International Journal of Hyperthermia (Int J Hyperther)

Publisher: European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology; North American Hyperthermia Group, Informa Healthcare

Journal description

The official journal of the North American Hyperthermia Society, the European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology, and the Japanese Society of Hyperthermic Oncology, the International Journal of Hyperthermia provides a forum for the publication of research and clinical studies and trials on hyperthermia which fall largely into the three main categories of clinical studies, biological studies and techniques of heat delivery and temperature measurement.

Current impact factor: 2.77

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.769
2012 Impact Factor 2.591
2011 Impact Factor 1.923
2010 Impact Factor 2.929
2009 Impact Factor 2.412
2008 Impact Factor 2.339

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 2.73
Cited half-life 6.70
Immediacy index 0.48
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.59
Website International Journal of Hyperthermia website
Other titles International journal of hyperthermia
ISSN 1464-5157
OCLC 53400193
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Informa Healthcare

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website or institution website
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • On a non-profit server
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • NIH funded authors may post articles to PubMed Central for release 12 months after publication
    • Wellcome Trust authors may deposit in Europe PMC after 6 months
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Catheter-based ultrasound (CBUS) is applied to deliver minimally invasive thermal therapy to solid cancer tumours, benign tissue growth, vascular disease, and tissue remodelling. Compared to other energy modalities used in catheter-based surgical interventions, unique features of ultrasound result in conformable and precise energy delivery with high selectivity, fast treatment times, and larger treatment volumes. We present a concise review of CBUS technology being currently utilized in animal and clinical studies or being developed for future applications. CBUS devices have been categorised into interstitial, endoluminal and endovascular/cardiac applications. Basic applicator designs, site-specific evaluations and possible treatment applications have been discussed in brief. Particular emphasis has been given to ablation studies that incorporate image guidance for applicator placement, therapy monitoring, feedback control, and post-procedure assessment. Examples of devices included here span the entire spectrum of the development cycle from preliminary simulation-based design studies to implementation in clinical investigations. The use of CBUS under image guidance has the potential for significantly improving precision and applicability of thermal therapy delivery.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2015; DOI:10.3109/02656736.2015.1006269
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave (MW) ablation for the control of locally recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma (LR-PTC) in patients for whom surgery is not viable. The inclusion criteria for MW ablation were three or fewer LR-PTCs and no recurrence beyond the neck, with ineligibility or refusal to undergo surgery. MW ablation was carried out using a 16-gauge MW antenna under local anaesthesia. Patients were then followed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment and every 6 months thereafter. Technical success usually meant volume reduction more than 50%. Between October 2010 to March 2013 a total of 17 patients (14 women, 3 men; average age 54.1 years) with 23 LR-PTCs, were treated with MW ablation in our department. All the LR-PTCs were technical successes with the number of treatment sessions for one tumour ranging from 1 to 4 (mean, 2.3 ± 0.9). The mean volume reduction ratio of the LR-PTCs was 1 ± 86%, 47 ± 12%, 70 ± 33%, 91 ± 14% at the 1, 3, 6 and 18 months follow-up visit respectively (all p < 0.05). All treated nodules decreased in size: 30.4% nodules (7/23) had completely disappeared, 52.2% nodules (12/23) remained as small scar-like lesions. One patient experienced transient dysphonia immediately after MW ablation. No other severe and permanent complications occurred. Although with some limitations, our preliminary results are encouraging and show MW ablation may be an alternative treatment option for the control of LR-PTCs in selected patients for whom surgery is not viable.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2015; DOI:10.3109/02656736.2015.1014433
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave (MW) ablation for the control of locally recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma (LR-PTC) in patients for whom surgery is not viable. Materials and methods: The inclusion criteria for MW ablation were three or fewer LR-PTCs and no recurrence beyond the neck, with ineligibility or refusal to undergo surgery. MW ablation was carried out using a 16-gauge MW antenna under local anaesthesia. Patients were then followed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment and every 6 months thereafter. Technical success usually meant volume reduction more than 50%. Results: Between October 2010 to March 2013 a total of 17 patients (14 women, 3 men; average age 54.1 years) with 23 LR-PTCs, were treated with MW ablation in our department. All the LR-PTCs were technical successes with the number of treatment sessions for one tumour ranging from 1 to 4 (mean, 2.3 ± 0.9). The mean volume reduction ratio of the LR-PTCs was 1 ± 86%, 47 ± 12%, 70 ± 33%, 91 ± 14% at the 1, 3, 6 and 18 months follow-up visit respectively (all p < 0.05). All treated nodules decreased in size: 30.4% nodules (7/23) had completely disappeared, 52.2% nodules (12/23) remained as small scar-like lesions. One patient experienced transient dysphonia immediately after MW ablation. No other severe and permanent complications occurred. Conclusion: Although with some limitations, our preliminary results are encouraging and show MW ablation may be an alternative treatment option for the control of LR-PTCs in selected patients for whom surgery is not viable.