Basic and Applied Ecology (BASIC APPL ECOL)
Basic and Applied Ecology will provide a forum in which significant advances and ideas can be rapidly communicated to a wide audience. Basic and Applied Ecology publishes minireviews and original contributions from all areas of basic and applied ecology. Ecologists from all countries are invited to publish ecological research of international interest in its pages. There is no bias with regard to taxon or geographical area. Basic and Applied Ecology is the official journal of the "Gesellschaft für Ökologie", representing ecologists of Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. Characteristic features of this scientific society include a broad spectrum of disciplines, so plant and animal ecologists, agroecologists, forest ecologists, tropical ecologists, soil ecologists, geoecologists, limnologists, conservationists, and landscape ecologists will shape the journal's contents. Basic and Applied Ecology actively solicits papers that strive to integrate the various disciplines and issues within the broad field of ecology.
- Impact factor2.67Show impact factor historyHide impact factor history
- WebsiteBasic and Applied Ecology website
Other titlesBasic and applied ecology (Online)
Material typePeriodical, Internet resource
Document typeInternet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper
- Author can archive a pre-print version
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- Pre-print can not be deposited for The Lancet
Publications in this journal
Article: A functional method for classifying European grasslands for use in joint ecological and economic studies[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A simple protocol is presented for a functional classification of European grassland species using attributes that can be quickly and easily measured. These attributes relate to habitat fertility, intensity of grazing and disturbance. As a surrogate for habitat fertility we use leaf nitrogen predicted by multiple regression from three leaf characters, specific leaf area, dry matter content and size. Average maximum canopy height of the component species of our vegetation, weighted by abundance, provides a rough assessment of the intensity of grazing. The percentage of annuals and vernal geophytes assesses disturbance. Functional descriptions of the CLIMB grasslands were produced and trends relating to both ecosystem and economic processes were detected. Most importantly, our estimate of habitat fertility predicts land use change. Within NW Europe the threat to grassland of conservation value from agricultural ‘improvement’ increases with fertility while in the Mediterranean increased fertility decreases the likelihood of abandonment. These mathematical relationships between an ecological attribute and a perception of economic potential can help us to routinely combine ecological and economic data. This is an important preliminary step as we attempt to reconcile practical economic concerns and conservation objectives within working landscapes.Basic and Applied Ecology 04/2013; 6(2):119–131.
Article: Loss of environmental heterogeneity and aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity following large-scale restoration management[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Restoration management frequently focuses on recreating suitable environmental conditions for a ‘target vegetation’. This approach neglects the importance of habitat diversity and spatial configuration for individual species. Here, we investigate the role of environmental heterogeneity in a restoration context and report the response of aquatic macroinvertebrates to re-wetting measures, which were taken to mitigate desiccation in a bog landscape. Because only parts of the study area were affected by re-wetting measures, changes in aquatic macroinvertebrates could be compared between re-wetted and non-re-wetted parts. In addition, species were grouped into life-history strategies to test whether the invertebrate response differed between functional species groups. Total species numbers declined in the re-wetted parts and invertebrate assemblages became more similar both in terms of species and life-history strategies. These results indicate that large-scale re-wetting caused a functional homogenization. Changes in environmental conditions following re-wetting could be consistently related to changes in strategy composition. Retention of rainwater decreased the influence of groundwater. Here species increased that are adapted to physiological stress as well as those employing risk spreading, which indicates that environmental conditions had become harsher and less predictable. In contrast, reduced drainage locally increased groundwater influence, with life-history strategies indicating enhanced predictability of environmental conditions. Importantly, such conditions also characterise lagg zones and transitional mires in pristine raised bog landscapes, which are hotspots for biodiversity. Thus, while large-scale re-wetting decreased environmental heterogeneity, increasing the supply of groundwater seems a more promising restoration strategy for aquatic invertebrates in degraded peatlands.ZusammenfassungRenaturierungsmaßnahmen haben zumeist den Fokus, die physikalisch-chemische Bedingungen der Zielvegetation wieder herzustellen, unter der Annahme, dass Pflanzen und Tiere automatisch folgen. Dieser Fokus vernachlässigt jedoch die Bedürfnisse von Tieren, deren Ansprüche vor allem bezüglich der Umweltheterogenität viel höher liegen können. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht die Bedeutung der Umweltheterogenität in der Restauration. Es wird dargelegt wie aquatische Makroinvertebraten auf Renaturierungsmaßnahmen reagieren, die unternommen wurden, um der Austrocknung einer Moorlandschaft entgegen zu wirken. Um die Reaktion aquatischer Makroinvertebraten funktionell interpretieren zu können, wurden mit Hilfe von Arteigenschaften Arten in Überlebensstrategien gruppiert. Jede Strategie repräsentiert eine andere Lösung eines spezifischen, ökologischen Problems, und verbindet dadurch Arten und ihre Umwelt durch die Arteigenschaften. Die Gesamtartenzahl dezimierte sich in wiedervernässten Gebietsteilen und die Zusammensetzung von Überlebensstrategien (Arten-Abundanzen zusammengefasst pro Überlebensstrategie) wurde ähnlicher. Diese Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass die Wiedervernässung als ein Artenfilter fungierte und die Ausbreitung einiger weniger Überlebensstrategien in allen Gewässern positiv beeinflusste aber andere Strategien hemmte. Effekte von Renaturierungsmaßnahmen auf Umweltbedingungen konnten gut mit der Zusammensetzung von Überlebensstrategien korreliert werden. Regenwasserretention erhöhte den Wasserspiegel und verringerte den Einfluss des Grundwassers. Die Zunahme an Arten mit guter physiologischer Toleranz und Risikoverteilung zeigen an, dass die Umweltbedingungen ungünstiger und weniger vorhersehbar geworden sind. Reduzierte Entwässerung erhöhte lokal Einfluss des Grundwassers und verbesserte dadurch die Vorhersagbarkeit von Umweltbedingungen. Arten mit einem synchronisierten Lebenszyklus nahmen zu. Von herausragender Bedeutung für die Biodiversität in pristinen Hochmoorlandschaften sind stabile, minero-trophische Übergänge. Während großräumige Wiedervernässung die Umweltheterogenität verringerte, schien die Verfügbarkeit von Grundwasser eine erfolgreichere Restaurationsstrategie für aquatische Invertebraten in degradierten Mooren zu sein. Regeneration von Torfbildung wird zudem durch die Verfügbarkeit von minero-trophischem Grundwasser an der Torfsubstratbasis unterstützt. Durch die Restauration natürlicher Prozesse wie z.B. der regionalen Hydrologie werden zugleich wichtige Ökosystemfunktionen und -stukturen wieder hergestellt. Dieses unterstützt die Effektivität von Restaurationsplänen mit dem Ziel die Vielfalt charakteristischer Tierarten wiederherzustellen.Basic and Applied Ecology 02/2013;
Article: Interacting effects of wind direction and resource distribution on rape pest species abundance[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Considerable scientific effort has gone into the investigation of how landscape composition and spatial structures of habitats influence distribution patterns of species. In particular, specialist insect herbivores are known to be affected by spatial and temporal accessibility of their host plants. Here we analysed species density data of three important oilseed rape (OSR) pest insects (Meligethes aeneus, Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus and Dasineura brassicae) within a landscape with prevailing winds from NW by comparing the predictive power of the percentage of OSR area in differently orientated landscape sectors. Regression analyses showed that OSR area downwind from a sample explained up to 72% of the variance in the density of M. aeneus, whereas OSR area in other directions had little effect. The correlation between downwind OSR area and M. aeneus density was negative and observable up to a distance of 1250m. In contrast, the densities of C. pallidactylus and D. brassicae showed little response to OSR area in whatever direction. We suggest that mainly resource detection mechanisms and dispersal capabilities are responsible for the detected patterns: Odour-induced upwind anemotaxis apparently drives directional dispersal of mobile species. However, OSR area along the dispersal path seems to reduce pest density in upwind direction, because the majority of individuals detect resource patches early during the dispersal process. For less mobile species (C. pallidactylus and D. brassicae) similar effects were not detectable at the landscape scale because dispersal distances evidently were too short.Basic and Applied Ecology 02/2013; 10:208-215.
