Planta Medica

Publisher: Gesellschaft für Arzneipflanzenforschung, Thieme Publishing


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    Planta medica (En ligne), Planta medica
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Publications in this journal

  • Planta Medica 08/2014; 80:PD138.
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    ABSTRACT: Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of Asphodelus microcarpus Viv. (Xanthorrhoeaceae or Asphodelaceae) resulted in the isolation of four new compounds identified as asphodosides A-D. The isolated metabolites showed high binding affinity to cannabinoid receptors (subtype CB1 and CB2).
    Planta Medica 07/2014; 80(10):32.
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    ABSTRACT: Chemical investigation of the ethanol extract of the whole plant of Megacodon stylophorus led to the isolation and identification of two new seco-hopane triterpenoids, 2,3-seco-22(29)-hopene-2-carboxyl-3-aldehyde (1) and 2,3-seco-4(23),22(29)-hopene-2-carboxyl-3-aldehyde (2), along with 10 known compounds, 3-12. All the isolates were reported from this plant for the first time. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by detailed analysis of their spectral data including 1D and 2D NMR. In addition, compound 1 was further analyzed by X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for their in vitro anti-proliferative activities on HeLa, MCF-7, and Hep-G2 tumor cell lines. Compound 2 was active against the three cell lines with IC50 values of 3.6, 7.5, and 13.6 µM, respectively, while compound 1 exhibited cytotoxicity on MCF-7 (IC50 14.0 µM) and HeLa (IC50 18.2 µM) cell lines. Antimicrobial activities of compounds 1-2 (minimum inhibitory concentration values in the range of 3.12-12.50 mg/mL) were also observed.
    Planta Medica 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In obese adipose tissue, tumor necrosis factor-α secreted from macrophages plays an important role in the adipocyte dysfunctions, including insulin resistance, lipolytic acceleration, and changes of adipokines, which promote the development of obesity-related complications. Phillyrin, an active ingredient found in many medicinal plants and certain functional foods, elicits anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties in vivo. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of phillyrin in preventing tumor necrosis factor α-induced insulin resistance or lipolytic acceleration in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our results showed that phillyrin partially restored insulin-stimulated 2-DOG uptake, which was reduced by tumor necrosis factor-α, with concomitant restoration in serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 and insulin-stimulated Glut4 translocation to plasma membrane. Phillyrin also dose-dependently prevented tumor necrosis factor α-stimulated adipocyte lipolysis with preserved downregulation of perilipin. The mitogen-activated protein kinases and I kappaB kinase activation was promoted in tumor necrosis factor α-stimulated adipocytes, but pretreatment with 40 µM phillyrin inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2, stress-activated protein kinase/Jun N-terminal kinase and I kappaB kinase (p < 0.05). Moreover, phillyrin could inhibit the expressions of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 induced by tumor necrosis factor-α. Using transwell coculture method with 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages, the enhanced productions of tumor necrosis factor-α and free fatty acids in the medium were significantly reduced by phillyrin (p < 0.05). These results indicate that phillyrin exerts a beneficial effect on adipocyte dysfunctions induced by tumor necrosis factor-α through suppression of the activation of I kappaB kinase and N-terminal kinase. Phillyrin may have the potential to ameliorate the inflammatory changes and insulin resistance in obese adipose tissue.
    Planta Medica 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A new isochromene derivative (1), was isolated from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora sphaerica and chemically identified as 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4,6,8-trihydroxy-1 H-isochromen-1- one-6-O-b-D-glucopyranoside. In addition nineteen known compounds (2 – 20) have been isolated and were chemically identified to be seven ergosterol derivatives (2 – 8), 4-(hydroxymethyl)-3,5- dimethyl dihydrofuran-2(3 H)-one (9), 3-(1-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl dihydrofuran-2(3 H)-one (10), uridine (11), adenosine (12), 3-benzylhexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione (13), 3-methylhexahydro pyrrolo [1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione (14), methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (15), 4-(2-hydro-xyethyl)phenol (16) and four fatty acids (17 – 20). In vitro antioxidant activities of (1 – 20) were examined.
