International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions (Int J Cardiovasc Interv )


International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions covers the frontiers of conventional and new device angioplasty modalities including: balloon angioplasty, stenting, atherectomy techniques, micro-technology innovations, imaging technologies, new drug therapies for restenosis, coronary physiology, and endothelial function. It is of immense interest and practical value to all those working in interventional cardiology. Features include: New technologies and devices covered Highly illustrated throughout Quality review papers on current topics Original research papers Case reports and short reports PointCounterpoint - a forum for expert debate of the pros and cons of a particular treatment strategy View from the Cath Lab - practical perspectives on laboratory technique Images in cardiology - illustrations of important new techniques in situ. Discontinued in January 2006. Now known as Acute Cardiac Care (1748-2941).

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    International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions website
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    International journal of cardiovascular interventions (Online)
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Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a dreadful complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) associated with a poor prognosis. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is widely recommended by current treatment guidelines. AIM: To evaluate the in‐hospital and 30‐day mortality rate and to determine independent predictors of mortality in a cohort of unselected consecutive patients with CS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rabin Medical Center cardiac catheterization laboratory database was analyzed between 1/2000 and 8/2003. Fifty of the 472 patients (10.6%) treated using emergent PCI for AMI had cardiogenic shock on presentation. Patients with cardiogenic shock were older, more likely to be female and with higher frequency of co‐morbidities. The time from symptom onset until seeking medical treatment was longer in cardiogenic shock patients. In‐hospital mortality rate was 48.0% in the cardiogenic shock group as compared to 3.3% in the non‐cardiogenic shock group (P<0.0001). In patients with shock, total mortality after 30 days was 52% (26/50). Most of these patients (25/26) died within 48 hours following admission because of refractory cardiogenic shock. A multivariate analysis adjusted for baseline differences showed that age 75 years (odds ratio [OR]: 11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–1.24, P = 0.05), and the use of GP 2b/3a antagonist (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95–1.0, P = 0.05), were independent predictors of all cause mortality at 30 days. CONCLUSION: Cardiogenic shock remains an important cause of mortality in AMI. Younger age and the use of GP 2b/3a antagonists during primary PCI for cardiogenic shock patients seems to be associated with better clinical outcomes.
    International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions 07/2009; 7(4):193-198.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although safety and efficacy of the NIR ™ stent have been reported, the long-term angiographic and clinical outcomes have yet to be investigated. The FINESS-II study (First International NIR Endovascular Stent Study) was designed to assess the procedural safety of single 9 and 16 mm NIR stent implantation, the six-month restenosis rate and finally the six- and 12-month clinical outcome of patients treated with this novel coronary stent. METHODS: Patients with angina and a single de novo lesion in a native coronary artery of >3 and <5 mm diameter were included in this multicentre, prospective, observational trial. Clinical follow-up was obtained at one, six and 12 months. Angiography was performed before and after the stent implantation and at six months. The primary endpoint included major adverse cardiac events (death, myocardial infarction and target lesion revascularization) within 30 days after the procedure. Major bleeding complications and subacute stent thrombosis within the first 30 days were also reported as specific enpoints. Secondary endpoints were major cardiac-event-free survival at six- and 12- month follow-up and angiographic restenosis at six months. RESULTS: A total of 156 patients (81% male, mean age 60 - 10 years), with stable (54%), unstable (40%) angina pectoris or silent ischemia (6%) were enrolled. The target vessel diameter was 2.94 - 0.54 mm. The minimal lumen diameter pre, post and at follow-up was 1.04 - 0.32 mm, 2.64 - 0.42 mm and 1.88 - 0.63 mm, respectively. Restenosis rate according to the >50% diameter stenosis criterion at six month follow-up was 19% (26/136). At 12 months, the event-free survival rate was 83% (two deaths, one Q-wave and three non-Q-wave myocardial infarctions, four bypass surgery and 17 target lesion revascularizations), while 87% of the patients were free of angina pectoris. CONCLUSION: the outcome of the FINESS-II trial is comparable to those observed in previous stent trials (Benestent II), indicating that the coronary NIR stent is safe and effective as a primary device for the treatment of native coronary artery endpoints. lesions in patients with (un)stable angina pectoris. (Int J Cardiovasc Intervent 2000; 3: 143-151)
    International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions 07/2009; 3(3):143-151.