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Ultrasound therapy has been investigated for over half a century. Ultrasound can act on tissue through a variety of mechanisms, including thermal, shockwave and cavitation mechanisms, and through these can elicit different responses. Ultrasound therapy can provide a non-invasive or minimally invasive treatment option, and ultrasound technology has advanced to the point where devices can be developed to investigate a wide range of applications. This review focuses on non-cancer clinical applications of therapeutic ultrasound, with an emphasis on treatments that have recently reached clinical investigations, and preclinical research programmes that have great potential to impact patient care.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ultrasound therapy has been investigated for over half a century. Ultrasound can act on tissue through a variety of mechanisms, including thermal, shockwave and cavitation mechanisms, and through these can elicit different responses. Ultrasound therapy can provide a non-invasive or minimally invasive treatment option, and ultrasound technology has advanced to the point where devices can be developed to investigate a wide range of applications. This review focuses on non-cancer clinical applications of therapeutic ultrasound, with an emphasis on treatments that have recently reached clinical investigations, and preclinical research programmes that have great potential to impact patient care.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2015; DOI:10.3109/02656736.2015.1004375
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    ABSTRACT: Focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) is a non-invasive method for tissue ablation that has the potential for complete and controlled local tumour destruction with minimal side effects. The treatment of abdominal organs such as the liver, however, requires particular technological support in order to enable a safe, efficient and effective treatment. As FUS is applied from outside the patient's body, suitable imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance imaging or diagnostic ultrasound, are needed to guide and track the procedure. To facilitate an efficient FUS procedure in the liver, the organ motion during breathing and the partial occlusion by the rib cage need to be taken into account in real time, demanding a continuous patient-specific adaptation of the treatment configuration. Modelling the patient's respiratory motion and combining this with tracking data improves the accuracy of motion predictions. Modelling and simulation of the FUS effects within the body allows the use of treatment planning and has the potential to be used within therapy to increase knowledge about the patient status. This article describes integrated model-based software for patient-specific modelling and prediction for FUS treatments of moving abdominal organs.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2015; DOI:10.3109/02656736.2014.1002817
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    ABSTRACT: There is a need for a coherent set of exposure and dose quantities to describe ultrasound fields in media other than water (including tissue and tissue-simulating materials). This paper proposes an outline dosimetry scheme, with quantities for free field exposure, in situ exposure, dose (both instantaneous and cumulative) and effect, to act as a structure for organising a more complete set of definitions. It also presents findings from a survey of the views of the therapeutic ultrasound community which generally supports the principle of using modified free field quantities to describe the in situ field, and the prioritising of dose quantities which are related to heating and thermal mechanisms. Although there is no one-to-one relationship between any known ultrasound dose quantity and a specific biological effect, this can also be said of radiotherapy and other modalities where weighting factors have been developed to calculate the degree of equivalence between different tissues and radiation types. This same separation is recommended for ultrasound, provided that an appropriate set of recognised 'engineering' quantities can be established for exposure and dose quantities.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2015; DOI:10.3109/02656736.2014.997311
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical efficacy of thrombolytic drugs is limited by lack of specific delivery and requires large therapeutic doses which increase toxicity. Encapsulating these drugs in temperature-sensitive liposomes and applying hyperthermia to deliver thrombolytic agents locally to thrombus might theoretically favourably alter the therapeutic window. The objectives of this study were to formulate liposomes encapsulating thrombolytics and assess thrombolytic activity following hyperthermia. Three liposome formulations were investigated: temperature-sensitive liposome (TSL, DPPC:DSPE-PEG2000 (mol% 95:5)), low temperature-sensitive liposome (LTSL, DPPC:MSPC:DSPE-PEG2000 (mol% 85.3:9.7:5)), and traditional temperature-sensitive liposome (TTSL, DPPC:HSPC:Chol:DSPE-PEG2000 (mol% 55:25:15:5)). To characterise temperature-dependent release of high molecular weight cargo from each formulation, fluorescein-conjugated dextrans (70 kDa) were loaded and release was quantified via spectrophotometry. Staphylokinase (SAK), urokinase, and tissue-type plasminogen activator were also loaded individually into each liposome formulation. Leakage at 37 °C and release at 38-44 °C were quantified via chromogenic enzymatic activity assay. Clot lysis was evaluated by measuring mass of blood clots before and after thrombolytic liposome treatment. The LTSL formulation had optimal release characteristics with maximum release at 41.3 °C. Release of dextrans from LTSLs was observed to be 11.5 ± 1.5%, 79.7 ± 1.6%, and 93.6 ± 3.7% after 15 min in plasma at 37°, 39°, and 41.3 °C, respectively. The SAK LTSL had the highest release/leakage ratio and demonstrated greater clot lysis. The SAK LTSL achieves significant clot lysis in vitro. When combined with local hyperthermia, the SAK LTSL potentially produces sufficient thrombolysis while minimising systemic side effects.