    Planta Medica 07/2014; 80(10):PC9.
  • Planta Medica 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids have been reported as the cardioactive components in the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaeli (Fuzi) according to recent studies. Determination of these effective components is of great significance for quality control purposes for Fuzi. Here we report, for the first, the development and validation of a new method to determine the 13 aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids in Fuzi by using a simple and accurate solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The chromatographic analysis was performed on an ODS column with methanol-0.1 % formic acid (80 : 20, v/v) as the mobile phase. The quantification was performed using MS/MS detection in the positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring. Linearity was observed within a range of concentrations of 20-2000 ng/mL. For all the analytes, the r value was greater than 0.9990. The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation were less than 0.5 ng/mL and 2.0 ng/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions were less than 5 % and 10 %, respectively. The accuracy was within the range of 90 to 105 %. This method was successfully applied to determine the 13 aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids in Fuzi from different origins and with different processing methods.
    Planta Medica 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the relationship of the dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra chinensis to their anti-inflammatory activities, series of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans were isolated and assessed by testing their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV2 mouse microglia. It was found, for the first time, that dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans which have S-biphenyl and methylenedioxy groups strongly inhibited LPS-induced microglia activation. The methoxy group on the cyclooctadiene introduced more effectiveness, but the presence of an acetyl group on the cyclooctadiene or hydroxyl group on C-7 decreased the inhibitory activity.
    Planta Medica 06/2014; 80(8/09):671-675.
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    ABSTRACT: Species of Garcinia have been used to combat malaria in traditional African and Asian medicines, including Ayurveda. In the current study, we have identified antiplasmodial benzophenone and xanthone compounds from edible Garcinia species by testing for in vitro inhibitory activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Whole fruits of Garcinia xanthochymus, G. mangostana, G. spicata, and G. livingstonei were extracted and tested for antiplasmodial activity. Garcinia xanthochymus was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation to identify active partitions. Purified benzophenones (1-9) and xanthones (10-18) were then screened in the plasmodial lactate dehydrogenase assay and tested for cytotoxicity against mammalian (Vero) cells. The benzophenones guttiferone E (4), isoxanthochymol (5), and guttiferone H (6), isolated from G. xanthochymus, and the xanthones α-mangostin (15), β-mangostin (16), and 3-isomangostin (17), known from G. mangostana, showed antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values in the range of 4.71-11.40 µM. Artemisinin and chloroquine were used as positive controls and exhibited IC50 values in the range of 0.01-0.24 µM. The identification of antiplasmodial benzophenone and xanthone compounds from G. xanthochymus and G. mangostana provides evidence for the antiplasmodial activity of Garcinia species and warrants further investigation of these fruits as dietary sources of chemopreventive compounds.
    Planta Medica 06/2014; 80(8-9):676-81.
  • Planta Medica 06/2014; 80(8/09):609.
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    ABSTRACT: Korean red ginseng is one of the traditional herbal medicines most widely used in China, Korea, and Japan. To determine whether Korean red ginseng extract can mitigate acute renal nephropathy, we examined its renoprotective effects in a model of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in Sprague Dawley rats. Korean red ginseng was administered to rats by oral gavage once a day at doses of 100, 300, or 500 mg/kg for 28 days. On day 23, the animals received an intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin (5 mg/kg) to induce acute renal failure. Body weight gain, urine volume, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations, and expression of p53 were measured. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling was used to analyze apoptosis. Kidney tissues from the control and experimental groups were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for inflammatory cytokines and histopathological examination. To identify the mechanism responsible for the renoprotective effects of Korean red ginseng, we measured malondialdehyde concentration as an end product of lipid peroxidation and the activities of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Korean red ginseng significantly decreased the levels of indicators of renal dysfunction, inflammatory cytokine expression, apoptosis, and malondialdehyde content in the kidney and also significantly attenuated the histopathological changes associated with acute renal failure. These findings suggest that Korean red ginseng has renoprotective effects against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation.
    Planta Medica 06/2014; 80(8/09):645-654.
