Sportverletzung · Sportschaden

Publisher: Thieme Publishing


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Publications in this journal

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Football is played worldwide and players often have to cope with hot and cold temperatures as well as high altitude conditions. The upcoming and past world championships in Brazil, Qatar and South Africa illustrate the necessity for behavioural strategies and adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. When playing football in the heat or cold, special clothing, hydration and nutritional and acclimatisation strategies are vital for high-level performance. When playing at high altitude, the reduced oxygen partial pressure impairs endurance performance and alters the technical and tactical requirements. Special high-altitude adaptation and preparation strategies are essential for football teams based at sea-level in order to perform well and compete successfully. Therefore, the aim of the underlying review is: 1) to highlight the difficulties and needs of football teams competing in extreme environmental conditions, 2) to summarise the thermoregulatory, physiological, neuronal and psychological mechanism, and 3) to provide recommendations for coping with extreme environmental conditions in order to perform at a high level when playing football in the heat, cold and at high altitude.
    Sportverletzung · Sportschaden 03/2014; 28(1):17-23.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: A multivariable training has a positive impact on balance skills and risk of injury. To date the effect of this training using the Nintendo Wii balance board in sportive people has not yet been investigated. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether training with the Nintendo Wii balance board can improve balance skills. Method: 20 people were randomized into a control and an intervention group each with 10 people who performed a unilateral stance test with eyes open and closed as well as the star excursion balance test before and after the intervention. The control group completed their usual sports and the intervention group an adjunct training with the Nintendo Wii balance board for 4 weeks. Results: Adjunct Training using the Nintendo Wii Balance Board did not improve sportive people's balance skills significantly. The intervention group, however, attained better results in the star excursion balance test, whereas the control group did not show any changes. The unilateral stance tests did not provide significant differences before and after training within both groups. Conclusion: The use of the Nintendo Wii balance board should be further investigated by employing individual difficulty levels.
    Sportverletzung · Sportschaden 03/2014; 28(1):36-43.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Fractures of the tibial plateau are among the most severe injuries of the knee joint and are often the result of sports accidents, especially skiing accidents. Patients/Materials and Methods: Between January 2003 and March 2009, a total of 37 skiers with tibial plateau fractures were treated operatively at Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (level I trauma center); 28 patients with a minimum follow-up of 24 months were included in this study. Sporting activity was determined at the time of injury and at the time of survey at an average follow-up of 49.0 months postoperatively. Results: At the time of the survey, 92.9 % of all patients were engaged in sports; only 12 of the 28 patients returned to skiing. Of the competitive athletes (n = 5 at time of injury) no patient returned to competition. The number of different sporting activities declined significantly from 6.4 before the injury to 4.6 after the injury. The activity duration per week, being 5.0 hours at the time of injury, declined to 4.4 hours, although the difference is statistically not significant. The Lysholm score, 97.5 points before accident, illustrated a significant decline to 84.4 points. Activity levels according to the Tegner scale declined significantly from 6.1 to 4.7 after the tibial plateau fracture. Conclusion: The majority of patients could not return to their previous level of activity. For patients playing competitive sports, the tibial plateau fracture can be a career ender. Overall, 92.9 % of the patients returned to sports, but we noticed a post-injury shift toward activities with less impact. Only 12 of the 28 (42.9 %) skiers with tibial plateau fractures returned to skiing.
    Sportverletzung · Sportschaden 03/2014; 28(1):24-30.
  • Sportverletzung · Sportschaden 03/2014; 28:17-23.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Prior to introduction of carving skis, complex fractures of the proximal tibia were rarely seen. Recently these fractures are being seen more frequently in connection with alpine skiing. The aim of this study was to find out the incidence of proximal tibia fractures in alpine skiing and to identify possible risk factors. Methods: All patients with proximal tibia fractures related to alpine skiing in a large German ski resort were included. Fracture type, patient and skiing related factors were recorded. Incidence of fractures was determined by using the number of all registered skiers. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratios for risk factors. Results: Between 2007 and 2010 a total of 188 patients was treated for proximal tibia fractures caused by alpine skiing. Forty-three patients had a type-A injury, 96 patients a type-B injury, and 49 patients a type-C injury. The incidence of injury increased continuously, starting from 2.7 and climbing to 7.0 per 10⁵ skiing days. The risk factors compared to patients with type-A fractures, type-C fracture occurred in older (OR 0.93; 0.89 - 0.97) and heavier (OR 0.86; 0.74 - 0.99) individuals and were more likely on icy snow conditions (OR 0.22; 0.05 - 0.96), higher speed (OR 0.29; 0.09 - 0.97) and skiing skill (OR 0.35; 0.13 - 0.95). These was also seen in artificial and icy snow conditions (OR 0.25; 0.07 - 0.87) when compared to type-B fractures. Conclusion: The incidence of proximal tibia fractures related to skiing has increased over the past four years. Risk factors such as age, BMI, snow conditions, speed, and the skill of the skiers, were identified as causes contributing to complex fractures.
