International Journal of Hyperthermia (Int J Hyperther )

Publisher: European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology; North American Hyperthermia Group, Taylor & Francis


The official journal of the North American Hyperthermia Society, the European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology, and the Japanese Society of Hyperthermic Oncology, the International Journal of Hyperthermia provides a forum for the publication of research and clinical studies and trials on hyperthermia which fall largely into the three main categories of clinical studies, biological studies and techniques of heat delivery and temperature measurement.

Impact factor 2.77

  • Hide impact factor history
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
  • Cited half-life
  • Immediacy index
  • Eigenfactor
  • Article influence
  • Website
    International Journal of Hyperthermia website
  • Other titles
    International journal of hyperthermia
  • ISSN
  • OCLC
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Some individual journals may have policies prohibiting pre-print archiving
    • On author's personal website or departmental website immediately
    • On institutional repository or subject-based repository after either 12 months embargo for STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Journals or 18 months embargo for SSH journals
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On a non-profit server
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statements to accompany deposits (see policy)
    • The publisher will deposit in on behalf of authors to a designated institutional repository including PubMed Central, where a deposit agreement exists with the repository
    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • SSH: Social Science and Humanities
    • Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report two cases of pulmonary arterial pseudoaneurysms (PAs) following percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (PRFA). The first patient was a 74-year-old Caucasian man who was treated for a secondary location of an advanced melanoma. A computed tomography scan at 72 h after the procedure, performed for basithoracic pain, hyperthermia and haemoptysis, revealed a 17-mm PA within the ablative zone. A lobectomy was performed. The second patient was an 80-year-old white man followed up for a right apical lung adenocarcinoma. Massive haemoptysis occurred 24 h after PRFA; emergent contrast-enhanced CT and pulmonary arteriography revealed a pulmonary artery PA (20 mm diameter), which was embolised with coils. The initial clinical course was satisfactory; however, 15 days after the procedure, the patient unfortunately presented a new massive haemoptysis and died a few hours later. The long ablation duration and the multiple repositioning of the electrodes might have been risk factors for this rare and potentially lethal complication.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether localised drug release using thermosensitive liposomal doxorubicin (TLD) and mild hyperthermia produced by a clinical magnetic resonance high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) system improves anti-tumour efficacy over TLD alone in rabbit Vx2 tumours. Materials and methods: Rabbits bearing one Vx2 thigh tumour (n = 6 per group) were administered TLD (1.67 mg/kg) either with or without MR-HIFU mild hyperthermia (20 min, 42.0 °C). Tumour progression was measured using contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging. Toxicity was evaluated by changes in body weight, blood counts, and blood chemistry. Tumour volume, body weight, and blood data were acquired weekly for the first month and biweekly thereafter. Results: Rabbits treated with TLD plus MR-HIFU mild hyperthermia had target region temperatures with spatial-median, temporal-mean of 41.4° ± 0.6 °C; 10th and 90th percentile temperatures were 40.2 and 42.7 °C. All six rabbits that received TLD alone had rapid tumour progression and reached the tumour size end point (maximum dimension >6 cm) within 24 days. Four of six rabbits treated with TLD plus MR-HIFU mild hyperthermia survived to the study end point of 60 days; one reached tumour size end point, one had hyperthermia-related toxicity, all had at least a transient decrease in tumour volume. Weekly body weight, complete blood counts, and blood chemistry did not reveal additional evidence of drug or hyperthermia-related toxicity. Conclusions: Rabbit Vx2 tumours treated with a single infusion of TLD during MR-HIFU mild hyperthermia had reduced tumour growth vs. tumours treated with TLD alone. These findings are an important step toward clinical translation of localised drug delivery using MR-HIFU and TLD.