Journal of Soils and Sediments (J SOIL SEDIMENT )

Publisher: Ecomed, Springer Verlag


JSSS is the first journal entirely devoted to soils and sediments, hereby dealing not only with contaminated, but also with intact and disturbed soils and sediments. JSSS elucidates the common aspects as well as the differences between these two environmental compartments. JSSS is an interdisciplinary journal intended to be of benefit to the scientist as well as to the practitioner. Topics: Research on effects caused by disturbances and contamination; Research, strategies and technologies for prediction, prevention, and protection; Research, strategies and technologies for identification and characterisation; Research, strategies and technologies for treatment, remediation and reuse; Strategies for risk assessment and management; Research on and the implementation of quality standards; International regulation and legislation.

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    Journal of soils and sediments (Online), JSS
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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose Climate change, especially global warming due to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, has attracted much attention in the past century. Increasing efforts have been made to find solutions to mitigate the CO2 emission and sequester the existing CO2 in the atmosphere into land-based ecosystems. Forest ecosystems are the best effective way to fix the atmospheric CO2 by photosynthesis and allocate to tree biomass and into soils. Meanwhile, trees or forests will also respond to gradually increasing CO2 concentration and environment changes. It is important to quantify the dynamic interaction between the changing environment and activities of carbon (C) accumulation by forests with a proper method and also assess the status of the forest C stocks in response to climate and environmental changes. Results and discussion Estimation of forest aboveground C stock still experiences much uncertainty, even for the same forest ecosystem such as in the tropics, due to the different methods used. Most of the work has been based on inventory data and allometric equations to estimate biomass and calculate C stock by multiplying a C content coefficient. Great uncertainties exist because of the representativeness of the allometric equations, the differences in C content for different tree species, and the spatial heterogeneous nature of C distribution in the forest ecosystems. The development of remote sensing has stimulated applications of the technology in estimating forest aboveground C stocks at a larger scale. Remote sensing can reduce the uncertainty of spatial variations caused by extrapolation with the inventory methods, but it has the limitation of lacking the ability to express the processes involved in C accumulation and their responses to the changing environment. Tree growth and climate change information embedded in tree rings can be a good supplement to interpret the results acquired by the remote sensing technique. Conclusions and perspectives The application of remote sensing techniques offers a practical method for C stock estimates in forest ecosystems in the context of spatial variations. However, the long-term responses of forest C accumulation to the gradually changing environment and climate are still not well understood. Integrated study of combining remote sensing and ecological research techniques in forest ecosystems is necessary for future study to explore the mechanisms of interaction between forest development and the gradual changing environment and also to assess the C sequestration status and potential of forest ecosystems under climate change.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Erratum to: J Soils SedimentsDOI 10.1007/s11368-014-0996-zIn the published version of this article, there was an error in Fig. 2.The following depicts the improved and corrected Fig. 2:Fig. 2Carbohydrate in biochar and peat before and after the incubation of Bacillus mucilaginosus. Statistically significant differences by Tukey’s t test (P ≤ 0.05) are denoted by different lowercase letters. Values are mean (n = 3) ± S.E. (bars). MM-biochar, CS-biochar, and RS-biochar represent mushroom medium-based biochar, corn stalk-based biochar, and rice straw-based biochar, respectively
