodies. The flock was part of a multiple age farm where the presence of avian HEV with clinical symptoms (increased mortality and decreased egg production) was demonstrated in several previous production cycles. Samples were taken twice at the rearing site and several times at the production site from broiler breeders including roosters and day-old chicks. The samples were investigated by conventional and real-time RT-PCR, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and histological methods. At all time points samples from the hens were positive for avian HEV RNA. The birds did not show any clinical signs, even though histopathological lesions in liver and spleen of non-specific aetiology could be demonstrated. A significant increase in number of positive birds and viral load was seen in week 45, in accordance with an increase in antibody titres. In comparison, roosters investigated in week 62 tested negative by RT-PCR and ELISA. Avian HEV RNA was also detected in day-old chicks hatched from eggs laid in week 25, indicating vertical transmission. All partial helicase and capsid sequences retrieved within this study clustered together and were identical to previous sequences obtained from the same multiple age farm. It is concluded that avian HEV persisted on the farm over years and circulated between the rearing and the production site without causing any clinical signs although high viral loads in the adult hens were observed.
    Avian Pathology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The safety and efficacy of an aroA-deleted live vaccine against avian colibacillosis (Poulvac® E. coli) was evaluated in broilers in a multicenter field trial. The trial sites consisted of 18 paired bird houses (randomly assigned to either the vaccination or the control treatment groups), located in 15 farms in three different regions of Morocco. A field dose of vaccine was administered at day of hatch by spray route. Both clinical and performance parameters were compared between vaccinated and control groups, in which the experimental unit was defined as the individual bird house. No adverse reactions attributable to the vaccine were observed throughout the study. Non-inferiority of the vaccinated bird houses versus the control houses during a two-week period post-vaccination was statistically demonstrated for mortality and average daily weight gain. Vaccine efficacy was confirmed based on significant differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups measured for the full duration of the trial, including: colibacillosis-like lesions observed at slaughter (1.7 versus. 3.5%; P = 0.0054); total mortality (9.3 versus 10.3%; P = 0.0203); average daily weight gain (47.8 versus 46.2 g per day; P = 0.0006); average number of antibiotic treatment days (0.5 versus 2.0; P = 0.0008) and the percentage of the birds that was marketed (90.0 versus 89.0%; P = 0.0309). In conclusion, the vaccine was demonstrated to be both safe and efficacious under field conditions.
    Avian Pathology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Egg-related outbreaks of salmonellosis are a significant health concern. Although Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is the major egg-associated serotype, Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) can also infect the hen's reproductive tract and contaminate eggs. Recently monophasic and aphasic variants of ST have been reported with increased frequency in Europe, and the isolation of these variants from laying flocks triggers the same legislative restrictions associated with biphasic ST strains. However, little is known about the colonisation, invasiveness and persistence of monophasic and aphasic ST strains in laying hens. In this study, seven groups of day-old and point-of-lay commercial Hy-line chicken layers were separately challenged with 4 different strains of monophasic ST, one aphasic ST, one biphasic ST and one egg invasive SE strain. Tissue samples and cloacal swabs (point-of-lay chickens only) were collected at regular intervals post-challenge in order to recover the Salmonella challenge strains. In day-old chicks, only the aphasic ST strain and the SE strain were recovered after direct plating, suggesting that the number of salmonellas colonising the tissues of the chicks infected with the other strains was likely to be low. Interestingly, all the strains colonised well in the point-of-lay chickens, and there was no statistical difference in the overall number of positive samples or Salmonella counts between the seven strains. Salmonella was recovered from the point-of-lay birds upto the end of the study (20 days after challenge). Monophasic and aphasic ST strains colonised point-of-lay birds as efficiently as biphasic ST and SE strains. Further studies are necessary to estimate the invasiveness of these strains in naturally-infected vaccinated laying hens, and to assess the impact of natural infection on egg contamination.