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the target tissue necrosis volume and the target tissue size during the radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedure. Materials and methods: The target tissues with four different sizes (dxy = 20, 25, 30 and 35 mm) were modelled using a two-compartment radiofrequency ablation model. Different voltages were applied to seek the maximum target tissue necrosis volume for each target tissue size. The first roll-off occurrence or the standard ablation time (12 min) was taken as the sign for the termination of the RFA procedure. Results: Four different maximum voltages without the roll-off occurrence were found for the four different sizes of target tissues (dxy = 20, 25, 30 and 35 mm), and they were 36.6, 35.4, 33.9 and 32.5 V, respectively. The target tissues with diameters of 20, 25 mm can be cleanly ablated at their own maximum voltages applied (MVA) but the same finding was not found for the 35-mm target tissue. For the target tissue with diameter of 30 mm, the 50 °C isothermal contour (IT50) result showed that the target tissue can be cleanly ablated, but the same result did not show in the Arrhenius damage model result. Furthermore, two optimal RFA protocols with a minimal thermal damage to the healthy tissues were found for the target tissues with diameters of 20 and 25 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The study suggests that target tissues of different sizes should be treated with different RFA protocols. The maximum target tissue volume was achieved with the MVA without the roll-off occurrence for each target tissue size when a constant RF power supply was used.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 12/2014; 30(8):593-602.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a new tumour ablation method used in cancer treatment procedures. In a successful IRE treatment it is crucial to impose minimum thermal damage to the tumour and its surrounding healthy tissue, while subjecting the entire tumour to a strong electric field. Method: Here we present a 3D model of a subcutaneous tumour in a four-layer skin using a geometry-based finite element approach. Four common needle electrode configurations were studied in this paper. The study evaluated six essential factors which are important in the electrical and thermal distributions in tumour and normal tissue. Results: The results revealed that a hexagonal 3 × 3 geometry provides the maximum electrical coverage of the tumour, compared to other electrode configurations. However, in some cases the hexagonal 2 × 2 geometry can ablate the entire tumour with less damage to normal tissue. We found that the deeper insertion of 2- and 4-electrode geometries can lead to more damage to healthy tissue. The results also indicate that the insertion of the electrodes into tumour tissue can increase thermal damage dramatically due to existing large electrical conductivity. Conclusion: These findings suggest that needle electrodes should not be placed within the tumour tissue if the goal is to prevent thermal damage. This method can be used as a trade-off between electric field coverage in tumour tissue and thermal damage to both tumour and normal tissue.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 08/2014; 30(5):335-347.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to experimentally assess temperature measurement error, or artefact, in ex vivo healthy porcine pancreases undergoing laser ablation due to direct light absorption by thermocouples, investigate this artefact at different relative positions between thermocouples and laser applicator, and correct the artefact by a three-variables model. Materials and methods: Temperature in ex vivo healthy porcine pancreases undergoing laser ablation, using a Nd:YAG laser at two low powers (i.e. 1.6 W and 2 W) and a single applicator, was monitored by thermocouples. Artefact caused by laser light absorption of thermocouple metallic wires was assessed at 12 relative positions by changing the relative distance (d) and the angle (θ) forming between applicator and thermocouples. Reference temperature was measured by fibre Bragg grating sensors. Trials were performed using a three-variables model (i.e. power, d and θ) based on Pennes’ equation to correct the artefact. Results: The higher d and θ, the lower the artefact (e.g. at θ = 0° and power = 2 W, the artefact is 14.0 °C at d = 3 mm and 4.0 °C at d = 7 mm). Artefact increases with power. The three-variables model allows the minimising of the artefact: the maximum artefact decreases from 14 °C to 2.8 °C applying the proposed correction. Conclusions: Artefact is strongly influenced by the relative position between applicator and thermocouples. The correction based on the model minimises the artefact at the two low powers employed during the experiments. Further trials are required to investigate the feasibility of the model at higher powers.