International Journal of Hyperthermia (Int J Hyperther )

Publisher: European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology; North American Hyperthermia Group, Taylor & Francis

Description

The official journal of the North American Hyperthermia Society, the European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology, and the Japanese Society of Hyperthermic Oncology, the International Journal of Hyperthermia provides a forum for the publication of research and clinical studies and trials on hyperthermia which fall largely into the three main categories of clinical studies, biological studies and techniques of heat delivery and temperature measurement.

  • Impact factor
    2.59
  • 5-year impact
    2.73
  • Cited half-life
    6.70
  • Immediacy index
    0.48
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.59
  • Website
    International Journal of Hyperthermia website
  • Other titles
    International journal of hyperthermia
  • ISSN
    1464-5157
  • OCLC
    53400193
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Taylor & Francis

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 month embargo for STM, Behavioural Science and Public Health Journals
    • 18 month embargo for SSH journals
  • Conditions
    • Some individual journals may have policies prohibiting pre-print archiving
    • Pre-print on authors own website, Institutional or Subject Repository
    • Post-print on authors own website, Institutional or Subject Repository
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On a non-profit server
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set statements to accompany deposits (see policy)
    • Publisher will deposit to PMC on behalf of NIH authors.
    • STM: Science, Technology and Medicine
    • SSH: Social Science and Humanities
    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a new tumour ablation method used in cancer treatment procedures. In a successful IRE treatment it is crucial to impose minimum thermal damage to the tumour and its surrounding healthy tissue, while subjecting the entire tumour to a strong electric field. Method: Here we present a 3D model of a subcutaneous tumour in a four-layer skin using a geometry-based finite element approach. Four common needle electrode configurations were studied in this paper. The study evaluated six essential factors which are important in the electrical and thermal distributions in tumour and normal tissue. Results: The results revealed that a hexagonal 3 × 3 geometry provides the maximum electrical coverage of the tumour, compared to other electrode configurations. However, in some cases the hexagonal 2 × 2 geometry can ablate the entire tumour with less damage to normal tissue. We found that the deeper insertion of 2- and 4-electrode geometries can lead to more damage to healthy tissue. The results also indicate that the insertion of the electrodes into tumour tissue can increase thermal damage dramatically due to existing large electrical conductivity. Conclusion: These findings suggest that needle electrodes should not be placed within the tumour tissue if the goal is to prevent thermal damage. This method can be used as a trade-off between electric field coverage in tumour tissue and thermal damage to both tumour and normal tissue.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 08/2014; 30(5):335-347.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to experimentally assess temperature measurement error, or artefact, in ex vivo healthy porcine pancreases undergoing laser ablation due to direct light absorption by thermocouples, investigate this artefact at different relative positions between thermocouples and laser applicator, and correct the artefact by a three-variables model. Materials and methods: Temperature in ex vivo healthy porcine pancreases undergoing laser ablation, using a Nd:YAG laser at two low powers (i.e. 1.6 W and 2 W) and a single applicator, was monitored by thermocouples. Artefact caused by laser light absorption of thermocouple metallic wires was assessed at 12 relative positions by changing the relative distance (d) and the angle (θ) forming between applicator and thermocouples. Reference temperature was measured by fibre Bragg grating sensors. Trials were performed using a three-variables model (i.e. power, d and θ) based on Pennes’ equation to correct the artefact. Results: The higher d and θ, the lower the artefact (e.g. at θ = 0° and power = 2 W, the artefact is 14.0 °C at d = 3 mm and 4.0 °C at d = 7 mm). Artefact increases with power. The three-variables model allows the minimising of the artefact: the maximum artefact decreases from 14 °C to 2.8 °C applying the proposed correction. Conclusions: Artefact is strongly influenced by the relative position between applicator and thermocouples. The correction based on the model minimises the artefact at the two low powers employed during the experiments. Further trials are required to investigate the feasibility of the model at higher powers.