    Avian Pathology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the possibility of in ovo infection with avian bornavirus (ABV) in wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 53 eggs were opportunistically collected at various stages of embryonic development from 16 free-ranging goose nests at a large urban zoo site where ABV infection is known to be present in this species. ABV RNA was detected in the yolk of one of three unembryonated eggs using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. ABV RNA was not identified in the brains from 23 newly hatched goslings or 19 embryos, nor from 3 early whole embryos. Antibodies against ABV were not detected in the plasma of any of the hatched goslings using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Possible reasons for the failure to detect ABV RNA in hatchlings or embryos include low sample size, eggs deriving from parents not actively infected with ABV, the testing of only brain tissue, and failure of the virus to replicate in Canada goose embryos. In conclusion, this preliminary investigation demonstrating the presence of ABV RNA in the yolk of a Canada goose egg provides the first evidence for the potential for vertical transmission of ABV in waterfowl.
    Avian Pathology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus of the chicken. It is a highly contagious pathogen and in addition to causing respiratory and kidney diseases, it can affect the reproductive organs, resulting loss of production and poor egg quality. Despite the global distribution of IBV, Finland has been free of clinical cases for almost three decades. Since April 2011, outbreaks involving genotypes QX, D274-like and 4/91-like, have occurred in southern Finland. The clinical samples studied were submitted to the Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira from different regions of Finland during 2011-2013 and originated from a voluntary health monitoring programme, a national survey for avian influenza and from diagnostic specimens from both commercial poultry production and hobby flocks. The sources of the infections are not known, but strains D274 and 4/91 are widely used in vaccines elsewhere.
    Avian Pathology 04/2014;
  • Article: Obituary.
    Avian Pathology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was detected in 185 samples originating from chicken flocks of various commodity groups in Canada. Flocks with clinical signs such as respiratory challenge, sudden death, egg production problems, or nephropathogenic conditions, and randomly selected flocks sampled at slaughter as part of an Ontario broiler surveillance project, were included. Most samples were from Ontario and Québec; however, a small number from British Columbia, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland and Labrador were also analyzed. The nucleotide sequence of the spike (S) protein gene was compared with sequences available in GenBank. Based on their S gene sequence similarities, Canadian IBVs could be divided into nine genotypes belonging to four groups: (1) Canadian variant virus, strain Qu_mv; (2) the classic, vaccine-like viruses, Connecticut and Massachusetts; (3) US variant-like virus strains, California 1734/04, California 99, CU_82792, Pennsylvania 1220/98 and Pennsylvania Wolg/98; and (4) non-Canadian, non-US virus, strain 4/91. Based on the field situation, the effectiveness of current vaccination practices mostly based on Massachusetts and Connecticut-type vaccines appeared generally satisfactory for minimizing the damage due to infection with Canadian variant and US variant-like viruses. However, the recent outbreaks of severe respiratory disease and production problems in Ontario chicken flocks related to the incursion of IBV strain 4/91 were not prevented by standard vaccination protocols. It appears that IBV strain 4/91 has now become endemic in Ontario and the need for 4/91-type vaccines must be evaluated.
    Avian Pathology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The emergence of new variant strains of the poultry pathogen infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is continually reported worldwide, owing to the labile nature of the large single-stranded RNA IBV genome. High resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis previously detected a variant strain, N1/08, and the present study confirmed that this strain had emerged as a result of recombination between Australian subgroup 2 and 3 strains in the Spike gene region, in a similar manner reported for Turkey coronaviruses. The S1 gene for N1/08 had highest nucleotide similarity with subgroup 2 strains, which is interesting considering subgroup 2 strains have not been detected since the early 1990s. Simplot analysis of the 7.2 kb 3' end of the N1/08 genome with the same region for other Australian reference strains identified the sites of recombination as immediately upstream and downstream of the S1 gene. A pathogenicity study in 2-week-old chickens found that N1/08 had similar pathogenicity for chicken respiratory tissues to that reported for subgroup 2 strains than subgroup 3 strains. The results of this study demonstrate that recombination is a mechanism utilised for the emergence of new strains of IBV, with the ability to alter strain pathogenicity in a single generation.
