Journal of Soils and Sediments (J SOIL SEDIMENT )

Publisher: Ecomed, Springer Verlag


JSSS is the first journal entirely devoted to soils and sediments, hereby dealing not only with contaminated, but also with intact and disturbed soils and sediments. JSSS elucidates the common aspects as well as the differences between these two environmental compartments. JSSS is an interdisciplinary journal intended to be of benefit to the scientist as well as to the practitioner. Topics: Research on effects caused by disturbances and contamination; Research, strategies and technologies for prediction, prevention, and protection; Research, strategies and technologies for identification and characterisation; Research, strategies and technologies for treatment, remediation and reuse; Strategies for risk assessment and management; Research on and the implementation of quality standards; International regulation and legislation.

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    Journal of soils and sediments (Online), JSS
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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose Nitrification is a key process in the global nitrogen cycle, of which the first and rate-limiting step is catalyzed by ammonia monooxygenase. Root cap cells are one of substrates for microorganisms that thrive in the rhizosphere. The degradation of root cap cells brings about nitrification following ammonification of organic nitrogen derived from the root cap cells. This study was designed to gain insights into the response of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) to mineralized N from root cap cells and the composition of active bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers in rice soil. Materials and methods Rice callus cells were used as a model for root cap cells, and unlabelled (12C) and 13C-labelled callus cells were allowed to decompose in aerobic soil microcosms. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were applied to determine the copy number of bacterial and archaeal amoA genes and the composition of active AOB and AOA. Results and discussion The growth of AOB was significantly stimulated by the addition of callus cells compared with the growth of AOA with a much lesser extent. AOB communities assimilated 13C derived from the callus cells, whereas no AOA communities grew on 13C-callus. Sequencing of the DGGE bands in the SIP experiments revealed that the AOB communities belonging to Nitrosospira spp. dominated microbial ammonia oxidation with rice callus amendment in soil. Conclusions The present study suggests that root cap cells of rice significantly stimulated the growth of AOB, and the active members dominating microbial ammonia oxidation belonged to Nitrosospira spp. in rice rhizosphere.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 09/2014; 14(9).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Initial soil pH determines the direction and magnitude of pH change after residue addition. This study aimed to evaluate the relative importance of initial soil pH and rate of residue application in determining subsequent pH change, nitrogen (N) mineralization, and soil-exchangeable aluminum (Al). Materials and methods An incubation experiment was conducted for 102 days on a Plinthudult soil and a Paleudalf soil, where pH gradients were produced after application of direct current (DC). Rates of vetch applications were 0, 5, 15, 30, and 50 g kg−1 soil. Results and discussion Increasing rates of vetch application caused greater increases in soil pH, but no consistent increase in soil pH at higher initial pH range (4.40∼6.74), because of nitrification. There was a positive correlation between alkalinity production and the initial soil pH at day 14, while correlations became negative at days 56 and 102. Mineral N accumulated as NH4+–N in low pH soils, due to limited nitrification, while NO3−–N dominated in higher pH soils. Application of vetch decreased KCl-extractable Al, probably because of complexation of Al by organic matter and precipitation of Al as a result of increased pH, reductions in Al concentration increased with increasing rates of vetch application. However, this amelioration effect on Al concentration weakened with time in higher pH soils. Conclusions Application of vetch residue can significantly increase soil pH and concentrations of mineral N and reduce exchangeable Al. These amelioration effects are enhanced with increased rate of vetch addition and vary with time depending on the initial pH of the soil.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 09/2014; 14(9).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The increasing surface area of green roofs (GR) may have a significant impact on the quantity and quality of urban drainage. However, the chemical quality of effluents produced by GR in comparison to atmospheric deposit and other roof surfaces has to date been poorly assessed. It is necessary to determine whether a green roof acts as a sink or source of pollutants. This work was conducted to study the capacity of four materials commonly used to build green roofs. Materials and methods Leaching tests experiments were performed on three substrates and one drainage material. Sorption kinetics and isotherms were also established for Cu and Zn thanks to batch experiments. Results and discussion Results showed the variability of release according to the material and pollutant considered. The equilibrium time for adsorption was high (5 h to 3 days) for all materials. Expanded clay was identified as the material with the highest ability to retain Zn and Cu; also, desorption was limited with this drainage material. In the substrates, Cu was mainly sorbed by organic materials, which induce an important desorption rate due to organic matter leachability. Conclusions In conclusion, the study showed that the effect of green roofs on water quality is strongly dependent on the materials used. That is why a characterization of the leaching and sorption capacities of materials should be carried out prior to green roof construction in a context of storm water quality management.