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify reference genes showing stable expression in chondrocytes cultured under several different thermal environments and in different culture systems. Materials and methods: Human articular chondrocytes were cultured by monolayer or pellet culture system at 32 °C, 37 °C, and 41 °C for 3 days. Thereafter, the total RNA was extracted, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed. The qRT-PCR data was analysed using three different algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper) to identify reference genes exhibiting stable expression from among the seven candidate reference genes (B2M, ACTB, GAPDH, HSPCB, RPL13a, YWHAZ, and 18S). Results: The candidate reference genes, except for HSPCB and YWHAZ, showed systematic variations in expression. In the monolayer culture, RPL13a was the most stable gene identified using NormFinder and BestKeeper; on using geNorm, ACTB and GAPDH showed the highest expression stability. In the pellet culture, ACTB was the most stable gene identified using NormFinder and BestKeeper, whereas GAPDH and RPL13a were the most stable reference genes as determined using geNorm. In the combined group, B2M and GAPDH were the most stable genes identified using geNorm, whereas RPL13a and YWHAZ were the most stable as per NormFinder and BestKeeper, respectively. The best combination of two candidate reference genes among all the groups determined using NormFinder was RPL13a and YWHAZ. Conclusion: The combination of RPL13a and YWHAZ might be suitable as reference genes for human chondrocytes cultured at 32 °C, 37 °C, and 41 °C in monolayer, pellet, or combined cultures.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 05/2014; 30(3):210-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) are used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hyperthermia for cancer treatment. The relationship between MRI signal intensity and cellular iron concentration for many new formulations, particularly MNPs having magnetic properties designed for heating in hyperthermia, is lacking. In this study, we examine the correlation between MRI T2 relaxation time and iron content in cancer cells loaded with various MNP formulations. Materials and methods: Human prostate carcinoma DU-145 cells were loaded with starch-coated bionised nanoferrite (BNF), iron oxide (Nanomag® D-SPIO), Feridex™, and dextran-coated Johns Hopkins University (JHU) particles at a target concentration of 50 pg Fe/cell using poly-D-lysine transfection reagent. T2-weighted MRI of serial dilutions of these labelled cells was performed at 9.4 T and iron content quantification was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Clonogenic assay was used to characterise cytotoxicity. Results: No cytotoxicity was observed at twice the target intracellular iron concentration (∼100 pg Fe/cell). ICP-MS revealed highest iron uptake efficiency with BNF and JHU particles, followed by Feridex and Nanomag-D-SPIO, respectively. Imaging data showed a linear correlation between increased intracellular iron concentration and decreased T2 times, with no apparent correlation among MNP magnetic properties. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that for the range of nanoparticle concentrations internalised by cancer cells the signal intensity of T2-weighted MRI correlates closely with absolute iron concentration associated with the cells. This correlation may benefit applications for cell-based cancer imaging and therapy including nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery and hyperthermia.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 05/2014; 30(3):192-200.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) arising from colorectal cancer is associated with poor prognosis and few treatment options are currently available. Laparoscopic CO2 insufflation stimulates the progression and metastatic potential of gastrointestinal carcinomas. However, heated and humidified CO2 pneumoperitoneum (HH-CO2) is a promising treatment for PC, although its effects and mechanism of action in human colon cancer cells remain unclear. This study evaluated the anti-tumour effects of HH-CO2 on human colon cancer in vitro. Methods: Cell viability was assessed using the WST-8 assay in two colon cancer cell lines. Apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V PI flow cytometry, and migration and invasion were examined using wound healing and Transwell® invasion assays. The expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), E-cadherin, ICAM-1, and CD44 were detected by western blotting. Results: HH-CO2 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and adhesion. HH-CO2 induced apoptosis and significantly inhibited the expression of Bcl-2, MMP-2, ICAM-1 and CD44, and increased Bax and E-cadherin expression in colon cancer cells. Conclusions: HH-CO2 induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation, migration, invasion and adhesion of human colon cancer cells. Our results suggest that HH-CO2 may serve as a potential candidate for the treatment and/or prevention of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer and warrant further in vivo investigation.