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2015; DOI:10.3109/02656736.2014.991428
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    ABSTRACT: This study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided (US-guided) percutaneous microwave (MW) ablation combined with percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) to treat liver tumours adjacent to the gallbladder. A total of 136 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) adjacent to the gallbladder, who underwent ultra-sonographically-guided percutaneous MW ablation, which was combined with PEI in132 patients, were retrospectively assessed. The patient population characteristics, tumour features, local tumour progression and treatment were compared and analysed. The safety and efficacy of the therapy were assessed by clinical data and imaging in follow-up examinations. All patients were completely treated with two sessions; 120 patients underwent one session, 16 patients underwent two sessions. The primary technique was effective in 95.6% of the cases, according to the computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the one-month follow-up (132 of 138 sessions). PEI and other therapies were performed in the patients who had been incompletely treated (all six patients underwent PEI, and some underwent other therapies, including one transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE), one liver transplantation and two liver resections). There was a median follow-up period of 30.1 months and a range of 4 to 68 months. None of the patients had major complications. There were no treatment-related deaths. Twenty-six patients died of primary disease progression that was not directly attributable to MW ablation (19.1%, 26/136). Local tumour progression was noted in five patients (3.7%, 5/136), who had completely ablated tumours at follow-up. The patients with locally progressing tumours underwent additional therapy (three patients underwent PEI, one patient TACE, and one liver resection). Ultrasound-guided percutaneous MW ablation, in combination with percutaneous ethanol injection and thermal monitoring, is a safe and effective treatment for HCC adjacent to the gallbladder.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2015; DOI:10.3109/02656736.2014.999017
  • International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2015; DOI:10.3109/02656736.2015.1011716
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) on ultrasound guided high intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) ablation of uterine fibroids. Thirty-three patients (37 fibroids) were randomly assigned to two groups: group A (17 patients, 20 fibroids) in which CEUS was used before, during and after HIFU treatment, and group B (16 patients, 17 fibroids) in which CEUS was not administered at all. Follow-up including contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a clinical questionnaire was performed, and technical success, ablation efficacy, volume reduction and complications were assessed. Technical success was 100% in both groups. CEUS revealed residual enhancement in 40% of the patients in group A and the treatment was continued until the completion of ablation. MRI at 1 month after treatment revealed significant difference in the relative fibroid volume reduction rate between the two groups: 16.1% in group A versus 4.8%, in group B (p = 0.01). There was no statistically significant relative volume reduction rate for the results at 3, 6 and 12 months and no significant changes in the quality of life results or the complication rate. CEUS was safe and effective in enhancing US guidance during HIFU ablation of uterine fibroids. Moreover, the use of CEUS during HIFU sonication increased the ablation efficacy, leading to a more relevant fibroid volume reduction at 1 and 3 months. This gap disappeared after 6 months, when there were no differences between the two groups of patients at MRI. However, in our experience, USgHIFU represented a very effective method for the treatment of uterine fibroids, and the use of CEUS during HIFU procedure reduced the treatment time and treatment repetitions for incomplete fibroid ablation.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2015; DOI:10.3109/02656736.2015.1004134
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract In this review we present the current status of ultrasound thermometry and ablation monitoring, with emphasis on the diverse approaches published in the literature and with an eye on which methods are closest to clinical reality. It is hoped that this review will serve as a guide to the expansion of sonographic methods for treatment monitoring and thermometry since the last brief review in 2007.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2015; DOI:10.3109/02656736.2015.1009180