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Using Ells River, Alberta, Canada bed sediments, this study aims to determine (1) the erosion, transport, and deposition characteristics of cohesive bottom sediments, and (2) the influence of the microbial community in this regard. Materials and methods A 2-m annular flume was used to generate bed shear to assess cohesive sediment dynamics for eroded beds with consolidation/biostabilization periods of 1, 3, and 7 days. Additional optical particle sizing, image analysis, densitometry, and microbial analysis were employed to further the analysis with respect to bed erosion and eroded floc characteristics. Results and discussion Sediment dynamics can influence the benthic and planktonic community health within aquatic systems. The critical bed shear stress for erosion increased from 0.05 to 0.19 Pa (for 1- to 7-day runs). Consolidation (dry density) increased with time and depth and eroded biofilm biomass was observed to increase with time. The community structure of the eroded sediment did not change with time suggesting a stable well-established and highly selected community. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were present within the microbial consortium. The sediment was highly hydrophobic (96 %) due to a high natural oil content which likely had a profound effect on sediment dynamics, flocculation, and sediment cohesion. Eroded sediment settled poorly, which will result in the long-range transport of associated contaminants. Conclusions The Ells River possesses some unique properties which should be considered when assessing contaminant source, fate, and effect. The most significant of these are small floc size, the hydrophobicity of the sediment, and the biological community as these were found to be influential in both the erosion and flocculation processes. It is important that any management strategies and operational assessments of reclamation strategies that may have implication on river health incorporate the sediment compartments (SS and bed sediment), biology, and the energy dynamics within the system in order to better predict the downstream flux of sediments.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) in the soil of a maritime pine forest in Central Italy, formed during a fire of high severity, was characterised by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Furthermore, soil samples from burnt and unburnt sampling sites and natural charcoal collected from the ground were characterised after progressive heating under air and nitrogen atmosphere. The aim was to better understand the role fire plays on PyOM formation and oxidation. Materials and methods The top 10 cm of mineral soil and the above-lying charcoal particles were collected soon after the fire. Sampling was also performed on an adjacent unburnt portion of the forest. The bulk soil organic matter (SOM), its extractable fraction and charcoal particles were investigated by FT-IR and 13C NMR spectroscopies. They also underwent thermogravimetric analysis under air or N2, stopping the thermal reactions at the end of the first exothermic reaction in the range 350–500 °C. Results and discussion The NMR investigation clearly revealed a significant enrichment in aromatic and alkyl C in the burnt soil compared to the unburnt one. Several clues led to hypothesise that SOM was not exposed to extreme heating during the fire, notwithstanding the high fire severity estimated by a vegetation-based visual scale. In the thermal treatment mimicking fire, charcoal lost much of its mass and carbon content. However, at 500 °C, it still maintained a significant recalcitrant fraction. Nitrogen concentration in the bulk soil increased after heating, particularly under air condition. This phenomenon could be due to the formation of heterocyclic nitrogen compounds in the charred material. Conclusions In the study area, PyOM is rich in aliphatic compounds presumably because of the understory sclerophyllous vegetation typically found in Mediterranean environments. A large fraction of the charcoal released to the soil during the fire is sensitive to oxidation by subsequent fires. On the other hand, charcoal preserves a significant fraction of C, the most recalcitrant one, with expected long residence time in soil. PyOM formed under high oxygen availability is richer in N than that formed in inert atmosphere, which might make PyOM more susceptible to biochemical degradation.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose This work evaluated the response of two saltmarsh plants, Juncus maritimus and Phragmites australis, to short- and long-term exposure to sediment contaminated with Cd. Materials and methods Plants (including roots and associated sediment) were placed in vessels in a greenhouse with tidal simulation. Vessels were spiked with Cd, with Cd solution in contact with the sediment/root plant system for 6 h. Half of the vessels were then dismantled whereas the other set was maintained for 2 months. Short-term Cd exposure (6 h) simulated a flood situation with metal in a more bioavailable form. Long-term exposure simulated what normally happens in the field after contamination, the metal being progressively incorporated into the sediment and therefore less available. Results and discussion Both plants were able to take up considerable amounts of Cd in their belowground tissues in a short-time period; this accumulation increasing after 2 months. P. australis displayed short-term Cd translocation, but, for J. maritimus metal, translocation was only observed in the long-term. Both J. maritimus and P. australis have the ability to promptly respond to Cd contamination, being able to cope with Cd contamination in the long-term. Conclusions Results indicate these plants can contribute to the remediation of sediment contaminated with Cd in estuarine environments, retaining metal in their belowground structures, which contributes to the recovery of moderately impacted environments.