    Sportverletzung · Sportschaden 12/2013; 27(4):207-11.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: In professional ice hockey there is a high incidence of concussion. In order to implement preventative measures as well as to introduce a treatment concept it is necessary to analyse the basic knowledge about concussion of all participants and to identify aspects requiring additional educational measures. Method: By means of an internet-based questionnaire comprising 18 questions, trainers and co-trainers, sport directors, team physicians and team captains of all teams in the German ice hockey league were interviewed about their knowledge and impressions with regard to general knowledge, game-stop, protection, and training as well as their opinions about changing the penalty system. Results: The response rate amounted to 57.8 %. Not only team physicians but also players, trainers and sport directors exhibited a good basic knowledge on concussion, duration of treatment and rehabilitation as well as possible long-term sequelae. There were only slight differences in knowledge between team physicians and not-medically trained personnel. This survey also revealed a broad support for educational measures about concussion and the possibility for rule changes to further protect the players. Conclusion: There appears to be an acceptable basic knowledge about concussion and its symptoms and no major underestimation of the problems. All participants were in favour of the provision of further information as well as the implementation of preventative measures.
    Sportverletzung · Sportschaden 12/2013; 27(4):201-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Karate enjoys great popularity both in professional and recreational sports and can be classified into full, half and low contact styles. The aim of this study was the analysis of sports injuries in Kyokushinkai (full contact) and traditional Karate (semi-contact). Methods: In a retrospective study design, 215 active amateur karateka (114 full contact, 101 semi-contact) were interviewed by means of a standardised questionnaire regarding typical sport injuries during the last 36 months. Injuries were categorised into severity grade I (not requiring medical treatment), grade II (single medical treatment), grade III (several outpatient medical treatments) and grade IV (requiring hospitalisation). Results: In total, 217 injuries were reported in detail. 125 injuries (58 %) occurred in full contact and 92 (42 %) in semi-contact karate. The time related injury rate of full contact karateka was 1.9/1000 h compared to 1.3/1000 h of semi-contact karateka (p < 0.05). The most common types of injuries were musculoskeletal contusions (33 % full contact, 20 % semi-contact), followed by articular sprains with 19 % and 16 %. The lower extremity was affected twice as often in full contact (40 %) as in semi-contact (20 %) karate. Training injuries were reported by 80 % of the full contact and 77 % of the semi-contact karateka. Most injuries, both in training and competition, occurred in kumite. 75 % of the reported injuries of full contact and 70 % of semi-contact karateka were classified as low grade (I or II). Conclusion: The high rate of injuries during training and kumite (sparring) points to specific prevention goals. The emphasis should be put on proprioceptive training and consistent warm-up. In the actual competition the referees play a vital role regarding prevention.
    Sportverletzung · Sportschaden 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study is aimed to compare the effects of arthroscopic joint debridement over a 5-year period in a clearly defined patient population (only grade III knee osteoarthritis, history < 2 years). Material and Methods: A total of 96 patients (50 male and 46 female) underwent arthroscopic knee debridement for knee OA. The main criteria for inclusion were osteoarthritis grade III (Kellgren-Lawrence score) and a maximal history of 2 years. Results: The subjective complaints and the knee-related quality of life were estimated by the KOOS (knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score). The score increased significantly within the 1 to 3 rd year post operation. After this interval the mean points of the score declined. But after 5 years the KOOS was higher in comparison to the baseline dates. Patients who had undergone conservative treatment at baseline had a significantly different KOOS than patients in the arthroscopy group. Over time, patients in the arthroscopy group had fewer complaints than patients in the conservative treatment group. In both groups, the results decreased over time. A total of 17 patients (17.2 %) needed a conversion to total endoprothetic replacement. The mean time-interval between index operation and conversion was 56.6 (95 % CI 54.4 - 58.4) months. Conclusions: In middle stages of knee OA, arthroscopic joint debridement can effectively reduce subjective complaints. Because this treatment does not stop the process of OA, the improvements decrease over time.