    Avian Pathology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the resistance mechanisms of quinolones, macrolides and tetracycline in campylobacter isolates from grandparent and parent broiler breeders in Spain. Twenty-six isolates were investigated for quinolone resistance, three isolates for macrolide resistance and 39 for tetracycline resistance. All of the quinolone-resistant isolates possessed the mutation Thr86Ile in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA and one isolate possessed the mutation Pro104Ser. Only one Campylobacter coli population (defined by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction of flaA and pulsed field gel electrophoresis) was resistant to erythromycin, and the mutation A2075G (23S rDNA) was responsible for macrolide resistance. The tetO gene was found in all of the tetracycline-resistant isolates. Twenty-two out of the 39 isolates investigated by Southern blot possessed chromosomic location of tetO and 17 were located on plasmids. Most of the plasmids with tetO were of around 60 kb and conjugation was demonstrated in a selection of them. In conclusion, we showed that Thr86Ile is highly prevalent in quinolone-resistant isolates as well as mutation A2075G in macrolide-resistant isolates of poultry origin. More variability was found for tetO. The possibility of horizontal transmission of tetO among campylobacter isolates is also an issue of concern in public health.
    Avian Pathology 04/2014; 43(2):176-82.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the presence of virulence genes and antibiotic resistance profiles in 164 Escherichia coli strains isolated from birds (feral pigeons, hybrid ducks, house sparrows and spotless starlings) inhabiting urban and rural environments. A total of eight atypical enteropathogenic E. coli strains were identified: one in a house sparrow, four in feral pigeons and three in spotless starlings. Antibiotic resistance was present in 32.9% (54) of E. coli strains. The dominant type of resistance was to tetracycline (21.3%), ampicillin (19.5%) and sulfamethoxazole (18.9%). Five isolates had class 1 integrons containing gene cassettes encoding for dihydrofolate reductase A (dfrA) and aminoglycoside adenyltransferase A (aadA), one in a feral pigeon and four in spotless starlings. To our knowledge, the present study constitutes the first detection of virulence genes from E. coli in spotless starlings and house sparrows, and is also the first identification worldwide of integrons containing antibiotic resistance gene cassettes in E. coli strains from spotless starlings and pigeons.
    Avian Pathology 04/2014; 43(2):172-5.
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    ABSTRACT: In Bangladesh, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 was first detected in February 2007. Since then the virus has become entrenched in poultry farms of Bangladesh. There have so far been seven human cases of H5N1 HPAI infection in Bangladesh with one death. The objective of the present study was to investigate the molecular evolution of H5N1 HPAI viruses during 2007 to 2012. Partial or complete nucleotide sequences of all eight gene segments of two chicken isolates, five gene segments of a duck isolate and the haemagglutinin gene segment of 18 isolates from Bangladesh were established in the present study and subjected to molecular analysis. In addition, full-length sequences of different gene segments of other Bangladeshi H5N1 isolates available in GenBank were included in the analysis. The analysis revealed that the first introduction of clade 2.2 virus in Bangladesh in 2007 was followed by the introduction of clade 2.3.2.1 and 2.3.4 viruses in 2011. However, only clade 2.3.2.1 viruses could be isolated in 2012, indicating progressive replacement of clade 2.2 and 2.3.4 viruses. There has been an event of segment re-assortment between H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in Bangladesh, where H5N1 virus acquired the PB1 gene from a H9N2 virus. Point mutations have accumulated in Bangladeshi isolates over the last 5 years with potential modification of receptor binding site and antigenic sites. Extensive and continuous molecular epidemiological studies are necessary to monitor the evolution of circulating avian influenza viruses in Bangladesh.
    Avian Pathology 04/2014; 43(2):183-94.
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    ABSTRACT: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Escherichia coli have been documented in humans as well as in food-producing animals, including chickens, and for unknown reasons, their prevalence has increased significantly during the last decade. With E. coli as a major opportunistic pathogen in chickens and with a potential for zoonotic transfer to human beings, ESBL-producing E. coli represent a major risk both to poultry production and to human health. The review presents some of the current problems with ESBL-producing E. coli in relation to poultry production with a focus on chickens. To illustrate issues in relation to screening and typing, two case studies are included where one collection of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates was obtained from asymptomatic carrier chickens while the other was obtained from lesions in chickens. Pulse field gel electrophoresis and multi-locus sequence typing revealed a highly heterogeneous population of ESBL-producing E. coli. All isolates harboured between one and three large plasmids (> 100 kb). Among isolates associated with asymptomatic chicken, the ESBL types SHV and TEM dominated, while CTX-M-1 dominated in disease-associated isolates. Isolates from diseased birds were occasionally of sequence types (ST) often associated with human infections, such as ST131. With improved tools to trace and screen for ESBL-producing E. coli at farm level, strategies can be selected that aim to reduce or eliminate the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in poultry and poultry products meant for human consumption.