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 07/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify reference genes showing stable expression in chondrocytes cultured under several different thermal environments and in different culture systems. Materials and methods: Human articular chondrocytes were cultured by monolayer or pellet culture system at 32 °C, 37 °C, and 41 °C for 3 days. Thereafter, the total RNA was extracted, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed. The qRT-PCR data was analysed using three different algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper) to identify reference genes exhibiting stable expression from among the seven candidate reference genes (B2M, ACTB, GAPDH, HSPCB, RPL13a, YWHAZ, and 18S). Results: The candidate reference genes, except for HSPCB and YWHAZ, showed systematic variations in expression. In the monolayer culture, RPL13a was the most stable gene identified using NormFinder and BestKeeper; on using geNorm, ACTB and GAPDH showed the highest expression stability. In the pellet culture, ACTB was the most stable gene identified using NormFinder and BestKeeper, whereas GAPDH and RPL13a were the most stable reference genes as determined using geNorm. In the combined group, B2M and GAPDH were the most stable genes identified using geNorm, whereas RPL13a and YWHAZ were the most stable as per NormFinder and BestKeeper, respectively. The best combination of two candidate reference genes among all the groups determined using NormFinder was RPL13a and YWHAZ. Conclusion: The combination of RPL13a and YWHAZ might be suitable as reference genes for human chondrocytes cultured at 32 °C, 37 °C, and 41 °C in monolayer, pellet, or combined cultures.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 05/2014; 30(3):210-6.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) are used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hyperthermia for cancer treatment. The relationship between MRI signal intensity and cellular iron concentration for many new formulations, particularly MNPs having magnetic properties designed for heating in hyperthermia, is lacking. In this study, we examine the correlation between MRI T2 relaxation time and iron content in cancer cells loaded with various MNP formulations. Materials and methods: Human prostate carcinoma DU-145 cells were loaded with starch-coated bionised nanoferrite (BNF), iron oxide (Nanomag® D-SPIO), Feridex™, and dextran-coated Johns Hopkins University (JHU) particles at a target concentration of 50 pg Fe/cell using poly-D-lysine transfection reagent. T2-weighted MRI of serial dilutions of these labelled cells was performed at 9.4 T and iron content quantification was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Clonogenic assay was used to characterise cytotoxicity. Results: No cytotoxicity was observed at twice the target intracellular iron concentration (∼100 pg Fe/cell). ICP-MS revealed highest iron uptake efficiency with BNF and JHU particles, followed by Feridex and Nanomag-D-SPIO, respectively. Imaging data showed a linear correlation between increased intracellular iron concentration and decreased T2 times, with no apparent correlation among MNP magnetic properties. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that for the range of nanoparticle concentrations internalised by cancer cells the signal intensity of T2-weighted MRI correlates closely with absolute iron concentration associated with the cells. This correlation may benefit applications for cell-based cancer imaging and therapy including nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery and hyperthermia.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 05/2014; 30(3):192-200.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) arising from colorectal cancer is associated with poor prognosis and few treatment options are currently available. Laparoscopic CO2 insufflation stimulates the progression and metastatic potential of gastrointestinal carcinomas. However, heated and humidified CO2 pneumoperitoneum (HH-CO2) is a promising treatment for PC, although its effects and mechanism of action in human colon cancer cells remain unclear. This study evaluated the anti-tumour effects of HH-CO2 on human colon cancer in vitro. Methods: Cell viability was assessed using the WST-8 assay in two colon cancer cell lines. Apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V PI flow cytometry, and migration and invasion were examined using wound healing and Transwell® invasion assays. The expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), E-cadherin, ICAM-1, and CD44 were detected by western blotting. Results: HH-CO2 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and adhesion. HH-CO2 induced apoptosis and significantly inhibited the expression of Bcl-2, MMP-2, ICAM-1 and CD44, and increased Bax and E-cadherin expression in colon cancer cells. Conclusions: HH-CO2 induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation, migration, invasion and adhesion of human colon cancer cells. Our results suggest that HH-CO2 may serve as a potential candidate for the treatment and/or prevention of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer and warrant further in vivo investigation.