    Sportverletzung · Sportschaden 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Chronic back pain may be associated with alterations of motor control and maladaptive movement. However, instruments that systematically screen fundamental movement patterns are rare. Using a newly developed functional movement analysis, this study aims to examine whether persons with chronic unspecific low back pain display altered quality of fundamental movement patterns and whether asymmetry exists between body sides. Subjects/Methods: 20 patients with chronic back pain (♀ = 8, ♂ = 12; 49.4 ± 11.3 years) and 20 healthy controls (♀ = 12, ♂ = 8; 47.7 ± 10.7 years) completed the functional movement analysis. It consists of 11 items screening movements of daily life. Eight of them were to complete left and right. The overall score and the number of observed asymmetries (in items to complete left and right) constituted the primary outcomes. A preliminary analysis of reliability (four raters, four subjects) with pilot character was conducted using intraclass correlation (ICC). To compare differences in means, independent t-tests were performed. In case of significance, we calculated the effect size (Cohen's d). Results: The reliability analysis showed an ICC (2.1) of 0.82 (95 % CI: 0.72 - 0.90). Patients with chronic low back pain (31.95 ± 5.82) scored significantly lower than healthy subjects (44.01 ± 5.27; p < 0.001, d = 2.17). Additionally, patients averaged 3.8 ± 1.28 asymmetries while pain-free participants only demonstrated 1.4 ± 0.94 (p < 0.001; d = 2.14). Conclusion: Faulty and dysbalanced movement patterns appear to be linked to chronic low back pain. Nonetheless, given an existing relation, it remains unclear whether the detected deficiencies are causes or consequences of pain. Further studies about the reliability of the presented screening tool are needed.
    Sportverletzung · Sportschaden 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Parkour sport is the playfully breaching of obstacles originally not created to get from A to B in the fastest manner. There have been only few publications on injuries in this young and trendy sport mainly performed in urban areas. The aim of this study is to analyse parkour-related acute injuries and their factors.Methods: For the retrospective cross-sectional study, a total of n = 266 traceurs (m: n = 255, w: n = 11) completed anonymized online questionnaires.Results: On average, each traceur sustained 1.9 injuries per sport career/year, or 5.5 injuries/1000 h training, respectively. The upper extremity was the most affected body region (58 %), followed by the lower extremity (27 %), head and the back. An increase of injuries from proximal to distal was observed in the upper extremity. However, for the lower extremity it was the opposite. Of all injuries, the most common were skin abrasions (70.3 %). Muscle injuries were observed in 13.1 % of the traceurs, followed by dislocations (6.1 %), and soft tissue (e. g., ligaments, tendons) injuries (5.3 %). Passive precautionary measures were abandoned by the majority of the traceurs (88 %). Landing belonged to the movement elements resulting in most of the injuries (61 %), followed by supportive and static efforts of the arms (10.7 %). Overestimation (23 %) as well as misjudging the situation (20 %) were the most common causes.Conclusion: Other than expected, parkour is an urban movement style with most of the injuries being neither severe nor common despite the lack of precautionary measures. Localisation and type of injuries reflect the characteristic movement elements. There is a need for further investigations to allow a more differentiated analysis in order to develop injury prevention concepts.