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Soil quality assessment is tremendously important for agronomic and environmental concern. The objective of this study was to spatially evaluate soil salinity and its geochemistry at regional scale. Materials and methods A soil quality assessment study was conducted over a 1,000 km2 field in Datong basin, northern China via collecting and determining 163 topsoil samples. A combined approach of statistical methods and hydrochemical tools was applied for a comprehensive analysis in this study. Results and discussion In the study area, the nonsaline lands (total dissolved solids (TDS) <0.08 %, Ca-HCO3 type soils) that are located in the pluvial plains consist of coarse-medium sands and deep unsaturated zone (depth >10 m). The slightly (0.08 % < TDS < 0.2 %, Ca-Na-HCO3-NO3 type soils) and the moderately (0.2 % < TDS < 1 %, Ca-Na-SO4 type soils) saline lands are located in the alluvial plains and the central basin composed of fine sediments like fine sands, loams and silts, and intermediately deep unsaturated zone (depth 2–10 m). By contrast, due to irrigation, the very (1 % < TDS < 2 %) and the extremely (TDS >2 %) saline areas with Na-SO4/Na-Cl type soils are locally found in some desolate lands comprised of silty clays and shallow unsaturated zone (depth <2 m) in the central basin. Conclusions As a result of water-rock/sediments interactions, effects of landscapes and anthropogenic activities, soil salinity is characterized by strong spatial variability in Datong. The new insights into the basin-scale distribution pattern of soil salinity in inland basins of silicate terrain under arid climatic conditions should be applicable in other similar regions of the world.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 08/2014; 14(8).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The aim of this study was to quantify the release of the hydrophobic contaminant emamectin (EMA) from marine sediments in response to inputs of organic material (OM) and/or oil, in the presence or absence of two different bioturbating species. Specifically, it was designed to test whether oil would decrease the release of EMA and whether OM and/or the presence of bioturbating macrofauna would increase the release of EMA from sediment. Materials and methods Experimental sediments were spiked with EMA (5 μg kg−1 wet sediment). The different treatments were prepared by the addition of OM (310 g algae m−2) and/or an aliphatic oil (29.6 g oil m−2). In addition, two bioturbating species, Brissopsis lyrifera or Ennucula tenuis, were added in some aquaria, resulting in a total of 12 treatments with four replicates each. Water samples for analyses of silicate and EMA and sediment samples for analyses of total organic carbon (TOC) were taken at the start and end of the experimental exposure. In addition, oxygen was measured during the experimental period of 8 days. Fluxes were calculated and compared between treatments using generalised linear models (GLMs). Results and discussion The EMA release flux was significantly increased in treatments with added OM, possibly reflecting the presence of soluble complexes formed between EMA and dissolved OM. The presence of B. lyrifera caused a small, but statistically significant, increase in EMA release from sediment. This species would be expected to have a stronger effect on bioirrigation and particle mixing than E. tenuis, particularly when the population density of the latter species is low (as in the present experiment). There were no consistent effects of oil in this experiment, but the presence of oil decreased the EMA release flux when co-occurring with added OM and/or B. lyrifera. Increased retention of hydrophobic contaminants in the presence of oil is consistent with the existing literature on contaminant fate. Conclusions The results from this study highlight the need to consider both the infauna present in polluted areas and the level of organic enrichment of the sediment when modelling the environmental fate of hydrophobic contaminants. It also highlights that labile OM and refractory oil appear to differ in their effects on the remobilisation of hydrophobic organic contaminants, by reducing and increasing release, respectively.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 08/2014; 14(8).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Endogeic earthworms play a significant role in biogeochemical cycles due to the large amount of soil they ingest, and because after transit through their guts, casts usually show differences in nutrient contents and microbial populations with bulk soil. Here, we studied how three endogeic earthworm species, Postandrilus majorcanus, Postandrilus sapkarevi and Postandrilus palmensis, inhabiting soils in Majorca island (Balearic Islands, W Mediterranean), modify nutrient pools and microbial communities of soil. Materials and methods To do this, we analysed C, N and P pools, microbial biomass (phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA) and microbial activity (fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis, FDA) in paired samples of bulk soil and fresh casts. Results and discussion The mineral and organic N contents were generally enhanced in casts produced by all three earthworm species. However, inorganic P and organic C contents were only higher in P. sapkarevi (32 %, only P) and P. majorcanus casts (100 % for both soil nutrient pools) than in bulk soil. Bacterial and fungal biomass were only higher than in bulk soil in P. majorcanus casts (65 and 100 %, respectively), but without effects on microbial activity, that was lower in P. palmensis casts (26 %). Earthworm gut transit strongly influenced the soil microbial community structure, resulting in differences between casts and soils. Conclusions The increased nutrient mineralization (6-, 1.3- and 1.4-fold for N, C and P, respectively) in casts produced by these earthworm species is of particular importance because of the amount of casts released and the seasonal variations in earthworm activity, which may favour plant growth.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 08/2014; 14(8).