Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology (Aust New Zeal J Ophthalmol )

Publisher: Royal Australian College of Ophthalmology; Ophthalmological Society of New Zealand, Blackwell Publishing

Description

Discontinuted. Now Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology.

  • Impact factor
    0.00
  • 5-year impact
    0.00
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.00
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.00
  • Website
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology website
  • Other titles
    Australian and New Zealand journal of ophthalmology (Online)
  • ISSN
    1440-1606
  • OCLC
    45461900
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Blackwell Publishing

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • Some journals impose embargoes typically of 6 or 12 months, occasionally of 24 months
    • no listing of affected journals available as yet
  • Conditions
    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On author's server, institutional server or subject-based server
    • Server must be non-commercial
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with set statement ("The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com")
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'Blackwell Publishing' is an imprint of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To develop a system of categorizing white cataracts so that the salient features, as would be pertinent to phacoemulsification surgery, could be recognized pre-operatively.Methods: Patients with total cataracts were carefully evaluated using slit-lamp biomicroscopy and slit-lamp photography. An attempt was made to determine whether pre-operative evaluation could ascertain the presence or absence of features of these cataracts that often cause surgical difficulties, namely, increased intralenticular pressure (ILP), milky cortex and brown nuclear colour.Results: Using a standardized method of biomicroscopic evaluation, it was found that the status of the ILP, cortex and nuclear colour could be determined consistently. Surgical strategies based on such a system of categorization has permitted white cataracts to be consistently managed using phacoemulsification.Conclusions: Systematic pre-operative evaluation and categorization of white cataracts based on the ILP, status of the cortex and nuclear colour can permit proper surgical planning and successful management of such cases with phacoemulsification.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 07/2008; 27(1):53 - 56.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To test the hypothesis that access to extravasated plasma protein IgG may influence photoreceptor survival following laser photocoagulation and to determine whether this correlates with the retinal glial reaction.Methods: A total of 45 rats (18 Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) dystrophic and 18 RCS-rdy+ congenic control) were used for this experiment. Nine non-lasered littermates of same age were used as controls. The superior retinas of postnatal day 23 rats were irradiated with a grid pattern of 40 argon green laser lesions of 50 μm in diameter and two powers (150 and 300 mW) for 0.2 s. At various times after laser lesions (up to 14 days), animals were perfused, the retinas snap frozen and sectioned on a cryostat. A one-step immunohistochemical technique was used by incubating with rabbit anti-rat IgG conjugated directly to horseradish peroxidase. Adjacent sections were processed using an antibody to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) by the standard avidin–biotin complex method.Results: The labelling pattern for extravasated IgG after laser lesion was very similar in both RCS and RCS-rdy+ rat retinas. At 6, 12 and 24 h after lesions, IgG immunoreactivity (IR) was very intense in the lesion core and flanks. The outer plexiform layer (OPL) and photoreceptor inner segments provided a ready pathway for lateral spread of IgG. However, in the outer nuclear layer (ONL), IgG localization was much more restricted. Despite very intense IgG IR in the ONL of the coagulated lesion core, there was always a very sharply delineated boundary where the label abruptly halted. The GFAP labelling in both RCS dystrophic and RCS-rdy+ congenic control rat retinas showed that this boundary was between normal and necrotic cells because there was a core where GFAP was not produced by Müller cells. By 2 days after lesions, the coagulated cells in the lesion core were being removed by phagocytic cells that were IgG IR. Labelled phagocytic cells were also found among the inner and outer segment region on the lesion flanks. There was still IgG IR in the lesion, but the label was faint. No IgG IR was found in the retina at 3, 4, 7 and 14 days after lesions. Absorption control with pure rat IgG showed the label to be specific.Conclusions: The extravasated IgG was derived from the choroidal circulation because at no stage was IgG localized around the retinal vasculature. The IgG labelling was surprisingly widespread and, therefore, did not correlate with photoreceptor sparing, although it preceded the widespread Müller cell expression of GFAP and may, therefore, trigger glial reaction.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 07/2008; 27(2):117 - 125.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To describe the features of posterior uveitis in patients who either developed or were known to have, biopsy-proven Hodgkin’s disease (HD).Methods: Four patients were identified who were attending the uveitis clinic. Their charts were reviewed retrospectively and information on their HD was obtained from other hospitals where necessary. Their case histories are presented.Results: Two patients presented with uveitis prior to the diagnosis of HD and in the other two, the HD was thought to be in remission. The commonest ocular signs were of vitritis and discrete, white, chorioretinal lesions. No difference in the ocular findings were apparent between those who had a known diagnosis of HD and the those that did not.Conclusions: HD can occur in the eye and can mimic posterior uveitis. In two of the patients, the uveitis preceded the diagnosis of HD and at the time of presentation all investigations were normal. No specific diagnostic features were apparent, though three of the patients had vitritis and chorioretinal lesions.