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    ABSTRACT: We examined our experience using the sirolimus eluting stents (Cypher) as an alternative to surgical revascularization in carefully selected cohort of patients undergoing multi-vessel percutaneous coronary intervention. Fifty consecutive patients with multi-vessel disease who were good candidates for both surgical and percutaneous revascularization were included in the current analysis. All patients underwent a careful clinical evaluation prior to the intervention, and they were followed for procedural and clinical outcomes for nine months. Mean age was 64+/-11 years (40 males, 30% diabetics) and 10 patients (20%) had three-vessel disease. Angina class was 2.7+/-0.6 at baseline. Overall, 116 lesions were treated using 122 stents (mean 2.4 stents per patient). Total mean stent length was 43+/-12 mm (range: 21-90 mm). Overall, one patient died during follow-up (2%), no patient had stroke or Q wave MI and one patient experienced non-Q myocardial infarction. There was no documented stent thrombosis and two patients (4%) underwent target-vessel revascularization. The hierarchical cumulative major adverse cardiac event rate was 8% and the cardiac event-free survival rate was thus 92%. Multi-vessel stenting using Cypher stents is a viable treatment strategy in selected group of patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease. It is associated with excellent intermediate-term clinical outcomes and thus it could serve as the primary revascularization strategy of choice in appropriate candidates.
    International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2005; 7(3):122-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Dextrocardia is rare and percutaneous intervention in such patients presents additional challenges to the operator. This report describes successful two-vessel angioplasty and stenting, including a chronic, sub-totally occluded proximal left anterior descending artery.
    International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2005; 7(1):61-2.
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    ABSTRACT: Percutaneous mitral commissurotomy and aortic valvuloplasty have been being performed since the mid-1980s. Balloon commissurotomy has been used in thousands of cases worldwide and it provides good short- and long-term results in a wide range of patients. It has virtually replaced surgical commissurotomy in the treatment of mitral stenosis. In contrast, percutaneous aortic valvuloplasty is almost abandoned worldwide due to its lack of efficacy and the risks involved. The new techniques of percutaneous valve intervention: aortic valve replacement and mitral valve repair are at an early stage: the first in-man applications of these fledgling techniques started in 2002. Preliminary series show that they are feasible; however, they need to be further evaluated in comparison with contemporary treatment to assess accurately how efficient they are and the risks involved. Currently potential applications concern high-risk patients, however, in the future, after thorough evaluation, this may be extended to others. Thus, percutaneous interventions already play an important role in treatment of valvular heart disease, a role that seems set for future expansion.
    International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2005; 7(1):14-20.
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    ABSTRACT: Distal embolic event is one of the major limitations of coronary and non-coronary vascular interventions. Balloon and filter-based Embolic Protection Devices (EPDs) are a new class of interventional devices, used to prevent consequential morbidity and mortality of the distal embolic events. Data from first generation EPD supply proof of concept and show approximately 40% reduction in mortality and morbidity, when EPDs are used during saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) interventions. Current limitations of all first generation EPD technology taper their penetration. With breakthroughs in embolic protection technology, it is estimated that, in the near future, EPDs will be used with stenting in all high-risk lesions (SVGs, carotid arteries and acute coronary syndromes), become the standard of care and even be used in low risk cases.
    International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2005; 7(4):176-82.
  • International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2005; 7(2):72-4.
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    ABSTRACT: A 52-year-old asymptomatic man, with cardiac risk factors of hypertension, Type II diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL, obesity, and positive family history for early coronary artery disease (CAD), was referred to nuclear stress test. He exercised for 14 minutes, achieved his target heart rate, without any symptoms or ECG changes. Nuclear images were entirely normal. However, the patient was still concerned and anxious so he underwent CT angiography that revealed coronary narrowings. Next, he underwent coronary angiography with similar findings. The lesions were treated with stents. We present a case report to illustrate how newer technology such as CT angiography alters the way in which we diagnose CAD and decide on whether to pursue further invasive therapy.
    International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2005; 7(3):152-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Herein, we investigated the percentage of T-helper (Th1) and Th2 cells among the general T-cell population in the peripheral blood of patients with stable angina (SA) and unstable angina (UA). Recent evidence suggests that Th1 cells and the cytokines that they secrete (especially IFN-gamma) have a role in the activation of macrophages, promotion of clot formation and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. Thus, Th1 cytokines may contribute to the initiation and progression of UA. In contrast, cytokines secreted by Th2 cells (e.g. IL-10) are known to inhibit activation and proliferation of Th1 cells and the secretion of IFN-gamma, lysosomal enzymes and metalloproteinases. Therefore, we sought to examine whether the ratio of IFN-gamma to IL-10 secreting cells is altered in patients with UA. The percentage of Th1 and Th2 cells among the general T-cell population was determined by fluorescent intracellular cytokine staining (IFN-gamma and IL-10, out of the total CD3 positive cells). The percentage of T-cells positive for intracellular IFN-gamma was significantly higher in patients with UA (n = 22) in comparison with SA (n = 20) patients (39.0+/-2.8% and 29.6+/-2.7%, respectively. P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in intracellular IL-10 positive cells between the two groups. In addition, there was no significant difference in the ratio between the intracellular IFN-gamma positive cells and the intracellular IL-10 positive cells. There is an increased activity of Th1 cells in patients with UA in comparison with patients with SA. There is no evidence of heightened activity of Th2 cells in either group. Thus, IFN-gamma secreted by peripheral blood T-lymphocytes,may be an important immunomodulator contributing to destabilization of the atheromatous plaque lying at the base of the etiopathogenesis of unstable angina.