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    ABSTRACT: Tussilagone (TSL) and its allied sesquiterpenoids were considered as the main active principles of the flower buds of Tussilago farfara, which has been widely used in China as an antitussive herbal medicine. Six new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids, tussfararins A-F (1-6), along with 12 known sesquiterpenoids, were isolated from the flower buds of T. farfara. Structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The biological analysis showed that compounds 1, 3, 6, and 7 inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells with IC50 values of 13.6-24.4 µM.
    Planta Medica 06/2014; 80(8-9):703-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Various drugs found in Chinese herbs are well known for their antiviral potency. We have tested several flavonoids with respect to their potency to block the viral protein U of the human immunodeficiency type 1 virus, which is believed to form a cation-permeable ion channel in the infected cell. We used Xenopus oocytes with heterologously expressed viral protein U as model system to test the efficacy of the drugs in voltage-clamp experiments. This method had been demonstrated in the past as a useful tool to screen drugs for their potency in inhibition of ion channel activity. The viral protein U-mediated current could be inhibited by Ba(2+) with a K1/2 value of 1.6 mM. Therefore, we determined viral protein U-mediated current as current component blocked by 10 mM Ba(2+). We screened several flavonoids with respect to their effects on this current. The flavonols quercetin and kaempferol, and the flavanols (-)epigallochatechin and (-)epichatechin were ineffective. The flavanone naringenin showed at 20 µM slight (about 10 %) inhibition. The most potent drug was the isoflavon genistein which exhibited at 20 µM significant inhibition of about 40 % with a K1/2 value of 81 ± 4 µM. We suggest that viral ion channels, in general, may be a good target for development of antiviral agents, and that, in particular, isoflavons may be candidates for development of drugs targeting viral protein U.
    Planta Medica 06/2014; 80(8/09):682-687.
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    ABSTRACT: A method was developed to distinguish Vaccinium species based on leaf extracts using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Reference spectra were measured on leaf extracts from several species, including lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium), oval leaf huckleberry (Vaccinium ovalifolium), and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Using principal component analysis, these leaf extracts were resolved in the scores plot. Analysis of variance statistical tests demonstrated that the three groups differ significantly on PC2, establishing that the three species can be distinguished by nuclear magnetic resonance. Soft independent modeling of class analogies models for each species also showed discrimination between species. To demonstrate the robustness of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for botanical identification, spectra of a sample of lowbush blueberry leaf extract were measured at five different sites, with different field strengths (600 versus 700 MHz), different probe types (cryogenic versus room temperature probes), different sample diameters (1.7 mm versus 5 mm), and different consoles (Avance I versus Avance III). Each laboratory independently demonstrated the linearity of their NMR measurements by acquiring a standard curve for chlorogenic acid (R(2) = 0.9782 to 0.9998). Spectra acquired on different spectrometers at different sites classifed into the expected group for the Vaccinium spp., confirming the utility of the method to distinguish Vaccinium species and demonstrating nuclear magnetic resonance fingerprinting for material validation of a natural health product.
    Planta Medica 06/2014; 80(8/09):732-739.
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    ABSTRACT: Total steroid saponins isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis are a unique traditional Chinese medicine known for its potential usage in various types of diseases. However, there is little evidence about its neuroprotective effect in transient focal ischemia-reperfusion cerebral injury. Therefore, the current study was carried out to investigate the effect of total steroid saponins on neuroprotection and its potential mechanisms in the rat ischemia-reperfusion model by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 min. The rats were each treated with total steroid saponins (30 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 3 mg/kg) or nimodipine (20 mg/kg) daily for 6 days before middle cerebral artery occlusion. Then, the neurological deficit score, cerebral infarct volume, and brain water content were measured at 24 h after reperfusion. Meanwhile, the histopathological changes and AQP-4 protein activities were examined in hippocampal CA1 and the cortex of ipsilateral ischemic cerebral hemisphere by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The indices of oxidative stress in the serum were also obtained, and NF-κB and ERK 1/2 protein expressions in the injured brain were evaluated by Western blotting. The results indicated that the pre-treatment with these drugs not only significantly reduced cerebral infarct volume, brain water content and improved neurological deficit score, but also restored neuronal morphology and decreased the AQP-4 positive cells in CA1 and the cortex. Moreover, it markedly restored the level of oxidant stress markers (CAT, SOD, MDA, NO and iNOS) to their normal range in serum. In addition, the increased NF-κB and ERK 1/2 protein expressions were alleviated as compared with the ischemia-reperfusion group. These findings demonstrate that total steroid saponins exhibit promising neuroprotection effects against the transient focal ischemia-reperfusion cerebral injury in the rat experimental model and the underlying mechanisms might be mediated through inhibition of anti-edema as well as anti-oxidative effects by inactivation of NF-κB and ERK 1/2 signalling pathway.