Article: Moisture and nutrients determine the distribution and richness of India's large herbivore species assemblage[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to test whether body-mass based foraging principles, guided by plant available moisture (PAM) and plant available nutrients (PAN), could explain large mammalian herbivore species distribution and richness in India. We tested (1) whether the occurrence of larger-bodied herbivore species increases with PAM, but is independent of PAN, (2) whether the occurrence of smaller-bodied herbivore species decreases with PAM, but increases with PAN, and (3) whether herbivore species richness is highest in areas with intermediate PAM and high PAN. We analyzed the distribution and richness of the 16 large (>10 kg) herbivore species found in sub-Himalayan mainland India. Since the distributions of large herbivores in India have been altered by historic human activity, we only used India's largest 76 protected areas as data points, with respect to PAM (log10(rainfall/potential evapotranspiration)), PAN (soil cation exchange capacity), elevation, tree cover, and fire frequency. Using regression and null models to analyze the data, we found positive relations between PAM and the occurrences of the larger-bodied species (elephant and gaur), and negative relations between PAM and the occurrences of smaller-bodied species (chinkara, four-horned antelope and blackbuck). We also found positive relations between the occurrence of the smaller-bodied species and PAN. Large herbivore species richness in India is highest in Kanha and Indravati, areas with high PAN and intermediate PAM. We found that elevation, tree cover and fire frequency were insignificant predictors of herbivore species richness, although elevation and tree cover explained the distribution of a few species. Based on our null model analyses results, we conclude that moisture and soil nutrients are important in determining large herbivore species distribution and richness in sub-Himalayan India.ZusammenfassungDas Ziel dieser Untersuchung war es zu prüfen, ob Körpergewicht-basierte Prinzipien der Futtersuche, gesteuert durch pflanzenverfügbare Feuchtigkeit (PAM) und Nährstoffverfügbarkeit (PAN), die Verbreitung und den Artenreichtum herbivorer Großsäuger in Indien erklären können. Wir testeten, (1) ob das Auftreten der großen Herbivoren mit der PAM zunahm, während es unabhängig von PAN sein sollte, (2) ob das Auftreten der kleineren Herbivorenarten mit der PAM abnahm, aber mit der PAN zunahm, und (3) ob der Artenreichtum der Herbivoren am höchsten in Gebieten mit mittlerer PAM und hoher PAN war. Wir analysierten die Verbreitung und den Artenreichtum der 16 großen (>10 kg) Herbivorenarten, die in der Sub-Himalaya-Region Indiens gefunden werden. Da die Verbreitung der großen Herbivoren in Indien anthropogen beeinflusst wurde, nutzten wir nur die 76 größten Schutzgebiete Indiens als Datenpunkte und berücksichtigten PAM (log (Niederschlag/potentielle Evapotranspiration)), PAN (Kationenaustauschkapazität des Bodens), Höhe, Kronenbedeckung, und die Häufigkeit von Feuern. Wir setzten Regression und Null-Modelle ein, um die Daten zu analysieren, und wir fanden positive Beziehungen zwischen PAM und dem Auftreten der größeren Herbivoren (Elefant, Gaur) und negative Beziehungen zwischen PAM und dem Auftreten der kleineren Arten (Indische Gazelle, Vierhornantilope, Hirschziegenantilope). Wir fanden außerdem positive Beziehungen zwischen dem Auftreten der kleineren Arten und PAN. Der Artenreichtum der großen Herbivorenarten ist am größten in Kanha und Indravati, Regionen mit hoher PAN und mittlerer PAM. Wir fanden, dass die Höhe, Kronenbedeckung und Feuerhäufigkeit unbedeutende Prädiktoren des Artenreichtums der Herbivoren waren, auch wenn Höhe und Kronenbedeckung die Verbreitung einiger Arten erklärten. Aus den Ergebnissen unserer Null-Modell-Analysen schlossen wir, dass Feuchtigkeit und Nährstoffe im Boden wichtig sind für die Bestimmung der Verbreitung und den Artenreichtum der großen Herbivoren in der Sub-Himalaya-Region Indiens.Basic and Applied Ecology 02/2013; 12(7):634-642.
Article: How do subordinate and dominant species in semi-natural grasslands relate to productivity and land-use change?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Changes in agricultural practices of semi-natural mountain grasslands are expected to modify plant community structure and shift dominance patterns. Using vegetation surveys of 11 sites in semi-natural grasslands of the Swiss Jura and Swiss and French Alps, we determined the relative contribution of dominant, subordinate and transient plant species in grazed and abandoned communities and observed their changes along a gradient of productivity and in response to abandonment of pasturing. The results confirm the humpbacked diversity-productivity relationship in semi-natural grassland, which is due to the increase of subordinate species number at intermediate productivity levels. Grazed communities, at the lower or higher end of the species diversity gradient, suffered higher species loss after grazing abandonment. Species loss after abandonment of pasturing was mainly due to a higher reduction in the number of subordinate species, as a consequence of the increasing proportion of dominant species. When plant biodiversity maintenance is the aim, our results have direct implications for the way grasslands should be managed. Indeed, while intensification and abandonment have been accelerated since few decades, our findings in this multi-site analysis confirm the importance of maintaining intermediate levels of pasturing to preserve biodiversity.Basic and Applied Ecology 02/2013; 14:217-224.