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Ths paper reports a pilot/feasibility trial of neoadjuvant hyperthermic intravesical chemotherapy (HIVEC) prior to transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Materials and methods: A pilot/feasibility clinical trial was performed and 15 patients with intermediate to high-risk NMIBC received HIVEC prior to TURBT. HIVEC consisting of eight weekly instillations of intravesical MMC (80 mg in 50 mL) delivered with the novel Combat BRS® system at a temperature of 43 °C for 60 min. Treatment-related adverse effects were measured and patients were followed for 2 years for disease recurrence. Results: A total of 119 HIVEC treatments occurred. Grade 1 adverse events consisted of irritative bladder symptoms (33%), bladder spasms (27%), pain (27%), haematuria (20%) and urinary tract infection (UTI; 14%). Grade 2 adverse events were bladder calcification (7%) and reduced bladder capacity (7%). No grade 3 or higher toxicity was observed. At TURBT, eight patients (53%) were complete responders (pT0) while seven (47%) were partial responders. With a median follow-up of 29 months, the 3-year cumulative incidence of recurrence was 15%. Conclusions: The Combat BRS® system achieved target bladder temperatures and delivered HIVEC with a favourable side-effect profile. Our pilot trial also provides preliminary evidence of treatment efficacy.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: The aim of this paper is to report thermal dosimetry characteristics of external deep regional pelvic hyperthermia combined with intravesical mitomycin C (MMC) for treating bladder cancer following transurethral resection of bladder tumour, and to use thermal data to evaluate reliability of delivering the prescribed hyperthermia dose to bladder tissue. Materials and methods: A total of 14 patients were treated with MMC and deep regional hyperthermia (BSD-2000, Sigma Ellipse or Sigma 60). The hyperthermia objective was 42° ± 2 °C to bladder tissue for ≥40 min per treatment. Temperatures were monitored with thermistor probes and recorded values were used to calculate thermal dose and evaluate treatment. Anatomical characteristics were examined for possible correlations with heating. Results: Combined with BSD-2000 standard treatment planning and patient feedback, real-time temperature monitoring allowed thermal steering of heat sufficient to attain the prescribed thermal dose to bladder tissue within patient tolerance in 91.6% of treatments. Mean treatment time for bladder tissue >40 °C was 61.9 ± 11.4 min and mean thermal dose was 21.3 ± 16.5 CEM43. Average thermal doses obtained in normal tissues were 1.6 ± 1.2 CEM43 for the rectum and 0.8 ± 1.3 CEM43 in superficial normal tissues. No significant correlation was seen between patient anatomical characteristics and thermal dose achieved in bladder tissue. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a hyperthermia prescription of 42° ± 2 °C for 40-60 min can be delivered safely to bladder tissue with external radiofrequency phased array applicators for a typical range of patient sizes. Using the available thermometry and treatment planning, the BSD-2000 hyperthermia system was shown to be an effective method of focusing heat regionally around the bladder with good patient tolerance.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patients with locally advanced gastric cancer (GC) and/or peritoneal metastases have a poor prognosis despite systemic chemotherapy or palliative surgery. The aim of this retrospective comparative non-randomised study was to evaluate aggressive cytoreduction in combination with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (HIPEC) as a novel treatment strategy for patients with intraperitoneal disseminated and locally advanced GC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-nine GC patients with serosal invasion (n = 19), limited peritoneal metastases (n = 20), or disseminated peritoneal metastases and tense ascites (n = 10) underwent combination therapy with HIPEC. Three matched control groups undergoing standard therapies were retrospectively identified. RESULTS: Combination therapy for serosa-invasive GC reduced the level of metachronous peritoneal carcinomatosis and increased median survival from 12 months to 22.5 months (p = 0.001). The median and 1-year survival rates for intraperitoneal disseminated GC patients undergoing therapy with the use of HIPEC were 12 months and 68.8% compared with 8 months and 25%, respectively (p = 0.004) for control subgroup patients (palliative chemotherapy). The symptomatic use of HIPEC allows effective elimination of recurrent ascites in GC patients. CONCLUSION: HIPEC is a well-tolerated and effective method of adjuvant therapy for gastric cancer with high risk of intraperitoneal progression. Cytoreduction followed by HIPEC improves survival in patients with limited peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric origin.