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Quantitative analysis of fungicides metalaxyl–M, rac-metalaxyl (1), captafol (2), captan (3), folpet (4), metalaxyl acid (5), cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalimide (6), cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalamid acid (7), o-phthalic acid (8) and, phthalamide (9), in sterilized and non-sterilized soil fractions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The concept of the experimental design has involved direct UV–MALDI–Orbitrap–MS assay and off–line hyphenated DLLME MS approach. The chemometrics has involved “simple cluster statistical approach”, including: (i) Analysis of non– and sterilized non–polluted soils (0–10 cm depth) (Xi, i = I or II); (ii) Between–days–analyses of soil fractions I and II Xij, (j = 1–5 or 0–30 days), measured in triplicate Xij,k (k = 1–3); (iii) Xij,k,l (l = 1–3). Soil characteristics are: particle size  2.0–2.103 m, clay  5.0–12.0 %, silt  23.0–51.1 %, sand  7.2–72.0 %, and pH  4.0–8.1; RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Method performance has shown accuracy and precision SD(yEr)  0–1.527.10-4; reproducibility and repeatability (SD(yEr) 0–5.7601.10-5), concentration limit of detection 0.02 ng.(mL)-1 (resp. LOQs, 0.0667 ng.(mL)-1) in the frame of the concentration range 0.02–50.00 ng.(mL)-1. The results have overcome those analytical quantities obtained, using GC–MS/MS or UFLC–ESI–MS/MS methods. CONCLUSION: In this paper we have reported firstly in the literature a soil analysis involving DLLME/UV–MALDI–MS. The high–quality applied research approach that is taken here, addresses two problems. They have noticed on the one hand lack of comprehensive understanding of the enantio/stereo selective degradation processes of chiral fungicides in soils and on the other hand lack of reliable references to a large scale of specific problems of the analysis of organic pollutants in soils. The analytical information reflects the instrumental benefits and advantages of MALDI method for the field of environmental chemistry, in particular, assesment of the risk to the human health from agricultural organic contamination in soils.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The purpose of this study was the investigation of sediment provenance and soil formation processes within a Mediterranean watershed (Koiliaris CZO in Greece) with particular emphasis on natural and manmade terraces. Material and methods Five sites (K1–K5) were excavated and analyzed for their pedology (profile description), geochemistry [including rare earth elements (REEs) and other trace elements], texture, and mineralogy along with chronological analysis (optical luminescence dating). The selected sites have the common characteristic of being flat terraces while the sites differed with regard to bedrock lithology, elevation, and land use. Results and discussion Three characteristic processes of soil genesis were identified: (1) sediments transportation from outcrops of metamorphic rocks and sedimentation at the fluvial sites (K1–K2), (2) in situ soil development in manmade terraces (K3, K4), and (3) strong eolian input and/or material transported by gravity from upslope at the mountainous site (K5). REE patterns verified the soil genesis processes while they revealed also soil development processes such as (a) calcite deposition (K1), (b) clay illuviation and strong weathering (K4), and (c) possibly fast oxidation/precipitation processes (K3). Carbon sequestration throughout the soil profile was high at manmade terraces at higher elevation compared to fluvial environments due to both climatic effects and possibly intensive anthropogenic impact. Conclusions Soils at Koiliaris CZO were rather young soils with limited evolution. The different soil age, land use, and climatic effect induced various soil genesis and soil development processes. The manmade terraces at higher elevation have much higher carbon sequestratio
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) reflectance measurements may be an alternative technique to identify suspended sediment sources in streams of headwater catchments. In this study, we examined if Vis-NIR reflectance measurements are capable of estimating sediment source contributions to sediment yield and compared this technique with a more conventional (i.e. geochemical) technique. Materials and methods Two headwater catchments in Ethiopia, Unta (2,052 ha) and Desera (1,657 ha), were analysed with the same techniques in order to find similarities and differences in the results obtained. The first technique used Vis-NIR spectral analysis as a fingerprint, using a partial least squares regression model. The second technique was a quantitative composite fingerprinting technique using geochemical analysis of source materials and suspended sediment samples. As a comparison, the partial least squares model was also used on the geochemical data. In August and September 2009, 30 soil samples of three different land