Planta Medica

Publisher: Gesellschaft für Arzneipflanzenforschung, Thieme Publishing

Description

Impact factor 2.35

  • 5-year impact
    2.46
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.30
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.53
  • Other titles
    Planta medica (En ligne), Planta medica
  • ISSN
    1439-0221
  • OCLC
    182630769
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Thieme Publishing

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    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
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    • Author can archive a post-print version
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    • On author's personal website immediately
    • On Institutional Repository and PubMed Central after 12 months embargo
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    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
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  • Classification
    ​ blue

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Centrifugal partition chromatography is a liquid-liquid separation method well adapted for the fractionation or purification of natural compounds from plant extracts. However, following the preparative isolation, the fractions collected must be analysed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography to evaluate their composition and/or their purity. These additional steps are time-consuming and increase the risk of compound degradation. In order to get an instantaneous analysis of fraction content with structural information on the phytochemicals eluted, it is possible to hyphenate on-line centrifugal partition chromatography with mass spectrometry. Depending on the complexity of the extract, two different kinds of centrifugal partition chromatography-mass spectrometry coupling can be performed: centrifugal partition chromatography-mass spectrometry or centrifugal partition chromatography-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry coupling. In the first case, one part of the centrifugal partition chromatography effluent is directly introduced in the mass spectrometry ionisation source to identify the eluted compounds, while in the second case, it is directed to a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system where compounds are first separated thanks to high-performance liquid chromatography and then identified using mass spectrometry. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    Planta Medica 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most used anti-inflammatory medicines in the world. Side effects still occur, however, and some inflammatory pathologies lack efficient treatment. Cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways are of utmost importance in inflammatory processes; therefore, novel inhibitors are currently needed for both of them. Dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase are anti-inflammatory drugs with high efficacy and low side effects. In this work, 57 leaf extracts (EtOH-H2O 7 : 3, v/v) from Asteraceae species with in vitro dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution-ORBITRAP-mass spectrometry analysis and subjected to in silico studies using machine learning algorithms. The data from all samples were processed by employing differential expression analysis software coupled to the Dictionary of Natural Products for dereplication studies. The 6052 chromatographic peaks (ESI positive and negative modes) of the extracts were selected by a genetic algorithm according to their respective anti-inflammatory properties; after this procedure, 1241 of them remained. A study using a decision tree classifier was carried out, and 11 compounds were determined to be biomarkers due to their anti-inflammatory potential. Finally, a model to predict new biologically active extracts from Asteraceae species using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry information with no prior knowledge of their biological data was built using a multilayer perceptron (artificial neural networks) with the back-propagation algorithm using the biomarker data. As a result, a new and robust artificial neural network model for predicting the anti-inflammatory activity of natural compounds was obtained, resulting in a high percentage of correct predictions (81 %), high precision (100 %) for dual inhibition, and low error values (mean absolute error = 0.3), as also shown in the validation test. Thus, the biomarkers of the Asteraceae extracts were statistically correlated with their anti-inflammatory activities and can therefore be useful to predict new anti-inflammatory extracts and their anti-inflammatory compounds using only liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    Planta Medica 01/2015;
  • Liz G Müller, Luisa Salles, Helena A Lins, Priscilla R O Feijó, Eduardo Cassel, Rubem Vargas, Gilsane L von Poser, François Noël, Luis E M Quintas, Stela M K Rates