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: From the role of double strand DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) activity of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair for DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), we aim to define possible associations between thermo-sensitisation and the enzyme activities in X-ray irradiated cells. Materials and methods: DNA-PKcs deficient mouse, Chinese hamster and human cultured cells were compared to the parental wild-type cells. The radiosensitivities, the number of DSBs and DNA-PKcs activities after heat-treatment were measured. Results: Both DNA-PKcs deficient cells and the wild-type cells showed increased radiosensitivities after heat-treatment. The wild-type cells have two repair processes; fast repair and slow repair. In contrast, DNA-PKcs deficient cells have only the slow repair process. The fast repair component apparently disappeared by heat-treatment in the wild-type cells. In both cell types, additional heat exposure enhanced radiosensitivities. Although DNA-PKcs activity was depressed by heat, the inactivated DNA-PKcs activity recovered during an incubation at 37 °C. DSB repair efficiency was dependent on the reactivation of DNA-PKcs activity. Conclusion: It was suggested that NHEJ is the major process used to repair X-ray-induced DSBs and utilises DNA-PKcs activity, but homologous recombination repair provides additional secondary levels of DSB repair. The thermo-sensitisation in X-ray-irradiated cells depends on the inhibition of NHEJ repair through the depression of DNA-PKcs activities.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2014; 30(2):102-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: This study assessed the efficacy and safety of artificial ascites in assisting ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave (MW) ablation of hepatic tumours adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract. Materials and methods: In total, 36 patients with 36 hepatic malignancies who underwent the introduction of artificial ascites before ultrasound-guided percutaneous MW ablation were included in this retrospective study. The separation success rate of the artificial ascites, the technique effectiveness of the MW ablation, local tumour progression and complications were assessed. Results: The separation success rate of the artificial ascites for 36 hepatic tumours adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract was 88.9% (32/36). The technical effectiveness of MW ablation in 32 cases with successful separation was 96.9% (31/32). During follow-up (mean, 12.1 ± 7.2 months), local tumour progression was found in five of 31 patients (16.1%). One patient experienced a major complication (infection of the hepatic ablation zone). Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided percutaneous MW ablation assisted by artificial ascites is a safe and effective method for the treatment of primary and metastatic hepatic tumours adjacent to the gastrointestinal tract and can achieve good local control of such tumours.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2014; 30(2):134-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: This work focuses on the characterisation of the ablated area induced by a microwave thermal ablation (MTA) procedure. An experimental methodology for establishing a straightforward correlation between the temperature gradient and the changes in the dielectric properties of the tissue is presented and discussed. Materials and methods: Temperature measurements were performed during an ablation procedure in ex vivo bovine liver, at different distances from the antenna, whereas measurements of complex permittivity were conducted in sagittal sections of the ablated samples. The measured temperatures and dielectric properties were then correlated to obtain the dependence of the dielectric properties' spatial variation on the temperature gradient. The obtained correlation has been validated through comparison with previously obtained experimental data. A weighted cubic polynomial function and a weighted sigmoid function have been tested for best-fit interpolation of the measured data. Results: Temperatures in the range 23-105 °C were measured during the MTA procedure, while, after the end of the MTA trials, relative permittivities in the range 7-43 and electric conductivities in the range 0.3-1.8 S/m were measured according to the distance from the antenna's axis. The polynomial function showed better regression coefficients than the sigmoid one for both the relative permittivity (R(2 )= 0.9947 versus R(2 )= 0.9912, respectively) and the conductivity (R(2 )= 0.9919 versus R(2 )= 0.9866, respectively). However, the weighted cubic function showed an unrealistic behaviour for the relative permittivity at temperatures lower than 40 °C. Conclusions: According to the results obtained, information on the changes in the dielectric properties of the tissue under MTA treatment could be inferred from measured temperature data. Once validated by in vivo studies, the proposed methodology could be exploited to develop predictive tools for treatment planning.