uses (landslides, croplands, and grazing lands) and 21 suspended sediment samples at the catchment outlet were collected. Source samples were sieved to 15N and δ13C. Reflectance measurements were taken on dried source samples with a spectrometer. Results and discussion Neither technique was able to predict the contributions of the three land use types; they could only distinguish between landslide and topsoil material. The agreement between the results of both techniques was significant for the Unta catchment (R 2 = 0.80) but not for the Desera catchment (R 2 = 0.39). The uncertainty of the technique using Vis-NIR reflectance measurements was slightly higher than with the geochemical approach. Both techniques revealed that topsoil erosion played an important role during storm runoff discharges. Using the partial least squares model for the geochemical data revealed that uncertainty can differ greatly when using other statistical techniques. Conclusions The quantitative composite fingerprinting technique using spectral signatures from both source and suspended sediment samples was able to quantify the contribution of two source materials (landslides and topsoil). It provided a faster and more cost effective alternative to the conventional geochemical procedure.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 11/2014; 14(11).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Field survey and sampling of vegetable greenhouse soils were conducted in Shouguang, Shandong Province, and Ningbo, Zhejiang Province to study the acidification and salinization characteristics of soils with different initial soil pH values and greenhouse cultivation time. Materials and methods The pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and ion composition of 74 composite soil samples were analyzed to evaluate their relation to soil acidification and salinization. Results and discussion Compared with their corresponding open-field soils, acidification and salinization of the greenhouse soils occurred in both 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layers for the Shouguang and Ningbo soils. The soil pH decreased gradually at different rates as greenhouse cultivation time increased in the two surveyed regions, but the opposite trend was observed for soil EC. For the Shouguang soils, while the percentages of K+ and NO3− increased dramatically and Ca2+ and HCO3- decreased significantly after the soils were converted to greenhouse use, the correlation between soil pH and EC was significant, and the stepwise multiple regression analysis further showed that there was a significant correlation between pH and the percent of Ca2+ and HCO3−. Conclusions Soil acidification and salinization are common in greenhouse soils with different initial soil pH. Soil acidification in the Shouguang soils is a result of decrease in the percent of Ca2+, HCO3− due to over application of N and K fertilizers. Future research should be devoted to understanding the relevant mechanisms in greenhouse soils with lower initial soil pH values to assess if there are correlations between soil acidification and salinization under greenhouse cultivation.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 10/2014; 14(10).
  • Journal of Soils and Sediments 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The aimof this work was to improve the understanding of the spatial and Temporal dynamics of suspended sediment transport during flushing flows in a large regulated river, the lower River Ebro (NE Spain). Materials and methods Relationships between sediment and discharge (i.e. discharge (Q)–suspended sediment concentrations (SSC)) were examined during six flushing flows using continuous discharge and turbidity records obtained at six monitoring sections distributed along the lower Ebro River for the 2008–2011 period. Results and discussion Analyses revealed marked spatial and temporal patterns. At the spatial scale, the Q–SSC relationships were mostly influenced by the different routing velocity of discharge and sediment waves. At the upstream sections, the sediment peak usually preceded peak discharge (i.e. clockwise loop); however, flow routing through the 85-km channel length tends to increase the lag between them, modifying the hysteresis towards counter-clockwise patterns in the downstream direction. At the temporal scale, the season when the artificial releases were performed strongly influenced the sediment availability, with similar-magnitude flushing flows generating higher sediment peaks in autumn than in spring. Conclusions These results are of great interest in order to reinforce the flushing flows programme in the lower EbroRiver, so as to help achieve the sustainability of the riverine and deltaic ecosystems.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this research was to isolate humic substances and humin from an estuarine sediment core using a novel sequential extraction procedure to characterise the isolates, to determine their compositions and to understand how the organic matter (OM) changes with time.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 09/2014;