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    ABSTRACT: Diene valepotriates obtained from Valeriana glechomifolia present antidepressant-like activity, mediated by dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmissions. Also, previous studies have shown inhibitory activity of diene valepotriates towards Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase from the rat brain in vitro. Nevertheless, in vivo studies regarding the action of diene valepotriates on this enzyme are still lacking. Considering that Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase cerebral activity is involved in depressive disorders, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute (5 mg/kg, p. o.) and repeated (5 mg/kg, p. o., once a day for three days) diene valepotriate administration on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in the cortex and hippocampus of mice submitted or not submitted to the forced swimming test. In addition, the protein expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α1, α2, and α3 isoforms in the cortex of mice repeatedly treated with diene valepotriates (and submitted or not submitted to the forced swimming test) was investigated. Diene valepotriates significantly decreased mice immobility time in the forced swimming test when compared to the control group. Only the animals repeatedly treated with diene valepotriates presented increased Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in the cerebral cortex, and the exposure to the forced swimming test counteracted the effects of the diene valepotriates. No alterations in the hippocampal Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity were observed. Repeated diene valepotriate administration increased the cortical content of the α2 isoform, but the α3 isoform protein expression was augmented only in mice repeatedly treated with diene valepotriates and forced to swim. Mice treated with the vehicle and submitted to the forced swimming test also presented an increase in the content of the α2 isoform, but no alterations in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. These results suggest that cortical Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase may represent a molecular target of the diene valepotriates in vivo and long-term regulatory mechanisms are involved in this effect. Also, the forced swimming test per se influences the protein expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase isoforms and counteracts the effects of the diene valepotriates on cortical Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    Planta Medica 01/2015;
  • Zhi-Yong Jiang, Yi-Jiang Yu, Chao-Guan Huang, Xiang-Zhong Huang, Qiu-Fen Hu, Guang-Yu Yang, Hong-Bin Wang, Xiang-Yu Zhang, Gan-Peng Li
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    ABSTRACT: Five new icetexane diterpenoids, namely, perovskatones B-D (1, 3, 4), 1α-hydroxybrussonol (2), and 1α-hydroxypisiferanol (5), were isolated from Perovskia atriplicifolia, together with a new natural product (6) and two known compounds, przewalskin E (7) and brussonol (8). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed analyses of their MS, IR, 1D, and 2D NMR data. Compounds 1-8 were assayed for their inhibitory hepatitis B virus activities in the HepG 2.2.15 cell line. The results suggested that compounds 1 and 2 possessed noticeable anti-hepatitis B virus activity in vitro, suppressing the replication of hepatitis B virus DNA with selectivity index values of 154.3 and 137.7, respectively. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    Planta Medica 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Myrrh is the oleo-gum resin of mainly Commiphora molmol and as a powdered substance, one compound in the traditional medicinal product Myrrhinil-Intest®, which has been used for the treatment of unspecific, inflammatory intestinal disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antispasmodic effect of myrrh under healthy and inflamed conditions, and to evaluate a calcium-antagonistic effect as a possible mode of action. Therefore, an ethanolic myrrh extract was tested for its effects on muscle tone and acetylcholine-induced contractions in untreated and inflamed rat ileum/jejunum preparations. Inflammation was experimentally induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (10 mM, 30 min). Additionally, the effect of the calcium channel agonist Bay K8644 in the presence of varying myrrh extract concentrations was examined. Myrrh extract (0.99 mg/mL) suppressed the acetylcholine-induced contraction down to 25.8 % in untreated and 15.2 % in inflamed preparations. Myrrh extract (0.15; 0.25 and 0.35 mg/mL) induced a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the Bay K8644 concentration-response curve in untreated and inflamed preparations with a significant EC50 shift. Schild analysis resulted in a pA2 value of 0.93 for untreated preparations. Increasing myrrh extract concentrations induced a concentration-dependent decrease of the agonistic maximum effect in untreated and inflamed preparations down to 15.8 % and 25.8 %, respectively, for the highest concentration leading to a pD2 value of 0.58. Myrrh extract reduced intestinal muscle tone and acetylcholine-induced