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2014; 30(2):110-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Magnetic resonance thermometry (MRT) is an attractive means to non-invasively monitor in vivo temperature during head and neck hyperthermia treatments because it can provide multi-dimensional temperature information with high spatial resolution over large regions of interest. However, validation of MRT measurements in a head and neck clinical set-up is crucial to ensure the temperature maps are accurate. Here we demonstrate a unique approach for temperature probe sensor localisation in head and neck hyperthermia test phantoms. Methods: We characterise the proton resonance frequency shift temperature coefficient and validate MRT measurements in an oil-gel phantom by applying a combination of MR imaging and 3D spline fitting for accurate probe localisation. We also investigate how uncertainties in both the probe localisation and the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) thermal coefficient affect the registration of fibre-optic reference temperature probe and MRT readings. Results: The method provides a two-fold advantage of sensor localisation and PRFS thermal coefficient calibration. We provide experimental data for two distinct head and neck phantoms showing the significance of this method as it mitigates temperature probe localisation errors and thereby increases accuracy of MRT validation results. Conclusions: The techniques presented here may be used to simplify calibration experiments that use an interstitial heating device, or any heating method that provides rapid and spatially localised heat distributions. Overall, the experimental verification of the data registration and PRFS thermal coefficient calibration technique provides a useful benchmarking method to maximise MRT accuracy in any similar context.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2014; 30(2):142-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: This paper examines X-ray CT, to serve as an image-guiding thermal monitoring modality for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment of fatty tissues. Materials and methods: Six ex vivo porcine fat tissue specimens were scanned by X-ray CT simultaneously with the application of HIFU. Images were acquired during both heating and post-ablation stages. The temperature at the focal zone was measured simultaneously using a thermocouple. The mean values of the Hounsfield units (HU) at the focal zone were registered and plotted as a function of temperature. Results: In all specimens studied, the HU versus temperature curves measured during the heating stage depicted a characteristic non-linear parabolic trajectory (R(2) > 0.87). The HU-temperature trajectory initially decreased to a minimum value at about 44.5 °C and then increased substantially as the heating progressed. The occurrence of this nadir point during the heating stage was clearly detectable. During post-ablation cooling, on the other hand, the HU increased monotonically with the decreasing temperature and depicted a clearly linear trajectory (R(2) ≥ 0.9). Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the HU-temperature curve during HIFU treatment has a characteristic parabolic trajectory for fat tissue that might potentially be utilised for thermal monitoring during HIFU ablation treatments. The clear detection of 44.5 °C, presumably marking the onset of hyperthermic injury, can be detected non-invasively as an occurrence of a minimum on the HU-time curve without any need to relate the HU directly to temperature. Such features may be helpful in monitoring and optimising HIFU thermal treatment for clinically applicable indications such as in the breast by providing a non-invasive monitoring of tissue damage.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2014; 30(2):119-25.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Collateral thermal injury can occur as a serious complication of microwave ablation. This study aimed to assess the insulating effect of a thermosensitive, chitosan-based hydrogel during the percutaneous microwave ablation of liver tissue abutting the stomach. Materials and methods: Thermometry needles (R1-R4) were positioned at 5-mm intervals from a thermal source to measure in vitro the temperature differences due to the hydrogel (R1 closest to the thermal source). Subsequently, two groups of eight rabbits each were injected with 10 mL of hydrogel solution or 410 ± 95 mL of 5% saline between the liver and stomach wall. A control group of eight rabbits received no ablation protection measures. The livers were ablated with 40 W for 300 s in 24 ablation zones. The severity of thermal injury to the stomach wall was assessed histologically. Results: In vitro, the mean maximum temperature difference between the R1 and R2 thermometry needles was 31.3° ± 0.1 °C. When R1 was over 60 °C, the mean temperatures at R2, R3, and R4 were 29.8° ± 0.1 °C, 18.6 ± 0.3 °C, and 18.1° ± 0.1 °C, respectively. After ablation for 300 s, the maximum temperature at R2 was 48.7° ± 0.2 °C. None of the rabbits injected with gel showed any injury after ablation; however, the other two groups showed varying degrees of thermal injury. Conclusion: The in situ gel protected the adjacent stomach wall from injury during percutaneous microwave ablation of liver tissue. Although the present technique appears promising, further studies are necessary prior to clinical application.