Basic and Applied Ecology 01/2013;
Article: Effect of aboveground litter on belowground plant interactions in a native Rough Fescue grassland[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chemical compounds from plants may exhibit stimulatory and/or inhibitory effects on surrounding organisms. However, research on belowground biochemical interactions among plants has focused more effort on elucidating negative effects. Moreover, the effect of shoot litter on belowground plant-plant interactions has remained relatively unexplored. In a field experiment with four target plant species (Artemisia frigida Willd., Solidago missouriensis Nutt.), Bouteloua gracilis (Willd. ex Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths and Poa pratensis L.) interacting with intact grassland neighbours, we manipulated root competition using PVC tubes and shoot litter, and belowground chemical interaction by adding activated carbon (AC) to the soil. In A. frigida, shoot litter significantly interacted with root competition and root chemicals. Plants grown plus AC were larger than those minus AC when shoot litter was left intact suggesting inhibitory effects from neighbours and/or decomposing products. However, when shoot litter was removed, plants grown minus AC were larger suggesting stimulatory effects of root exudates. B. gracilis showed a similar trend but results were non-significant. Results demonstrate that the effects of neighbours can be inhibitory or facilitative depending on the presence or absence of shoot litter and mediation through AC.Basic and Applied Ecology 09/2012;
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ABSTRACT: Defensive chemicals produced by plants can travel up the food chain by being sequestered by herbivores, and then in turn being sequestered by their parasitoids. Insect species with wide host ranges are predicted to perform poorly in the face of specific chemical defence. However, a species at a high trophic level is expected to have a wide host range. This creates a conflict for hyperparasitoids, many of which depend on specialized hosts. We studied the performance of two hyperparasitoids, Lysibia nana and Gelis agilis, both of which have wide host ranges, on two host species, one chemically defended and the other not. We predicted that both hyperparasitoids would perform better using the undefended host Cotesia glomerata than the defended host C. melitaearum, which sequesters terpenoid allelochemicals (iridoid glycosides). Furthermore, we expected that the progeny of G. agilis collected from an area where hosts defended by iridoid glycosides are absent (the Netherlands) would perform poorly using C. melitaearum in comparison with G. agilis collected from an area where C. melitaearum is a common host (Åland, Finland). In a series of laboratory experiments we found that, contrary to prediction, both hyperparasitoids performed well on both hosts, reaching a larger size on C. glomerata, but having a higher conversion efficiency and developing more quickly on the chemically defended C. melitaearum. Lysibia nana metabolized the plant derived iridoid glycosides, which are chemicals that it does not normally encounter. Gelis agilis retained some of the iridoid glycosides. But whereas Finnish G. agilis retained both aucubin and catalpol, Dutch G. agilis mainly retained aucubin, illustrating that though generalists, local populations still cope differently with toxic allelochemicals.Basic and Applied Ecology 05/2012; 13(3):241-249.
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ABSTRACT: Invasive species of the knotweed complex (Fallopia sp.) have repeatedly been shown to decrease diversity of native local biota. While effects on plant species richness are well established, effects on invertebrate and in particular gastropod species richness are less well understood. We recorded cover of plant species and diversity and abundance of gastropod species in four plots (1 m √ó 1 m) with Fallopia japonica and compared these to paired control plots without F. japonica at 15 sites along the river Birs (Switzerland) in early summer (June) and autumn (September). Knotweed and control plots did not differ in site characteristics and soil parameters. Average plant species richness in F. japonica plots was 50% lower compared to control plots. This reduction was significant for woody species as well as for herbaceous species. However, species richness of early flowering annuals did not differ significantly. Among the species most affected by knotweed were hop (Humulus lupulus) and European spindle tree (Euonymus europaeus) but also stand-forming species such as nettle (Urtica dioica) or ground elder (Aegopodium podagraria). Average snail species richness was significantly reduced in F. japonica plots. The reduction was pronounced in large (‚â•5 mm shell size) and long-lived (>2 years) snail species but not in slugs or small and short-lived snails. For example, large snails such as the Roman snail (Helix pomatia, ‚àí85%) or the red-listed species Bradybaena fruticum (‚àí93%), showed reduced abundances in F. japonica compared to control plots. In contrast, the red-listed but small Vertigo pusilla (+92%) had higher abundances in F. japoinca plots. Principal component analyses revealed little overlap in plant communities or community composition of large snail species between F. japonica and control plots. Taken together, knotweed invasion decreased the cover of most plant species and abundance of large and long-lived gastropods.Basic and Applied Ecology 01/2012; 13(3):232-240.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.
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