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 07/2008; 27(5):326 - 330.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Should older people eat more carrots, or at least increase their carotene intake to prevent loss of night vision? Participants in the Blue Mountains Eye Study were asked about their ability to see in the dark. Nutrient and food intake were estimated from a food frequency questionnaire. Associations between self-reported poor night vision and estimated nutrient intake were investigated using logistic regression. Poor night vision among women was associated with higher beta-carotene (P for trend = 0.03) and total vitamin A intake (P for trend = 0.048). Increased consumption of carrots, but no other food high in beta-carotene, was associated with significant increased reporting of poor night vision among women (P for trend = 0.04). While carrot intake may protect against difficulty in seeing at night, it is probable that people attributing poor driving ability to their vision may be eating more carrots in the hope of reversing this decline.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 07/2008; 27(3‐4):200 - 203.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: This experiment reports the independence of first- and second-order processing mechanisms in form perception.Methods: Symmetrical dot patterns were created using either luminance-increment dots (luminance above background), or texture-defined dots (average luminance equal to background). The proportion of luminance increment or texture dots defining each pattern was varied among fields of noise dots of the same type to determine symmetry detection thresholds.Results: Differences in detection thresholds were found between luminance- and texture-defined patterns. Further, symmetry detection thresholds for luminance-increment dot patterns were resistant to noise defined by dots of opposite contrast polarity (luminance-decrement dots) or texture, while texture-defined patterns were resistant to neither texture nor luminance-decrement noise.Conclusions: These data suggest that symmetry perception, along with other types of form perception, use both first- and second-order processing mechanisms. The data are compatible with a second-order system that includes a negative half-wave rectifying non-linearity.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 07/2008; 27(3‐4):268 - 270.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A procedure is described for generating stimuli to study the detection of noise components in motion signals. By using random dots with intensities distributed according to a Gaussian probability function, a temporally and spatially continuous mixture of signal and noise components can be realized in random dot kinematograms. These stimuli were used in a noise detection task, a signal detection task and a direction discrimination task. Signal-to-noise ratio (‘coherence’) thresholds for the signal detection and direction discrimination tasks were consistent with previous research. Noise can be detected at levels of approximately 0.5–2.5%, depending on the size of the motion stimulus. We argue that the noise in the motion stimulus becomes detectable when it exceeds the noise intrinsic to the various stages of motion processing. Therefore, the method provides a simple procedure for obtaining measures of equivalent input noise and can be used for estimating internal noise levels of motion processing mechanisms.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 07/2008; 27(3‐4):254 - 257.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: As part of a project to improve diabetes care in Fiji, we assessed the magnitude of problems posed by diabetic retinopathy in that country and compared the findings with those from an Australian diabetes centre. The relationship between diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy was also examined in a subset of patients.Methods: A medical team from Australia screened a total of 446 type 2 diabetic patients (ethnicity: Fijian/Indian 16/84%) for diabetic retinopathy in five towns from the Western Division of Viti Levu, Fiji. The findings were compared with data obtained from 1659 type 2 diabetic patients who had attended an Australian diabetes centre (ethnicity: Indian/ Anglo-Celtic 12/88%). In both cohorts, retinopathy was assessed by direct fundoscopy and a spot urine sample was collected for determination of albuminuria (defined as a concentration > 50 mg/L).Results: The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy increased linearly with duration of diabetes. It was higher in Fiji, even when cases from the same ethnicity (i.e. Indians) and duration were compared (P < 0.05). Extrapolation of the data points suggests a delay in the diagnosis of diabetes in Fiji. Of those patients with retinopathy in Fiji, more than half had moderate to severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy or proliferative diabetic retinopathy, significantly higher than patients in the Australian cohort (χ2 = 29.2; P < 0.0001). Retinopathy was not a predictor of albuminuria in Fijian Indians (χ2 = 0.4; P = 0.5). In contrast, Australian Indians with retinopathy had significantly more albuminuria (χ2 = 10.2; P = 0.001).Conclusions: Severe diabetic retinopathy is common in both ethnic groups in Fiji. A delay in the diagnosis of diabetes as well as poor glycaemic control are possible factors. The availability of laser therapy is important to prevent loss of vision, but it is also essential that appropriate training of health professionals is integrated with a programme of diabetic complication screening to support this form of therapy.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 07/2008; 27(1):9 - 13.