Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health (J Paediatr Child Health )

Publisher: Royal Australasian College of Physicians, Blackwell Publishing


Official Journal of the Division of Paediatrics (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians)In association with The Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand, The Paediatric Research Society of Australia and the Australasian Association of Paediatric Surgeons. The Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health draws together both the formal aspects of paediatric medicine and surgery and the broader fields of child health, covering general paediatrics, perinatal medicine, paediatric surgery and community paediatrics. Original research articles, clinical studies and case reports are published as well as invited annotations on current topics, review articles, editorial comments, policy statements on child care and a comprehensive book review section.

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    Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health website
  • Other titles
    Journal of paediatrics and child health (Online), Journal of pediatrics and child health, Paediatrics and child health
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  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Blackwell Publishing

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    • 'Blackwell Publishing' is an imprint of 'Wiley'
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    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: As children age, their capacity to consent or dissent to research participation increases. Numerous regulations and guidelines require that children should receive information 'according to their capacity of understanding'. In order to gain more insight in the quality of patient information forms for minors, a systematic literature search was performed. Two aspects of quality will be analysed in this paper: the effect of format on understanding and the readability of text in the documents. A systematic search was executed in PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO. Seventeen papers on format were included. Interventions testing information formats indicate that improvement is possible, but outcome measurement varied per study and no apparently successful intervention was repeated. Only three readability papers were found, all indicating a readability gap between patient information forms and children's actual reading level. The results indicate an urgent need for further research on how to adequately inform minors about clinical trials.
    Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) is a key differential for gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in children. It can be difficult for clinicians to decide which patients need referral for the assessment of EoE, which can only be confirmed by histological analysis of endoscopic biopsies. Recent guidelines recommend that EoE can only be diagnosed following the exclusion of GOR through empiric treatment with proton pump inhibitors prior to endoscopy. Some aspects of history are strongly suggestive of EoE: red flags for referral include poor weight gain in the context of reflux symptoms, choking during eating or food impaction. Therapeutic options include dietary allergen elimination or swallowed aerosolised corticosteroids. Other novel therapies have failed to demonstrate benefit, but novel diagnostic biomarkers to enable non-invasive disease ascertainment and follow-up show some promise.
    Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: AimTo identify opportunities to improve health-care delivery for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children requiring hospital admission and to determine their characteristics.Methods We analysed all documentation of admissions of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children to a tertiary paediatric hospital in 2010. We reviewed the medical records to determine whether the Aboriginal status of patients was known, whether Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander children and their families were reviewed by Aboriginal staff during admission and whether basic health-care quality indicators were met, including documentation of anthropometry, ear examination findings, immunisation status and catch-up immunisation delivery.ResultsIn 2010, 543 (2%) patients admitted to the institution were identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander: 140/538 (26.0%) were from the first decile (most disadvantaged) on Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas index. Of all admitted children, 148/543 (27.3%) were referred to Aboriginal health professionals during admission, more when length of stay was greater than 7 days (61% vs. 23%, P < 0.001). There was documentation of weight in 533/543 (98.2%), ear examinations in 64/543 (11.8%), immunisations being not up to date in 126/543 (23%), catch-up immunisation given in 7/126 (5.6%), Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander status in 8/543 (1.5%) medical and 1/543 (0.2%) nursing discharge summaries.Conclusions We have identified several opportunities to improve culturally appropriate health-care delivery for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children admitted to hospital, including improved recognition of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander status of patients, improved access to Aboriginal health professionals and increased performance and documentation of basic anthropometry, ear examination and immunisation catch-up.
    Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 11/2014;
  • Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 11/2014; 50(11).
  • Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 11/2014; 50(11):931.
  • Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 11/2014; 50(11).
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    ABSTRACT: This annotation discusses definitions of ‘sleep problems’, the impacts of infant sleep on maternal and paternal well-being, and the evidence behind two areas of current controversy – the role of attachment versus behaviourally based parenting in infant sleep and management strategies for sleep problems in infants aged less than 6 months.
    Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 11/2014;
  • Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 11/2014; 50(11):931.
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    ABSTRACT: AimTo describe the prevalence and risk factors for markers of poor oral health in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal young people in custody in Australia.Methods All incarcerated youth, aged 13–21 years, in New South Wales Juvenile Custodial Centres between August and October 2009 were invited to participate and undertake a dental exam. The main outcome measures were an assessment of moderate/abundant plaque, periodontal disease, dental caries experience, mean decayed and/or filled and/or missing teeth (DMFT) index and untreated decay.ResultsTwo hundred ninety-four participants (91% male, 46% Aboriginal) underwent a dental exam. Markers of poor oral health were common – 49.4% with moderate/abundant plaque, 34.4% with periodontal disease, mean DMFT 3.56 and 54% having untreated decay. Risk factors independently associated with poor oral health were geographical remoteness and non-fluoridation of the water supply of the usual residence, a shorter incarceration time and dental treatment outside of custody.Conclusions Young people entering custody have poor oral health, with those from geographically remote areas without water fluoridation at highest risk. The incarceration period is an opportunity for oral health improvements in these young people through access to dental treatment services. Better triaging systems are needed to identify those of greatest priority, and prevention services are needed.
    Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: AimThis study aims to evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of the mesh suture treatment for infants of Kasabach–Merritt phenomenon and to report our treatment experience.Methods Of the three patients, two of the cases occurred in the scalp and one occurred in the back of the chest, with platelet counts < 40 × 109/L before the treatment, reduced fibrinogen levels and increased D-dimer levels. All the three patients underwent the mesh suture treatment of the tumour area. Post-treatment observations were made regarding the surface colour and texture of the tumours, periodic routine blood examination results, fibrinogen and D-dimer levels.ResultsAfter treatment, the degree of swelling on the tumour surface was reduced, surface tension was decreased, the tumour colour turned pale red from dark red and the skin gradually returned to normal. Two days after treatment, the platelet counts increased to 70 × 109/L or higher; the platelet count reached a normal level after 1 week in two cases. The fibrinogen level increased in varying degrees after treatment, whereas the D-dimer level was reduced. One case showed a small amount of exudate at the suture area, 1 month after the treatment; improvements were observed 3 days after changing the local dressing. All the patients were followed up for 6 months to 1 year, during which the patients showed complete regression of the lesion and relapse, normal platelet counts and normal fibrinogen and D-dimer levels.Conclusions We recommend the mesh suture treatment as the first treatment of choice for paediatric Kasabach–Merritt phenomenon.
    Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 11/2014;
  • Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 11/2014; 19(9):e119-e120.
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    ABSTRACT: The term ‘joint hypermobility’ describes synovial joints that move beyond a normal range of motion. ‘Joint hypermobilty syndrome’ may also be associated with significant symptoms and impaired quality of life. The purpose of this review is to help the generalist to recognise the condition, exclude significant alternative diagnoses and understand the multidisciplinary approach to management.
    Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The short case is a highly artificial scenario, in which the examination candidate is given little or no history and instructed to examine one system or one aspect of a patient and draw conclusions. Despite their artificiality, short cases test clinical skills which senior paediatricians value and consider essential qualities of a competent physician. This article presents some general suggestions on an approach to doing short case examinations.
    Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 11/2014; 50(11):861-3.
  • Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: AimBacteraemias in children are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of local epidemiology and trends is important to inform practitioners of likely pathogens in the sick child. This study aimed to determine trends over time in pathogenic organisms causing paediatric bacteraemia in North Queensland and to audit a hospital's blood culture results with respect to contamination rate.Methods This was a retrospective review of 8385 blood cultures collected from children attending a tertiary centre in North Queensland over a 10-year period (2001–2010).ResultsThere were 696 positive blood cultures (8.3%) with 70 different bacterial species detected. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 48.6% and 51.4% of isolates, respectively. Overall, bacteraemia accounted for 4.7 per 1000 admissions. The rate of contamination was 60.6% among positive blood cultures and 5.0% for all blood cultures sampled. These results were compared with previous published reports. Notable differences were seen in the frequencies of Salmonella and group A Streptococcus bacteraemias in North Queensland when compared with other reports. There was also a decline in vaccine-preventable infections such as S. pneumoniae and an increasing trend of community-acquired MRSA bacteraemia.Conclusion This study has demonstrated the unique profile of causative pathogens of paediatric bacteraemias in tropical Australia. In light of the increasing prevalence of MRSA, empiric treatment for sepsis for children in this region needs to be reconsidered.
    Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 11/2014;
  • Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 11/2014; 50(11).
  • Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 11/2014; 50(11).
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    ABSTRACT: AimThis study examines the role of stress in low birthweight (LBW) risk in Black and White women in the United States.Methods Data from the 1998–2000 Fragile Family and Child Wellbeing Study were used (n = 3869). We included several self-reported conditions which we categorised as stressors (i.e. socio-economic conditions, health behaviours, access to quality care and cultural factors), then we used logistic regression models to analyse the role of stressors in explaining the health disparities in LBW.ResultsMost women were unmarried (59% for White women and 87% for Black women). Among unmarried White women, the only stressor associated with a higher likelihood of LBW was smoking (odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.2, 3.3)). Among unmarried Black women, smoking (OR = 1.7, 95% CI (1.2, 2.3)), drug use (OR = 1.7, 95% CI (1.0, 2.6)), paying for the baby's birth with government resources (OR = 1.6, 95% CI (1.1, 2.4)) and religious affiliation (OR = 1.6, 95% CI (1.0, 2.5)) were associated with higher likelihood of LBW. Among married White women, older age (OR = 1.1, 95% CI (1.0, 1.2)), smoking (OR = 5.2, 95% CI (1.7, 15.5)), using governmental resources to pay for birth (OR = 3.6, 95% CI (1.0, 12.4)) and living in governmental housing (OR = 9.1, 95% CI (2.0, 41.1)) were associated with higher likelihood of LBW. No stressors were statistically significant for married Black women.Conclusion We analysed a large number of stressors at the individual, household and societal levels and found differences on the stressors among Black and White women. However, the stressors included in the analyses did not fully explain the racial disparities in LBW.
    Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the prevalence and risk factors of recurrent otitis media (rOM) in an urban Australian population at 3 years of age.
    Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 10/2014;