    International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2005; 7(3):146-51.
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    ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the two sequential labeling and degradation system that accounts for the degradation of 80-90% of all intracellular proteins. Based on the diversity of its substrates, it is integrated in many different biological processes, especially inflammation and cell proliferation. Given the significance of these two processes for primary atherosclerosis and restenosis, the ubiquitin-proteasome system may be an amendable target in cardiovascular therapy. This review provides background information on the ubiquitin-proteasome system, currently available data on its involvement in cardiovascular diseases, and a future perspective on the targeted use proteasome inhibitors, including drug-eluting stents.
    International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2005; 7(1):5-13.
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated clinical outcome of consecutive patients with in stent restenosis (ISR) treated with drug-eluting stents (DES) at two intervention centres from April 2002 to April 2004, reflecting 'real world' practice. ISR is the major limitation to successful long-term outcome after implantation of bare metal stents during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The optimal strategy for the treatment of ISR has yet to be determined. 121 consecutive patients with significant ISR were treated with DES. Sirolimus DES were used in 60 patients and paclitaxel DES in the remainder. All patients were followed up to evaluate the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), angina class and clinically driven angiography. Data were collected between 7 and 27 months after the procedure (mean follow up of 16.5 months). Overall MACE rate at 16.5 months was 13.2% (16 patients) including 4 deaths (3%). Fifteen (12.3%) patients underwent clinically driven angiography. Eight patients (6.6%) developed ISR within the treated segment, of whom, four underwent further PCI and 4 CABG. Mean Canadian angina class decreased from 2.46+/-0.7 pre-procedure to 0.69+/-0.6 at follow up. All patients achieved an improvement in angina, with 59% being rendered angina free and 87% free of MACE. There were no differences in clinical outcome in those who received a paclitaxel and sirolimus DES. The use of DES implantation for the treatment of ISR is safe, effective and associated with low recurrence rates in a 'real world' large cohort of patients with a complex mix of anatomical and clinical factors.
    International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2005; 7(4):188-92.
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a case of severe brachial artery spasm resistant to vasodilator treatment. A multi-purpose 110 cm diagnostic catheter was used as an inner dilator. This allowed easy negotiation of a guiding catheter through the tortuous segment and successful completion of the angioplasty procedure.
    International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2005; 7(1):63-4.
  • International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2005; 7(4):165-70.
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    ABSTRACT: Improvements in techniques and equipments may result in the wider applicability of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) stenosis. This report is a prospective study focused on the feasibility, effectiveness and long-term results of stenting for treatment of ULMCA bifurcation lesions. From November 2002 to October 2003, 57 consecutive patients were stented with bare metal stents and the technique of kissing balloon followed by T-provisional stenting was applied for ostial left anterior descending, left circumflex or distal left main coronary lesion. Mean age was 69.5+/-10.7 years. Acute coronary syndrome occurred in 68.4% of patients with a majority of two or three vessel disease (45.10% and 35.30% respectively). GpIIbIIIa inhibitors were used in only 5.8% of cases. Angiographic success was obtained in 100% of patients. Hospital stay was 7.03+/-2.26 days without major adverse cardiac events. At eight months follow-up, cardiac death was 1.7%, non-fatal myocardial infarction 5.1% and target vessel revascularisation 22.8% including CABG 15.7% and repeated PCI 10.5% with an angiographic restenosis rate of 29.8%. In the setting of coronary stenting of the ULMCA stenosis, the use of bare metal stents can no longer be considered contemporary technique and another strategy such as coated stent may be needed.
    International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2005; 7(2):97-100.