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Air-backed transducers have been employed for thermal ultrasonic treatment including both ablation and hyperthermia because the power efficiency rather than the bandwidth is a main concern, unlike a typical imaging transducer working in a pulse mode. The characteristic of an air-backed piezoelectric transducer with a matching layer is analysed, and the role and choice of the matching layer is discussed. An element size of a focused array transducer, appropriate for such thermal treatment, is then estimated, and the characteristic of a piezoceramic transducer element of such a size was numerically analysed using a finite element code. The characteristic of a piezocomposite transducer element is also numerically analysed and its suitability to such a therapeutic array transducer is discussed.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2015; DOI:10.3109/02656736.2015.1008059
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The aim of this paper is to quantitatively investigate the thermal effects generated by the pre-focal interactions of a HIFU beam with a rib cage, in the context of minimally invasive transcostal therapy of liver malignancies. Materials and methods: HIFU sonications were produced by a phased-array MR-compatible transducer on Turkey muscle placed on a sheep thoracic cage specimen. The thoracic wall was positioned in the pre-focal zone 3.5 to 6.5 cm below the focus. Thermal monitoring was simultaneously performed using fluoroptic sensors inserted into the medullar cavity of the ribs and high resolution MR-thermometry (voxel: 1 × 1 × 5 mm(3), four multi-planar slices). Results: MR-thermometry data indicated nearly isotropic distribution of the thermal energy at the ribs' surface. The temperature elevation at the focus was comparable with the pericostal temperature elevation around unprotected ribs, while being systematically inferior, by more than a factor of four on average, to the intra-medullar values. The spatial profiles of the pericostal and intra-medullar thermal build-up measurements could be smoothly connected using a Gaussian function. The dynamics of the post-sonication thermal relaxation as determined by fluoroptic measurements was demonstrated to be theoretically coherent with the experimental observations. Conclusion: The experimental findings motivate further efforts for the transfer towards clinical routine of effective rib-sparing strategies for hepatic HIFU.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 03/2015; DOI:10.3109/02656736.2015.1009501
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract It is well established that the interaction of ultrasound with soft tissues can induce a wide range of bioeffects. One of the most important and complex of these interactions in the context of therapeutic ultrasound is with the vasculature. Potential vascular effects range from enhancing microvascular permeability to inducing vascular damage and vessel occlusion. While aspects of these effects are broadly understood, the development of improved approaches to exploit these effects and gain a more detailed mechanistic understanding is ongoing and largely anchored in preclinical research. Here a general overview of this established yet rapidly evolving topic is provided, with a particular emphasis on effects arising from high-intensity focused ultrasound and microbubble-mediated exposures.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 02/2015; DOI:10.3109/02656736.2015.1009179
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: The aim of this paper was to introduce a new mechanism of thermal sensitivity in nanocarriers that results in a relatively low drug release at physiological temperature and rapid release of the encapsulated drug at hyperthermia and thermal ablation temperature range (40-60 °C). Materials and methods: The nanocarriers were synthesised by coating mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a thin layer of polyacrylamide. The low gelation temperature of the protective shell provides preferred routes for drug diffusion when the nanocarriers are heated within the hyperthermia temperature range. In order to determine the gelation point of polyacrylamide shell, differential scanning calorimetry was used. Various chemical, morphological, thermal, as well as drug loading capacities of these nanocarriers were characterised and their drug release behaviour was examined using magnetic resonance -guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS). Results: Drug release measurements at different temperatures using doxorubicin showed 11.5 ± 2.4% leakage in aqueous solution at 37 °C after 30 min, while this value was significantly increased to 67.6 ± 2.5% at 60 °C. A 39.2 ± 2.2% release of doxorubicin was also obtained due to the sonication of drug-loaded nanoparticles for 5 × 20 s using MRgFUS. Conclusion: The nanocarriers developed do not exhibit a sharp transition temperature. However, a relatively high loading efficiency as well as rapid drug release at thermal ablation temperature range makes these nanostructures promising candidates for application as adjuvants to various thermal modalities such as radiofrequency and high intensity focused ultrasound.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 02/2015; DOI:10.3109/02656736.2015.1006268