    Sportverletzung · Sportschaden 07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Less muscle elasticity of the hamstrings increases the risk of muscle strain. Muscle balance is the purpose of muscle stretching. The active knee-extension test (AKE) represents an established test of muscle elasticity. For evaluating the test results standard values are necessary. The aim of this study is to measure standard values of the AKE test in a collective of healthy male and female fitness athletes and to determine factors of muscle elasticity.Material and Methods: We performed the AKE test in 119 healthy fitness athletes (56 women, 63 men) evaluated biometric and anthropometric data, examined joint function in knee and hip activity scores (WOMAC, Lysholm score, Tegner score, UCLA-acitivity scale), psychological score (HADS scale) and clinical evidence of rheumatoid criteria (ACR). Unpaired t-test and multiple regressions were calculated.Results: The average knee extension deficit was as measured 31.6 ± 12.6° (men: 35.6 ± 10.4°; women 27.1 ± 13.5°, p = 0.0002), factors like "female gender", "physical work", "sports activities for many years", "hip flexion" and "body fat content" influence the muscle elasticity.Discussion: For the first time, standard values for the AKE test are available, allowing an estimation of muscle elasticity of the hamstrings. Factors like "female gender", "physical work" and "sports activities for many years" affect the muscle elasticity, while "body fat content" and "hip flexion" are combined to female gender and are considered as indirect factors of hamstring flexibility.
    Sportverletzung · Sportschaden 06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Stingray injuries with potentially lethal outcomes have been described in the medical literature, but a stingray injury to a surfer does not belong to the injuries treated daily in Germany.Patients: We report on a stingray injury to a 31-year-old female with an uncommon course.Results: Diagnostics of and therapy for stingray injuries are described.Conclusion: Stingray stings are painful injuries. In addition to the pain-relieving heat deactivation of the stingray toxin, the wound has to be cleaned to avoid secondary infection. Non-radiopaque foreign bodies should be ruled out by MRI. Stingray bites can cause severe injuries to water sportsmen and women with the need for surgical intervention.
    Sportverletzung · Sportschaden 06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Joint structure damages due to overstrain often occur even in commonly not injury-prone golfing. Triggered by the golf swing's repetitive movement pattern and technique deficits of the player these structural damages are most likely to affect the lumbar spine as well as shoulder and elbow joint. As a synonym for shoulder impingement symptoms in golfers the term golf shoulder has been established in medical terminology. Despite this fact, currently there exist no studies addressing the relation between shoulder impingement syndrome and club head velocity.Objective: The aim of this study was to highlight the relation between club head velocity deficits of high-performance amateur golfers and persisting shoulder impingement syndrome.Method: All of the 31 high-performance amateur golfers included in this study were male, active tournament players and right hander. Each golfer was examined for shoulder impingement syndrome using the Neer test, the Hawkins-Kennedy test, the painful arc and the functional test of the M. infraspinatus. Based on the test results the participants were allocated to an impingement group or a non-impingement group. Additionally, each golfer's club head velocity was determined.Results: Between the two groups a significant difference concerning the club head velocity has been reported.Conclusions: A persisting shoulder impingement syndrome can have a negative effect on club head velocity. In many shoulder studies predominantly the influence of pathological muscular balance alterations (myofascial dysfunction) is not taken into consideration.
    Sportverletzung · Sportschaden 05/2013; 27(2):108-111.
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    ABSTRACT: There are numerous studies on the factors influencing the maximum isometric force. These include, among others, the activity of the contralateral extremities in unilateral measurements. With reference to this parameter, there is still disagreement. Some studies suggest that activation of the contralateral antagonist leads to an increase in force production of the tested limb. In contrast, other research groups came to the conclusion that simultaneous contraction of the contralateral agonists have this effect. The aim of this study was to find out how certain starting positions and contraction directions of the non-tested limb affect the force capability of the contralateral limb during unilateral maximum isometric force measurements on a leg press. In the course of the investigation, the unilateral isometric maximum force capacity of the lower limbs of 20 subjects in four different starting positions and forms of activation of the contralateral limb was tested. The non-tested leg was first loosely placed on the floor (starting position A), then it was held on the body in maximum knee and hip flexion (test situation G) and after that it had to perform maximal contraction exercises in extension (KE) and flexion (KF) each against a stabilisation bar. The results showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower force levels during the contralateral contraction KF compared to all other test situations. In the starting position A, the subjects reached the highest values. Compared to G and KF these differences in maximum force development were significant (p < 0.05). Both the initial position, and the activity of the contralateral limb has an impact on the maximum isometric extension strength of the tested leg at the leg press. Therefore, during the repeated execution of an isometric strength test on this apparatus, it should be taken care that the subject occupies the same starting position as the previous test. A voluntary activation of the contralateral side should be avoided during the measurement, or in the same way.
    Sportverletzung · Sportschaden 04/2013;

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