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of temperature on the ability of the chondrocytes to produce extracellular matrix (ECM). Materials and methods: Articular chondrocytes were isolated from porcine knee joints. The chondrocytes were cultured at three different temperatures: 32 °C, 37 °C, and 41 °C. The ability to produce ECM was assessed by gene expression analysis, histological, and biochemical evaluation in a pellet culture system. Results: Wet weight of the pellets generated after 21 days, was significantly heavier when cultured at lower temperatures. Picrosirius red staining, employed to evaluate collagen production, was higher at lower temperatures, and safranin-O staining, used to evaluate sulphated glycosaminoglycan (GAG), was lower at 32 °C than at 37 °C and 41 °C. Collagen type IIA1 mRNA expression was markedly up-regulated at 41 °C. However, picrosirius red staining was inhibited at 41 °C. GAG and DNA content were measured by 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay and PicoGreen® assay, respectively. The GAG content per pellet was significantly low at 41 °C compared to that at 32 °C and 37 °C. The DNA content per pellet was larger at lower temperatures. The GAG content normalised with the DNA content per pellet was significantly lower at 32 °C compared to that at 37 °C and 41 °C. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a culture temperature of approximately 41 °C inhibits ECM production by decreasing DNA content and perhaps by collagen misfolding. Taken together, the optimum temperature for ECM production in articular chondrocytes may be between 32 °C and 37 °C.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: The 'foetal origin hypothesis' postulates that a number of organ structures and associated functions undergo programming during embryonic and foetal life and the neonatal period, which determines the set point of physiological and metabolic responses that carry into adulthood. We evaluate the relationship between high environmental temperatures and the reproductive function of male offspring to determine whether pregnant mammals and their infants are potentially vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Methods: Rabbit pups were exposed to high temperatures during gestation and lactation. Results: Foetal and postnatal exposure to high temperatures did not alter semen characteristics and was associated with a similar fertility rate and number of pups born. Moreover, males showed reduced rate of maturing and carcass traits at adulthood. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that male exposure during the foetal period to high temperatures did not affect sperm quality but permitted an adaptive phenotypic plasticity of growth in adulthood.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate the safety and heating efficiency of external deep pelvic hyperthermia combined with intravesical mitomycin C (MMC) as a novel therapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Materials and methods: We enrolled subjects with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) refractory NMIBC to an early phase clinical trial of external deep pelvic hyperthermia (using a BSD-2000 device) combined with MMC. Bladders were heated to 42 °C for 1 h during intravesical MMC treatment. Treatments were given weekly for 6 weeks, then monthly for 4 months. Heating parameters, treatment toxicity, and clinical outcomes were systematically measured. Results: Fifteen patients were enrolled on the clinical trial. Median age was 66 years and 87% were male. Median European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) recurrence and progression scores were 6 and 8, respectively. The full treatment course was attained in 73% of subjects. Effective bladder heating was possible in all but one patient who could not tolerate the supine position due to lung disease. Adverse events were all minor (grade 2 or less) and no systemic toxicity was observed. The most common adverse effects were Foley catheter pain (40%), abdominal discomfort (33%), chemical cystitis symptoms (27%), and abdominal skin swelling (27%). With a median follow-up of 3.18 years, 67% experienced another bladder cancer recurrence (none were muscle invasive) and 13% experienced an upper tract recurrence. Conclusions: External deep pelvic hyperthermia using the BSD-2000 device is a safe and reproducible method of heating the bladder in patients undergoing intravesical MMC. The efficacy of this treatment modality should be explored further in clinical trials.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 02/2014;

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