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study evaluates the in vitro potency, stability and contamination of the fortified ophthalmic antibiotic preparations of cefazolin, vancomycin, gentamicin and tobramycin stored for 4 weeks. The effects of the different solvents and storage temperatures on the antimicrobial potency and stability were also examined.Methods: The fortified stock solution of cefazolin and vancomycin were prepared by reconstituting with 0.9% sodium chloride and with artificial tears. Gentamicin and tobramycin were prepared by adding parenteral forms into their commercial ophthalmic solutions. The antimicrobial potency was measured by the minimum bactericidal concentration for cefazolin (33.3 mg/mL) and vancomycin (31 mg/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus, and for tobramycin (13.5 mg/mL) and gentamicin (13.5 mg/mL) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The stability of solution was evaluated by measuring absorbance spectra and pH. During the study period the levels of contamination of the stock solutions were examined by culturing on blood and on Sabouraud-dextrose media.Results: There were no differences in the antimicrobial potency of the cefazolin, vancomycin and tobramycin within the 4-week period; however, the potency of gentamicin was decreased at both temperatures after 21 days. It was found that different solvents or storage temperatures had no effect on the potency. Throughout the 4-week period, no change was found in the absorbance spectra of gentamicin and tobramycin, whereas the absorbance spectra of cefazolin and vancomycin stored at 24°C increased in both of the solvents used (P < 0.05). In all of the antibiotics, pH changed at 24°C after 7–10 days; however, at 4°C, only the pH of tobramycin exhibited changes after 14 days (P < 0.05). No contamination was detected in the stock solutions during the study period.Conclusion: Topical fortified antibiotic solutions used for longer than 7 days should be stored at ≤ 4°C, those stored at 24°C should be discarded after 7 days.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 07/2008; 27(6):426 - 430.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is accumulating evidence that an increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor from retinal pigment epithelial cells may be important in choroidal neovascularization. In vivo studies have demonstrated that subretinal injection of recombinant adenovirus vectors produces long-term transgene expression specifically within retinal pigment epithelial cells. A recombinant adenovirus encoding of vascular endothelial growth factor (Ad.RSV.VEGF) was therefore produced and characterized in order to determine whether an upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression is sufficient to induce choroidal neovascularization. Ad.RSV.VEGF was produced by homologous recombination and its identity confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis. Ad.RSV.VEGF was characterized in vitro by the transduction of cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells. The in vitro characterization confirmed vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA and protein expression from Ad.RSV.VEGF and demonstrated the biological activity of the vascular endothelial growth factor protein. A preliminary in vivo study suggested that the subretinal injection of Ad.RSV.VEGF induced vascular leakage.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 07/2008; 27(3‐4):250 - 253.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between type of vision impairment and disability and the handicap or impact of vision loss on functioning.Methods: Participants were interviewed for the Royal Victorian Institute for the Blind Employment Survey, and asked to self-report whether totally blind or not (vision impaired). Causes of visual impairment were also reported. Eyesight was rated on a scale from 0 (completely blind) to 10 (best possible eyesight). Difficulty with mobility, personal care, household activities, work and hobbies and social interactions were also rated. Participants with vision impairment also rated their level of disability in reading and seeing other people’s reactions using the same scale.Results: Of the 250 participants, 39 self-reported total blindness. Participants with vision impairment experienced greater levels of difficulty in almost all areas than people who self-reported total blindness. People with vision impairment due to glaucoma and macular degeneration reported significantly more difficulty with reading newspapers, while there was a borderline significant relationship between difficulty with seeing people’s reactions and macular degeneration.Conclusions: In summary, we found that difficulty associated with everyday tasks was greater than might be expected from self-report of vision. This study confirms the need for visual function tools to supplement the use of objective visual acuity measurements in people with vision impairment.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 07/2008; 27(3‐4):204 - 207.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the retina is the commonest potentially blinding ocular manifestation of AIDS. Recently the acyclic nucleoside dihydroxypropoxymethyl guanine (DHPG, ganciclovir) has become available to treat sight-threatening CMV retinopathy. This paper reports the clinical features and results of ganciclovir therapy in 48 patients seen over a four-year period. Seven patients were excluded from the study due to inadequate followup, leaving 41 patients as the study group. All patients responded clinically to this therapy. Patients were treated initially with high-dose ganciclovir (1 0 mglkglday) and then continued on lower dose treatment (5 mg/kg/day) indefinitely. Significant bone marrow toxicity developed in 12 patients (29.3%) requiring temporary cessation of therapy. Patients treated with ganciclovir retained vision and had increased survival times when compared to untreated patients. A poor visual outcome occurred when there was involvement of the macula or optic acquired nerve head at presentation or when there was an interruption of ganciclovir therapy.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 06/2008; 18(4):385 - 391.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report a case where the detection of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) at the time of diagnosis of a case of sclero-uveitis predicted the later development of systemic features and prompted an early and definitive diagnosis of systemic vasculitis.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 06/2008; 19(1):71 - 73.
  • Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 06/2008; 18(4):437 - 437.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several neurological syndromes, including syncope, convulsions, amnesia, transient ischaemic attacks and cerebral infarction, have been associate with mitral valve prolapse. It has been presumed that emboli may account for some of these. We report a case of retinal infarction in association with mitral valve prolapse.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 06/2008; 15(1):79 - 82.
  • Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 06/2008; 19(1):3 - 7.
  • Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 06/2008; 19(1):89 - 90.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This case report describing Acanthamoeba keratitis in a 41-year-old male disposable contact lens wearer, adds some sobering and some encouraging information for the future management of this infection. Initial treatment with topical propamidine isethionate (Brolene) and polymyxin B/neomycin/ gramicidin (Neosporin) led to an unsatisfactory clinical response. Topical miconazole 1%, prednisolone acetate 0.12% and oral itraconazole were then added to his treatment. This was later discontinued on noticing ipsilateral toxic cataract formation and an unresponsive pupil. The above medications were replaced with topical polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) 0.02%, which we had shown to have superior in-vitro amoebicidal activity when compared to the other antiamoebic agents used in this case. Withdrawal of the multitreatment schedule and commencement of PHMB was associated with resolution of his keratitis, healing of a large epithelial defect and settling of severe conjunctivitis. The identical Acanthamoeba strain was isolated from the patient's contact lens storage case and cornea, possibly implicating the contaminated contact lens case in the aetiology of his keratitis. This is the first Australasian experience using PHMB to treat Acanthamoeba keratitis. It appears to be a promising new treatment for this infection.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 11/2007; 22(1):73 - 76.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To examine the effect of hormone use, pregnancy and menopausal status on clinical outcomes following excimer laser surgery for myopia and myopic astigmatism.Methods: Participants comprised all female patients of the Melbourne Excimer Laser Group (MELG). A standardised surgical protocol was followed by the 27 MELG members, using the VisX 20/20 excimer laser and included the prospective collection of the following information preoperatively and one, three, six and 12 months after the procedure: uncorrected and best corrected visual acuity with a LogMAR chart; best manifest refraction: and subjective assessment of corneal clarity. A survey that elicited information about oral contraceptive (OC) use, pregnancy history, surgical and natural menopause, and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was mailed to all the women.Results: A 77% response to the mailed survey was achieved. Two women were pregnant at the time of surgery, one became pregnant during the first month after surgery, and all three women were excluded from further analyses, although a review of two of the case histories revealed suboptimal clinical outcomes. Women taking OC were included in the control group after OC use was shown not to be associated with outcome. Women were grouped accordingly: control, n=225; pre-menopausal on HRT, n=7; post-menopausal not on HRT, n=34; and post-menopausal on HRT, n=21. The groups differed significantly with regard to age and preoperative spherical equivalent. After controlling for age and preoperative spherical equivalent, the mean number of uncorrected LogMAR letters read one year after surgery was significantly lower for the post-menopausal women on HRT in comparison with the control group. Best corrected acuity and corneal clarity were not significantly different among the groups.Discussion: These preliminary results suggest that the interaction of menopausal and HRT status could decrease the effectiveness of PRK and PARK, but require confirmation with a further study in a prospective manner using objective measures of corneal epithelial healing and serum hormone levels.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 11/2007; 24(3):215 - 222.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The use of specular microscopy is not confined to the corneal endothelial mosaic, but may be used at any level through the corneal stroma to the posterior endothelial surface. In the stroma the not very dense, irregularly rounded deposits of corneal dystrophies may be differentiated from the dense, geometric shapes of crystalline deposits. At the level of Descemet's membrane the fine parallel lines of tears in Descemet's are distinct from the multiple fine vertical deep stromal lines seen in advanced keratoconus. At the level of the endothelial mosaic the cells may be counted and their morphology examined, while blebs may also be seen in a wide variety of pathological conditions including superficial keratopathies, contact lens wearers, deep keratopathies, anterior uveitis and contusion injury. These blebs vary in size in different conditions and are often transient. They must be distinguished from guttae which are permanent and although an occasional finding in normal corneas are a constant feature of cornea gutatta and Fuchs' dystrophy. On the posterior endothelial surface the relief mode enables the examination of numerous deposits including red blood cells, white blood cells, keratitic precipitates, pigment granules and pseudoexfoliative KP. The morphology of these various findings is discussed.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Ophthalmology 11/2007; 16(3):235 - 243.