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: This study is an investigation of the relationship between several characteristic parameters and acute thermal damage in porcine skeletal muscle. Material and methods: Fourteen pigs under injection anaesthesia were placed into a magnetic resonance body coil and exposed for different time durations to different specific energy absorption rate (SAR) levels at 123 MHz. Local temperatures were measured using four temperature sensors. Sensors 1-3 were placed in skeletal muscle and one sensor was placed in the rectum. Sensors 1 and 2 were placed in hot-spot areas and sensor 3 was placed at the periphery of the animals. The pigs were exposed to whole-body SAR (SAR-wb) between 2.5 W/kg and 5.2 W/kg for 30 or 60 min. Three animals received no SAR. After each experiment, muscle samples adjacent to the positions of sensors 1-3 were taken for frozen section analysis. Three characteristic parameters were chosen for investigation: SAR-wb, maximum sensor temperature (T-max), and cumulative equivalent minutes at 43 °C (CEM43 °C). Results: Histopathological criteria were established to detect acute thermal tissue damage in frozen sections such as widening of intercellular space between the muscle fibres and loss of glycogen. Clear tissue damage thresholds were found for T-max and CEM43 °C, though not for SAR-wb. For all animals with high thermal exposure, damage was also found for muscle samples adjacent to the peripheral sensor 3. Conclusions: Both T-max and CEM43, are able to predict thermal damage in porcine muscle. However, CEM43 is the less ambiguous parameter. The reasons for the occurrence of the aforementioned damage at low local temperatures at the animals' periphery remain unclear and further investigations are needed.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 02/2015; DOI:10.3109/02656736.2015.1007537
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) involves the continuous heating and circulation of chemotherapy throughout the abdominal cavity in an attempt to enhance cytotoxicity. Despite the potential of this chemotherapy procedure, there are scant anatomical temperature distribution studies reporting on this therapeutic process. Patients and methods: We prospectively evaluated the temperature of select anatomical (e.g. upper abdominal, mid-abdominal and supra-pubic) sites in 11 advanced stage ovarian cancer patients who were treated with consolidation HIPEC carboplatin (AUC 10). The temperature of the aforementioned anatomical regions and the inflow/outflow tubing was measured at baseline and at 15-min intervals until the procedure’s completion. Results: The lowest observed mean composite temperature was 41.1 °C at the supra-pubic site whereas the highest temperature was 42.6 °C, in association with the inflow/outflow tubing. During the various time intervals we also ascertained that the lowest composite temperature was 40.9 °C at baseline (i.e. time 0), whereas the highest value (41.8 °C) occurred at multiple time periods (e.g. 15, 45 and 60 min). Conclusion: The HIPEC temperature variation amongst the various abdominal sites and time intervals was minimal. We also discerned that uniform temperature distribution throughout the abdominal cavity was facilitated when the abdomen was both maximally distended with fluid and a high flow rate was maintained.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 02/2015; DOI:10.3109/02656736.2015.1007399
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are used routinely in the clinic to enhance contrast in ultrasonography. More recently, UCAs have been functionalised by conjugating ligands to their surface to target specific biomarkers of a disease or a disease process. These targeted UCAs (tUCAs) are used for a wide range of pre-clinical applications including diagnosis, monitoring of drug treatment, and therapy. In this review, recent achievements with tUCAs in the field of molecular imaging, evaluation of therapy, drug delivery, and therapeutic applications are discussed. We present the different coating materials and aspects that have to be considered when manufacturing tUCAs. Next to tUCA design and the choice of ligands for specific biomarkers, additional techniques are discussed that are applied to improve binding of the tUCAs to their target and to quantify the strength of this bond. As imaging techniques rely on the specific behaviour of tUCAs in an ultrasound field, it is crucial to understand the characteristics of both free and adhered tUCAs. To image and quantify the adhered tUCAs, the state-of-the-art techniques used for ultrasound molecular imaging and quantification are presented. This review concludes with the potential of tUCAs for drug delivery and therapeutic applications.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 02/2015; DOI:10.3109/02656736.2014.997809
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract In high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, an ultrasound beam is focused within the body to locally affect the targeted site without damaging intervening tissues. The most common HIFU regime is thermal ablation. Recently there has been increasing interest in generating purely mechanical lesions in tissue (histotripsy). This paper provides an overview of several studies on the development of histotripsy methods toward clinical applications. Two histotripsy approaches and examples of their applications are presented. In one approach, sequences of high-amplitude, short (microsecond-long), focused ultrasound pulses periodically produce dense, energetic bubble clouds that mechanically disintegrate tissue. In an alternative approach, longer (millisecond-long) pulses with shock fronts generate boiling bubbles and the interaction of shock fronts with the resulting vapour cavity causes tissue disintegration. Recent preclinical studies on histotripsy are reviewed for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), liver and kidney tumours, kidney stone fragmentation, enhancing anti-tumour immune response, and tissue decellularisation for regenerative medicine applications. Potential clinical advantages of the histotripsy methods are discussed. Histotripsy methods can be used to mechanically ablate a wide variety of tissues, whilst selectivity sparing structures such as large vessels. Both ultrasound and MR imaging can be used for targeting and monitoring the treatment in real time. Although the two approaches utilise different mechanisms for tissue disintegration, both have many of the same advantages and offer a promising alternative method of non-invasive surgery.
    International Journal of Hyperthermia 02/2015; DOI:10.3109/02656736.2015.1007538