    Avian Pathology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The molecular diversity in S3 gene sequences of turkey reovirus (TRV) was determined in poult enteritis syndrome (PES)-affected and apparently healthy turkey poults. Twenty nine TRV positive samples (15 from PES-affected flocks and 14 from apparently healthy flocks) were tested using self-designed primers for the S3 gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the TRV S3 sequences of this study clustered in clade III and formed two different groups in this clade. The avian reoviruses (ARV) from duck and goose formed clade I and those from chickens formed clade II. The clade III TRV sequences had a nucleotide percent identity of 88.9-100% among themselves but only 59.5-63.5% and 69.2-72.6% with clades I and II, respectively. More amino acid substitutions were present in TRVs from PES-affected flocks than in those from apparently healthy flocks using ATCC VR-818 (AY444912) as a benchmark. All TRVs of this study showed substitutions at positions 244 and 285. The impact of these changes on the virulence of the virus, if any, needs to be studied.
    Avian Pathology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated organic laying hen farms for the presence of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in the house environment, and from potential carriers, i.e. insects and mice, during ongoing erysipelas outbreaks, and compared the obtained isolates with those from laying hens. The samples were investigated by selective culture followed by species-specific PCR on cultures. E. rhusiopathiae was isolated from the spleen, jejunal contents, manure, dust and swabs from water nipples. Three more samples from the house environment tested positive by PCR compared to selective culture alone. Selected isolates were investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). One farm was represented by isolates from laying hens only and one of these isolates differed in one PFGE band from the others. Different banding patterns were observed for isolates from laying hens and manure on one farm. On the remaining two farms, the isolates from the house environment and laying hens were identical but differed between farms. Outbreaks reoccurred in the next flock on two of the farms, and different PFGE types were isolated from consecutive flocks. Our results suggest an external source of infection, which would explain the previously reported increased risk of outbreaks in free-range flocks. Contaminated manure and dust may represent sources of transmission. For the isolates, MALDI-TOF MS and biochemical typing results were in agreement but since the type strain of E. tonsillarum was typed as E. rhusiopathiae using MALDI-TOF MS further studies into this method are needed.
    Avian Pathology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) and, to a lesser extent, Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) are associated with egg related outbreaks in people. Recently, monophasic (lacking one phase of the flagellar antigen) strains of ST (mST) have been described, and they have officially been classified as variants of ST, and thus may contribute to human exposure to contaminated eggs. Currently used vaccination programmes are licensed for use against biphasic variants of ST, and their efficacy against mST has not yet been investigated. In this study, the effectiveness of four vaccination programmes currently in use in the UK poultry industry was evaluated against challenge with one SE strain, one ST strain and 2 monophasic ST strains. A Bayesian model was used to estimate the impact of vaccination on the rate of faecal shedding, and on egg contamination. For the majority of vaccine/challenge strain combinations, there was little or no effect of vaccination on the proportion of birds shedding Salmonella for either biphasic or monophasic strains. However, vaccination was effective at reducing egg contamination. A significantly lower proportion of eggshells were positive for the vaccinated birds compared to non-vaccinated birds, including the mST strains (vaccination resulted in a 55 and 21% reduction for the 2 mST strains). Calculated across all strains, the estimated rate of positive egg contents was lower in vaccinated birds (Bayesian median was 0.13% for vaccinated versus 0.27% for non-vaccinated birds). For both vaccinated and unvaccinated birds, there was also an apparent difference in the proportion of organs positive between strains, with the SE strain resulting in a lower proportion of positive organs at post-mortem examination compared to the other strains.
    Avian Pathology 03/2014;