contraction of untreated and inflamed ileum/jejunum preparations based on dual calcium antagonism characterized by a right shift of the agonistic dose-response curve and a depression of the maximum effect. The resulting reduction of intestinal motility and spasmolytic effects provide a rationale for the symptom treatment of intestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    Planta Medica 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Syzygium aromaticum has been widely used in traditional medicine. Our study investigated the safety and antidepressant-like effects of the essential oil of S. aromaticum after acute or long-term treatment. Using GC-MS, a total of eight volatile constituents were identified in the essential oil of S. aromaticum. The single LD50 was approximately 4500 mg/kg based on a 24-h acute oral toxicity study. In a long-term repeated toxicity study of this essential oil (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p. o.), only 400 mg/kg induced a significant decrease in body weight. In addition, no significant changes in relative organ weights and histopathological analysis were observed in all doses of essential oil-treated mice compared with the control group. Furthermore, acute S. aromaticum essential oil administration by gavage exerted antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test (200 mg/kg, p < 0.05) and tail suspension test (100 and 200 mg/kg, p < 0.05). Long-term S. aromaticum essential oil treatment via gavage significantly increased sucrose preference (50 mg/kg, p < 0.05; 100 and 200 mg/kg, p < 0.01) as well as elevated the protein levels of hippocampal p-ERK, p-CREB, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress. These results confirmed the safety of the essential oil of S. aromaticum and suggested that its potent antidepressant-like property might be attributed to the improvement in the hippocampal pERK1/2-pCREB-BDNF pathway in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    Planta Medica 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of new isoform-specific histone deacetylase inhibitors is important for revealing the biological functions of individual histone deacetylase and for determining their potential use as therapeutic agents. Among the 11 zinc-dependent histone deacetylases that have been identified in humans, histone deacetylase 6 is a structurally and functionally unique enzyme. Here, we tested the inhibitory activity of diarylheptanoids isolated from Betula platyphylla against histone deacetylase 6. Aceroside VIII selectively inhibited histone deacetylase 6 catalytic activity and the combined treatment of aceroside VIII or (-)-centrolobol with A452, another selective histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor, led to a synergistic increase in levels of acetylated α-tubulin. Aceroside VIII, paltyphyllone, and (-)-centrolobol synergistically enhanced the induction of apoptosis and growth inhibition by A452. Consistent with these results, A452 in combination with aceroside VIII, paltyphyllone, or (-)-centrolobol was more potent than either drug alone for the induction of apoptosis. Together, these findings indicate that aceroside VIII is a specific histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor and points to a mechanism by which natural histone deacetylase 6-selective inhibitors may enhance the efficacy of other histone deacetylase 6 inhibitors in colon cancer cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    Planta Medica 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, the blockade mechanism of emodin on amyloid-β 25-35-induced neurotoxicity was explored. Cell viability of PC12 cells was evaluated by the MTT assay and neuro damage by the lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay. Gene silencing by small interfering RNA, cDNA constructs and transfection, as well as Western blot were performed to assess protein expression levels. AβPP/PS1 mice were administered orally with emodin (50 mg/kg/day), and LC3-II positive cells in their brain cortex sections were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Emodin could significantly inhibit the LC3-I/LC3-II conversion ratio and cell viability while decreasing the lactate dehydrogenase level in AβPP/PS1 mice and PC12 cells. LC3II positive cells in the cortex were decreased significantly by the treatment with both emodin and 3-methyladenine. Furthermore, emodin and 3-methyladenine could increase B-cell lymphoma 2 while decreasing Beclin-1 and hVps34 expressions, which were induced by amyloid-β 25-35. Small interfering gene silencing Beclin-1 and B-cell lymphoma 2 confirmed this signaling pathway. We also found that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 could block LC3-I/LC3-II conversion and increase B-cell lymphoma 2 while decreasing hVps34 and Beclin-1 expressions. The results suggest that the blockade of emodin on amyloid-β 25-35-induced autophagy may occur via the activation of the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Beclin-1/B-cell lymphoma 2 pathway. Our results provide confirmatory evidence for the application of emodin in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    Planta Medica 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, we performed a structure-based virtual screening against five carbonic anhydrase isoforms using, as a ligand library, natural components of Citrus bergamia (Bergamot) and Allium cepa var. Tropea (red onion) sources, which are some typical Calabrian products. The most relevant Bergamot and red onion components, identified as potentially new hits by means of the computational work, were submitted to in vitro tests in order to confirm the ability to exert the predicted biological activity. Apigenin and eriocitrin were identified as new potent inhibitors of human carbonic anhydrase VA isozyme. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    Planta Medica 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Dendrobium officinale is an herbal medicine that has been clinically used to promote body fluid production. Previous works demonstrated that D. officinale polysaccharides could ameliorate symptoms of salivary secretion of patients with Sjögren's syndrome and in a respective mice model. In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism by which D. officinale polysaccharides activate M3 muscarinic receptors and induce extracellular calcium influx, leading to the translocation of aquaporin 5, a water channel protein, to the apical membrane of human submandibular gland epithelial cells. Enzymatic treatment of D. officinale polysaccharides suggested that they are hydrolyzed but do not permeate cell membranes. This finding supports the pharmacological activity of D. officinale polysaccharides to promote salivary secretion. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    Planta Medica 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Pleurotus pulmonarius (grey oyster mushroom) has been acknowledged as a recuperative agent for many diseases in addition to its recognition as a nutritious provision. We performed a study on P. pulmonarius mycelium for an antihypertensive effect via the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity. The preliminary assay on the mycelial water extract demonstrated that the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity had an IC50 value of 720 µg/mL. Further protein purifications via ammonium sulphate precipitation and RP-HPLC resulted in 60× stronger angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity than that of the mycelial water extract (IC50 = 12 µg/mL). Protein identification and characterisation by MALDI-TOF/TOF, later corroborated by LC-MS/MS, indicated three proteins that are responsible for the blood pressure lowering effects via different mechanisms: serine proteinase inhibitor-like protein, nitrite reductase-like protein, and DEAD/DEAH box RNA helicase-like protein. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    Planta Medica 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Versicolactones A-D (1-4), four new butyrolactones, along with four known butyrolactones (5-8) were isolated from the fermentation products of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor. The structures of compounds 1-4, including absolute configuration, were elucidated by interpretation of the NMR and CD data. Compound 2 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In particular, compound 1 is the first naturally occurring butyrolactone possessing an unusual 2-oxopropyl group. More importantly, compounds 1 and 8 displayed significant antitobacco mosaic virus activities with inhibition rates of 46.4 % and 35.4 %, even more potent than the positive control ningnanmycin (30.8 %). Compound 1 also showed moderate cytotoxicity against A549 and MCF7 cells with IC50 values of 3.2 and 2.5 µM, respectively. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    Planta Medica 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Symphonia globulifera has been widely used in traditional medicine and has therefore been subjected to several phytochemical studies in the American and African continents. Interestingly, some disparities have been observed concerning its metabolic profile. Several phytochemical studies of S. globulifera have led to the identification of more than 40 compounds, including several polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols. Biological evaluations have pointed out the promising biological activities of these secondary metabolites, mostly as antiparasitic or antimicrobial, confirming the traditional use of this plant. The purpose of this review is to describe the natural occurrence, botanical aspects, ethnomedicinal use, structure, and biogenesis, as well as biological activities of compounds isolated from this species according to their provenance. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    Planta Medica 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II and endothelin-1 are potent vasoconstrictive peptides that play a central role in blood pressure regulation. Both peptides exert their pleiotropic effects via binding to their respective G-protein-coupled receptors, i.e., angiotensin AT1 and endothelin type A and type B receptors. In the present study, we have selected six structurally different plant-derived compounds with known cardioprotective properties to evaluate their ability to modulate calcium signaling of the above-mentioned receptors. For this purpose, we used and validated a cellular luminescence-based read-out system in which we measured intracellular calcium signaling in Chinese hamster ovary cells that express the calcium sensitive apo-aequorin protein. Firstly, silibinin, a flavanolignan that occurs in milk thistle (Silybum marianum), was investigated and found to be an antagonist for the human angiotensin AT1 receptor with an affinity constant of about 9 µM, while it had no effect on endothelin type A or type B receptor activation. Quercetin and crocin partially impeded intracellular calcium signaling resulting in a non-receptor-related reduction of the responses recorded for the three investigated G-protein-coupled receptors. Two organosulfur compounds, diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide, as well as the triterpene saponin ginsenoside Rb1 did not affect the activation of the angiotensin AT1 and endothelin type A and type B receptors. In conclusion, we were able, by using a nonradioactive cellular read-out system, to identify a novel pharmacological property of the flavanolignan silibinin. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    Planta Medica 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Two lanostane triterpenes, 3β-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oic acid (1) and methyl-3β-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oate (2), were isolated from the stem bark of Protorhus longifolia. Their structures were deduced on the basis of spectroscopic analysis (NMR, HRMS, IR). This study investigated the in vitro anti-adipogenic activity of the two triterpenes. Their inhibitory activity was evaluated on selected lipid digestive enzymes (pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase). The inhibitory activity of the compounds on hormone-sensitive lipase and their ability to bind bile acids were also evaluated. The effect of the compounds on glucose uptake in C2C12 muscle cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and on triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was investigated. The triterpenes effectively inhibited the activities of the enzymes with IC50 values ranging from 0.04 to 0.31 mg/mL. The compounds showed a high affinity for secondary bile acids. Both compounds stimulated glucose uptake in C2C12 muscle cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Compound 1 significantly reduced triglyceride accumulation in mature differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. It is apparent that these lanostane triterpenes enhance glucose uptake and suppress adipogenesis, which together with their inhibitory effects on lipid digestive enzymes suggests that they have antihyperlipidemic potential.
    Planta Medica 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Hypericum perforatum (HP), a high value medicinal plant used to produce several phytopharmaceuticals, remains recalcitrant to Agrobacterium tumefaciens (AT) mediated transformation. HP recognizes AT as a potential pathogen and activates its defense response [1]. Although elicitation of HP cells with AT is known to increase its xanthone content, flavonoids remained unaffected in the soluble fraction of HP [2]. However, specific analysis of HP cell wall biomass/fractions after AT elicitation revealed an increase in lignin and cell wall bound flavonoids content, possibly as mechanism of defense against AT. Briefly, cell wall biomass was isolated from control and AT elicited HP cells via consecutive extraction with hexane, acetone, methanol and distilled water. Determination of lignin content by acetyl bromide method [3] showed a significant increase in HP cells treated with AT, implying that upon elicitation by AT, HP reinforced its cell wall as a defense response. In order to analyze their phenolic profile, the cell wall biomass was subjected to extraction by 90% methanol after alkaline hydrolysis, HCl titration and ethyl acetate extraction. HPLC analysis of the cell wall bound phenolics fraction revealed an accumulation of flavonoids (e.g. epicatechin, quercetin derivatives) in the cell walls after elicitation. Upregulation of chalcone synthase (CHS), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX) and Flavone 3-hydroxilase (F3 H) were found to be responsible for this accumulation. Further, DPPH reduction and TBARS assays clearly correlated the increased production of flavonoids with improved antioxidant protection of the cell wall. Collectively, our results allow us to conclude that in addition to the increase in xanthone production [2], co-cultivation of HP cells with AT also upregulates flavonoids biosynthesis as a defense mechanism. While the xanthones enrich the soluble phenolic fraction; flavonoids are incorporated into the cell wall.
    Planta Medica 11/2014;
  • Planta Medica 11/2014; 80:1453.