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    ABSTRACT: The most effective strategy for bifurcation stenting is currently undefined. The Culotte technique was developed as a method that ensures complete bifurcation lesion coverage. However, it went out of favour due to a high rate of restenosis when utilizing bare metal stents. Drug-eluting stents reduce the rate of restenosis and need for repeat lesion revascularization compared with bare metal stents; we re-evaluated this technique with drug-eluting stent implantation. Between April 2002 and October 2003, 207 patients were treated for at least one bifurcation lesion with drug-eluting stent implantation to both the main vessel and side branch. Of these, 23 were treated with the Culotte technique (11.1%) for 24 lesions. Sirolimus-eluting stents were used in 8.3%, and paclitaxel-eluting stents in the remaining 92.7%. Clinical follow-up was obtained in 100%. One patient had a myocardial infarction at 14 days (maximum rise in creatine kinase 872 IU/L) related to thrombosis occurring in another lesion, and underwent repeat revascularization. There were no episodes of stent thrombosis in the Culotte lesions. At eight months follow-up, there were no deaths and no further myocardial infarction. One patient required target lesion revascularization (TLR), and a second underwent target vessel revascularization. The cumulative rates of survival-free of TLR and major adverse cardiac events were 94.7% and 84.6% respectively. Angiographic follow-up was obtained in 16 patients (69.6%) at a mean period of 8.3+/-4.3 months. The late lumen loss for the main vessel and side branch were 0.48+/-0.56 mm and 0.53+/-0.33 mm respectively, with binary restenosis rates of 18.8% and 12.5%. In this small study of bifurcation stenting utilizing the Culotte technique with drug-eluting stent implantation, there was a low rate of major adverse events and need for target lesion revascularization at eight months, when compared with historical data of bifurcation stenting with bare metal stents. Further re-evaluation of this technique utilizing drug-eluting stents, is warranted in the setting of larger randomized studies.
    International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2005; 7(1):36-40.
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    ABSTRACT: The role of small molecules anti-glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa pharmacotherapy during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not been established. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients sustaining AMI who underwent emergent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and who were distinguished by the use of the anti-GP IIb/IIIa agent eptifibatide. We studied a consecutive group of 216 patients who underwent PCI for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction and compared the outcomes of patients who received eptifibatide just prior and following the procedure (n=167) to those who were not on anti GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors (n=49). On average, patients treated using eptifibatide were younger and were more likely to be men, hypertensive, and smokers. The eptifibatide treated patients were less likely to have diabetes and renal failure and had worse angiographic characteristics. There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the clinical outcomes, including the composite endpoint (e.g. death, MI, repeat revascularization) and the rate of sub-acute stent thrombosis. Nonetheless, there was a non-significant trend towards lower 30 day mortality in the eptifibatide group (4.8% versus 12%, P=0.09). We concluded that in our comparative study of periprocedural administration of eptifibatide during emergent AMI angioplasty, there was a non-significant trend towards better short-term survival among eptifibatide treated patients although the composite endpoint did not differ between patients distinguished by the use of anti GP IIb/IIIa small molecule pharmacotherapy.
    International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2005; 7(1):41-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Grey scale intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a valuable clinical tool to assess the extent and severity of coronary atheroma. However, it cannot reliably identify plaques with a high-risk of future clinical events. Serial IVUS studies to assess the progression and/or regression of atherosclerotic plaques demonstrated only modest effects, of pharmacological intervention on plaque burden, even when clinical efficacy is documented. Spectral analysis of radiofrequency ultrasound data (IVUS-virtual histology (IVUS-VH), Volcano Therapeutics, Rancho Cordova, CA) has the potential to characterize accurately plaque composition. The Integrated Biomarker and Imaging Study (IBIS) evaluated both invasive and non-invasive imaging techniques along with the assessment of novel biomarkers to characterize sub-clinical atherosclerosis. IVUS-VH was not included at the start of the IBIS protocol. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology we used to obtain and analyse IVUS-VH images and the approach to cross-correlations with the other techniques.
    International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2005; 7(1):52-8.
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    ABSTRACT: PCI for long coronary lesions remains a challenge because of high incidence of early complications and late restenosis. Cutting balloon angioplasty may result in reduced procedural complications and late restenosis than angioplasty with conventional long balloons (LBA) due to minimized injury to the culprit arteries. To compare the immediate and one-year outcomes of CBA and LBA for long coronary lesions. 169 consecutive patients were retrospectively identified who underwent CBA or LBA for de novo lesions 20 mm in length and 2.5 mm in diameter. The primary endpoint was immediate procedural outcomes and angiographic restenosis at one year. CBA was performed in 54 patients (56 lesions) and LBA in 115 patients (151 lesions). Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups with a mean lesion length of 34.89+/-11.19 mm, and vessel diameter of 3.03+/-0.54 mm. CBA resulted in reduced incidence of side branch loss (23.2% versus 41.7%, P=0.022) which was associated with less peri-procedural infarction (OR: 11.39 (95% CI: 1.34-96.53), P=0.026). It also caused less dissection (23.2% versus 38.4%, P=0.048) leading to a trend of less provisional focal stenting (32.1% versus 41.1%, P=0.264). The rate of angiographic restenosis and clinically driven target lesion revascularization at one year (follow-up 91.1%) was similar (25% versus 21.2%, and 20.4% versus 20%, for CBA versus LBA, both P=NS). The mean event-free survival was also similar (10.15+/-0.45 months for CBA versus 9.50+/-0.39 months for LBA, P=NS). CBA demonstrated better immediate results and equivalent late results than LBA, and therefore, it may be considered a reasonable firstline approach for PCI of long coronary lesions.
    International Journal of Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2005; 7(1):29-35.

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