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: The aim of this paper is to report thermal dosimetry characteristics of external deep regional pelvic hyperthermia combined with intravesical mitomycin C (MMC) for treating bladder cancer following transurethral resection of bladder tumour, and to use thermal data to evaluate reliability of delivering the prescribed hyperthermia dose to bladder tissue. Materials and methods: A total of 14 patients were treated with MMC and deep regional hyperthermia (BSD-2000, Sigma Ellipse or Sigma 60). The hyperthermia objective was 42° ± 2 °C to bladder tissue for ≥40 min per treatment. Temperatures were monitored with thermistor probes and recorded values were used to calculate thermal dose and evaluate treatment. Anatomical characteristics were examined for possible correlations with heating. Results: Combined with BSD-2000 standard treatment planning and patient feedback, real-time temperature monitoring allowed thermal steering of heat sufficient to attain the prescribed thermal dose to bladder tissue within patient tolerance in 91.6% of treatments. Mean treatment time for bladder tissue >40 °C was 61.9 ± 11.4 min and mean thermal dose was 21.3 ± 16.5 CEM43. Average thermal doses obtained in normal tissues were 1.6 ± 1.2 CEM43 for the rectum and 0.8 ± 1.3 CEM43 in superficial normal tissues. No significant correlation was seen between patient anatomical characteristics and thermal dose achieved in bladder tissue. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a hyperthermia prescription of 42° ± 2 °C for 40-60 min can be delivered safely to bladder tissue with external radiofrequency phased array applicators for a typical range of patient sizes. Using the available thermometry and treatment planning, the BSD-2000 hyperthermia system was shown to be an effective method of focusing heat regionally around the bladder with good patient tolerance.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: From the role of double strand DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) activity of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair for DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), we aim to define possible associations between thermo-sensitisation and the enzyme activities in X-ray irradiated cells. Materials and methods: DNA-PKcs deficient mouse, Chinese hamster and human cultured cells were compared to the parental wild-type cells. The radiosensitivities, the number of DSBs and DNA-PKcs activities after heat-treatment were measured. Results: Both DNA-PKcs deficient cells and the wild-type cells showed increased radiosensitivities after heat-treatment. The wild-type cells have two repair processes; fast repair and slow repair. In contrast, DNA-PKcs deficient cells have only the slow repair process. The fast repair component apparently disappeared by heat-treatment in the wild-type cells. In both cell types, additional heat exposure enhanced radiosensitivities. Although DNA-PKcs activity was depressed by heat, the inactivated DNA-PKcs activity recovered during an incubation at 37 °C. DSB repair efficiency was dependent on the reactivation of DNA-PKcs activity. Conclusion: It was suggested that NHEJ is the major process used to repair X-ray-induced DSBs and utilises DNA-PKcs activity, but homologous recombination repair provides additional secondary levels of DSB repair. The thermo-sensitisation in X-ray-irradiated cells depends on the inhibition of NHEJ repair through the depression of DNA-PKcs activities.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2014; 30(2):102-9.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: This paper examines X-ray CT, to serve as an image-guiding thermal monitoring modality for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment of fatty tissues. Materials and methods: Six ex vivo porcine fat tissue specimens were scanned by X-ray CT simultaneously with the application of HIFU. Images were acquired during both heating and post-ablation stages. The temperature at the focal zone was measured simultaneously using a thermocouple. The mean values of the Hounsfield units (HU) at the focal zone were registered and plotted as a function of temperature. Results: In all specimens studied, the HU versus temperature curves measured during the heating stage depicted a characteristic non-linear parabolic trajectory (R(2) > 0.87). The HU-temperature trajectory initially decreased to a minimum value at about 44.5 °C and then increased substantially as the heating progressed. The occurrence of this nadir point during the heating stage was clearly detectable. During post-ablation cooling, on the other hand, the HU increased monotonically with the decreasing temperature and depicted a clearly linear trajectory (R(2) ≥ 0.9). Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the HU-temperature curve during HIFU treatment has a characteristic parabolic trajectory for fat tissue that might potentially be utilised for thermal monitoring during HIFU ablation treatments. The clear detection of 44.5 °C, presumably marking the onset of hyperthermic injury, can be detected non-invasively as an occurrence of a minimum on the HU-time curve without any need to relate the HU directly to temperature. Such features may be helpful in monitoring and optimising HIFU thermal treatment for clinically applicable indications such as in the breast by providing a non-invasive monitoring of tissue damage.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2014; 30(2):119-25.