    Planta Medica 06/2014; 80(8/09):637-644.
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    ABSTRACT: Three new isoflavanones (1-3) and thirteen known compounds (4-16) were isolated from the roots of Mucuna pruriens. The absolute configurations of isoflavanones 1-3 and parvisoflavanone (4), lespedeol C (5), and uncinanone C (6) were addressed by a circular dichroism technique. Isoflavanones, isoflavones, and pterocarpans of M. pruriens were found to be α-glucosidase inhibitors. Medicarpin (7) and parvisoflavone B (9) were potent α-glucosidase inhibitors (twofold less active than the standard drug acarbose). The production of bioactive metabolites in M. pruriens seems to be season-dependent.
    Planta Medica 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B is a non-transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase and major negative regulator in insulin signaling cascades, and much attention has been paid to protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors as potential therapies for diabetes. The screening of a natural compound library led to the discovery of five lavandulyl flavonoids, which were isolated from the roots of Sophora flavescens, as novel PTP1B inhibitors: kuraridin (1), norkurarinone (2), kurarinone (3), 2'-methoxykurarinone (4), and kushenol T (5). The three most potent compounds, 1, 2, and 4 (IC50 < 30 µM), were demonstrated to be noncompetitive inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B based on a kinetic analysis, and they exhibited different inhibitory selectivities against four homologous protein tyrosine phosphatases (T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase, vaccinia H1-related phosphatase, and Src homology domain 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatases 1 and 2). Compounds 1, 2, and 4 also exhibited cellular activity in the insulin signaling pathway by increasing the insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation level in human hepatocellular liver carcinoma HepG2 cells, suggesting their potential for new anti-insulin-resistant drug developments.
    Planta Medica 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Andrographis paniculata is an important herbal medicine widely used in several Asian countries for the treatment of various diseases due to its broad range of pharmacological activities. The present study reports that A. paniculata extracts potently inhibit the growth of liver (HepG2 and SK-Hep1) and bile duct (HuCCA-1 and RMCCA-1) cancer cells. A. paniculata extracts with different contents of major diterpenoids, including andrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, neoandrographolide, and 14-deoxyandrographolide, exhibited a different potency of growth inhibition. The ethanolic extract of A. paniculata at the first true leaf stage, which contained a high amount of 14-deoxyandrographolide but a low amount of andrographolide, showed a cytotoxic effect to cancer cells about 4 times higher than the water extract of A. paniculata at the mature leaf stage, which contained a high amount of andrographolide but a low amount of 14-deoxyandrographolide. Andrographolide, not 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, neoandrographolide, or 14-deoxyandrographolide, possessed potent cytotoxic activity against the growth of liver and bile duct cancer cells. The cytotoxic effect of the water extract of A. paniculata at the mature leaf stage could be explained by the present amount of andrographolide, while the cytotoxic effect of the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata at the first true leaf stage could not. HuCCA-1 cells showed more sensitivity to A. paniculata extracts and andrographolide than RMCCA-1 cells. Furthermore, the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata at the first true leaf stage increased cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 and G2/M phases, and induced apoptosis in both HuCCA-1 and RMCCA-1 cells. The expressions of cyclin-D1, Bcl-2, and the inactive proenzyme form of caspase-3 were reduced by the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata in the first true leaf stage treatment, while a proapoptotic protein Bax was increased. The cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase was also found in the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata in the first true leaf stage treatment. This study suggests that A. paniculata could be a promising herbal plant for the alternative treatment of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
    Planta Medica 04/2014;