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    ABSTRACT: Hypericum perforatum (HP), an important medicinal plant that possesses several pharmacological properties, remains recalcitrant to Agrobacterium tumefaciens (AT) mediated transformation. Upon co-cultivation, AT viability was reduced completely HP cells defense response [1]. Further, we reported that the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of HP cells were increased several fold after elicitation with AT that provide antimicrobial and antioxidant protection to HP cells [2]. Recently, our group has demonstrated that the AT- elicited HP extract render protection against oxidative stress induced in human HepG2 cells [3]. Here, we report that the antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of HP cells elicited with AT against important human bacterial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis). Briefly, equivalent concentration of methanolic extract of elicited and control HP cells were added to overnight cultures of S. aureus and B. subtilis. After 24h of incubation, the bacterial cultures were serially diluted and spread on LB plates. Colony forming units were counted after 2 – 3 days of incubation of plates at 37 ° C. Among various dilutions checked, 10 – 6 dilution exhibited countable number of colonies in cultures without any treatment (control) and un-elicited HP extract treatment. Whereas, countable number of colonies in elicited extract treatments was only found in 10 – 1 dilution revealing that the antibacterial activity of elicited HP cell extract against these pathogens is 105 times higher than un-elicited extract. Our results reveal that the increase in antimicrobial activity in AT elicited HP cells is not restricted to AT, a phytopathogen, but also extends to human pathogens. Testing of several other human bacterial pathogens, resistant to antibiotics is ongoing in our lab.
    Planta Medica 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Withania sominifera (L) is a well-known Indian medicinal plant used to treat stress, arthritis insomnia and age related disorders including neurodegenerative disorders. It has several vernacular names including aswaganda and ginseng winter cherry [1 – 2]. Withanolides are the major and characteristic active compounds of this species [3]. The isolated fraction of withanolides have been studied for their anti-tumor, antiinflammatory, anti-stress, anti-oxidant, immuno-modulatory, cardio-protective and neuroprotective activity [4]. To enhance the solubility, bioavailability, protection from toxicity and increase the pharmacological activity of herbal extracts, several approaches has been proposed. Among them, plant extract based novel drug delivery system attracted much attention. In this investigation, we have developed and characterized a purified W. somnifera extract (WSE) encapsulated in PCL and MPEG-PCL nanoparticles and identified the entrapped compounds by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). WSE was obtained from leaf biomass extraction with aqueous MeOH and further purification with dichloromethane. MPEG-PCL di-block polymer was synthesised by ring opening polymerization of ε-Caprolactone on MPEG using Sn(Oct)2 as catalyst. Prepared WSE-nanoparticles were characterised by laser doppler anemometry and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results from TEM and laser doppler anemometry confirmed that the size of PCL-WSE and MPEG-PCL-WSE nanoparticles ranged between 220 – 250nm and spherical in shape (Figure 1). The MPEG-PCL-WSE nanoformulation showed higher entrapment efficacy (54.4%) than PCL-WSE nanoparticles (31.2%). The RP-HPLC analysis revealed that Withanolide A, Withaferin-A, Withanolide-B were major compounds encapsulated in the nanoparticles.
    Planta Medica 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Withania somnifera (L) Dunal, (Solanaceae), commonly known as ashwagandha, winter cherry or Indian ginseng, is one of the distinguished medicinal plants in Indian Ayurvedic medicine [1]. Although W. somnifera was known for its medicinal uses since ancient times, it received much more attention in the recent years from pharmaceutical companies and local Baidyas due to confirmation of its multipurpose medicinal uses [2]. Several pharmacological studies have demonstrated that W. somnifera is efficacious in the treatment of arthritis, geriatric, behavioural and stress related problems [3]. In the present study, we have biosynthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using W. somnifera aqueous leaf extract, incorporated them into a cream formulation and evaluated the anti-bacterial potential of the cream against several pathogenic bacteria (Stapylococous aureus, Pseudomonas aruginosa, Candida albicans, Proteus vulgarius, Escherichia coli, Agrobacterium tumefaciens). The formation, size and shape of biosynthesized AgNPs were confirmed by physical-chemical techniques such as UV-Visible spectroscopy, Laser Doppler anemometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). AgNPs exhibited significantly higher antibacterial activity (up to 200x) against human as well as plant pathogens compared to AgNO3 solution or W. somnifera leaf extract. The cellular interaction study coupled with SEM analysis revealed the effective disruption of bacterial cell by AgNPs. The incorporation of AgNO3 and AgNPs into a cream was done. The AgNPs-cream did not provoque significant changes in physical properties and stability of the cream, when compared with control, but have a significant higher antibacterial activity (Figure 1).
    Planta Medica 10/2014; 80.