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: This work focuses on the characterisation of the ablated area induced by a microwave thermal ablation (MTA) procedure. An experimental methodology for establishing a straightforward correlation between the temperature gradient and the changes in the dielectric properties of the tissue is presented and discussed. Materials and methods: Temperature measurements were performed during an ablation procedure in ex vivo bovine liver, at different distances from the antenna, whereas measurements of complex permittivity were conducted in sagittal sections of the ablated samples. The measured temperatures and dielectric properties were then correlated to obtain the dependence of the dielectric properties' spatial variation on the temperature gradient. The obtained correlation has been validated through comparison with previously obtained experimental data. A weighted cubic polynomial function and a weighted sigmoid function have been tested for best-fit interpolation of the measured data. Results: Temperatures in the range 23-105 °C were measured during the MTA procedure, while, after the end of the MTA trials, relative permittivities in the range 7-43 and electric conductivities in the range 0.3-1.8 S/m were measured according to the distance from the antenna's axis. The polynomial function showed better regression coefficients than the sigmoid one for both the relative permittivity (R(2 )= 0.9947 versus R(2 )= 0.9912, respectively) and the conductivity (R(2 )= 0.9919 versus R(2 )= 0.9866, respectively). However, the weighted cubic function showed an unrealistic behaviour for the relative permittivity at temperatures lower than 40 °C. Conclusions: According to the results obtained, information on the changes in the dielectric properties of the tissue under MTA treatment could be inferred from measured temperature data. Once validated by in vivo studies, the proposed methodology could be exploited to develop predictive tools for treatment planning.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2014; 30(2):110-8.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: This study assessed the efficacy and safety of artificial ascites in assisting ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave (MW) ablation of hepatic tumours adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract. Materials and methods: In total, 36 patients with 36 hepatic malignancies who underwent the introduction of artificial ascites before ultrasound-guided percutaneous MW ablation were included in this retrospective study. The separation success rate of the artificial ascites, the technique effectiveness of the MW ablation, local tumour progression and complications were assessed. Results: The separation success rate of the artificial ascites for 36 hepatic tumours adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract was 88.9% (32/36). The technical effectiveness of MW ablation in 32 cases with successful separation was 96.9% (31/32). During follow-up (mean, 12.1 ± 7.2 months), local tumour progression was found in five of 31 patients (16.1%). One patient experienced a major complication (infection of the hepatic ablation zone). Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided percutaneous MW ablation assisted by artificial ascites is a safe and effective method for the treatment of primary and metastatic hepatic tumours adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract and can achieve good local control of such tumours.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2014; 30(2):134-41.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Collateral thermal injury can occur as a serious complication of microwave ablation. This study aimed to assess the insulating effect of a thermosensitive, chitosan-based hydrogel during the percutaneous microwave ablation of liver tissue abutting the stomach. Materials and methods: Thermometry needles (R1-R4) were positioned at 5-mm intervals from a thermal source to measure in vitro the temperature differences due to the hydrogel (R1 closest to the thermal source). Subsequently, two groups of eight rabbits each were injected with 10 mL of hydrogel solution or 410 ± 95 mL of 5% saline between the liver and stomach wall. A control group of eight rabbits received no ablation protection measures. The livers were ablated with 40 W for 300 s in 24 ablation zones. The severity of thermal injury to the stomach wall was assessed histologically. Results: In vitro, the mean maximum temperature difference between the R1 and R2 thermometry needles was 31.3° ± 0.1 °C. When R1 was over 60 °C, the mean temperatures at R2, R3, and R4 were 29.8° ± 0.1 °C, 18.6 ± 0.3 °C, and 18.1° ± 0.1 °C, respectively. After ablation for 300 s, the maximum temperature at R2 was 48.7° ± 0.2 °C. None of the rabbits injected with gel showed any injury after ablation; however, the other two groups showed varying degrees of thermal injury. Conclusion: The in situ gel protected the adjacent stomach wall from injury during percutaneous microwave ablation of liver tissue. Although the present technique appears promising, further studies are necessary prior to clinical application.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 02/2014;