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Soil functioning becomes a matter of growing concern in soil remediation projects as, apart from preparing contaminated land for construction purposes, some parts of the sites are usually transformed into green spaces for recreation and inspiration. The objective of this paper is to develop and apply a minimum data set (MDS) for evaluating the ecological soil functions for green areas in remediation projects. Materials and methods The MDS was chosen from the previous applications in literature. Using a nonlinear scoring algorithm to transform observed data into sub-scores for evaluating ecological soil functions, the MDS was applied on the Kvillebäcken site in Sweden. The mean sub-scores of the individual soil quality indicators (SQIs) were integrated into a soil quality index to classify the soil into one of the five soil classes. Monte Carlo simulations were used to treat the uncertainties in the predicted soil class resulting from spatial heterogeneity of SQIs, a limited sampling size, and analytical errors. Results and discussion The suggested MDS consists of soil texture, content of coarse material, available water capacity, organic matter content, potentially mineralizable nitrogen, pH, and available phosphorus. The high mean sub-score for organic matter at Kvillebäcken indicated that the soil was rich on organic matter thus having a good water storage and nutrient cycling potential. However, the low mean sub-score for potentially mineralizable nitrogen indicated limited biological activity in the soil. The low mean sub-score for the content of coarse fragments indicated plant rooting limitations. Further, the soil quality index (that integrates the sub-scores for SQIs) corresponded to soil class 3 and a medium soil performance with a high certainty. Conclusions The suggested MDS can provide practitioners with relevant basic information on soil’s ability to carry out its ecological functions. The suggested scoring method helps to interpret and integrate information from different SQIs into a decision-making process in remediation projects.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose We investigated the application of Kohonen Neural Networks (KNNs) in order to estimate sediment yield based on runoff and climatological data in a semiarid region of Brazil. Accurate estimations of sediment yield are essential to improve the management of soil erosion in semiarid areas, where large quantities of sediments tend to be produced only periodically. Materials and methods The case study is an erosion plot within the São João do Cariri Experimental Basin, which is located in the semiarid portion of Paraíba State, Brazil. KNNs are unsupervised neural networks capable of reducing a multidimensional data set to a bidimensional matrix of features, which can be used for analysis and prediction purposes. A total of 60 rainfall events, which occurred between 1999 and 2002, were used to calibrate and test the model. The application of a multivariate linear regression (MLR) model was also carried out. Results and discussion Statistical indexes were used as criteria for evaluating the performance of the KNN and MLR models for the test data set. The correlation and relative bias of the KNN model estimations with those from observed data were 0.90 and −4.39 %, respectively. A correlation of 0.70 and a relative bias of 15.63 % were found from the comparison of sediment yields obtained by the MLR model with those of the observed data. Analysis of the outcomes indicates that the KNN model, which is capable of detecting and extracting nonlinear trends, produced more reliable results than the regression model. Conclusions The KNN model results appear to be superior to those generated by the MLR model and suggest that the developed methodology may be applied to similar case studies.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 07/2014; 14(7).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Hydrosedimentological modeling is a tool that can be used to understand better important processes occurring at the catchment scale, such as runoff and sediment yield. The aim of this study was to use the Limburg Soil Erosion Model (LISEM) to describe the runoff and sediment yield during rainfall–runoff events in a small rural catchment in southern Brazil. Materials and methods The study was conducted in the Lajeado Ferreira Creek catchment (drainage area of 1.19 km2) where intense land use has caused a negative impact on water resources. Thirteen rainfall–runoff events that occurred in 2010 and 2011, including high-magnitude events, were used to model hydrosedimentological processes. Results and discussion Results from the calibration and validation stages indicate that the model had a good performance when representing the hydrograph, including events with greater complexity. The use of a second soil layer in the model increased its efficiency, which is in accordance with the importance of subsurface flow in this catchment and its sensitivity to the physical properties of the soil, which are essential for controlling hydrosedimentological processes at the catchment scale. The simulation of sediment yield was overestimated by the model, constrained by the lack of sensitivity of the model to soil cohesion and the stability of soil aggregates. During the model calibration stage, these parameters had values different from those measured in the field. Conclusions The LISEM model performed well in representing runoff for events of different magnitudes. The discretization of the physical–hydrologic properties in the soil profile enabled the evaluation of the effect of subsurface impediment layers on water infiltration and runoff. The simulation was less accurate for suspended sediment concentration than for runoff. This indicates the need for further studies to either identify other factors controlling erosion and sediment yield that have not been identified by the model, or identify if the representation of the physical parameters is inadequate, especially the values of soil cohesion and aggregate stability.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 07/2014; 14(7).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The Todos os Santos Bay is the largest bay in Brazil and receives drainage from various watersheds. For more than 450 years, it was the main destination for the domestic and hospital sewage from the city of Salvador, Bahia. With the growing concern regarding the presence of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment, an investigation was undertaken to determine the presence and levels of some commonly used drugs (i.e., atenolol, caffeine, carbamazepine, diazepam, diclofenac, erythromycin, ibuprofen) and personal care products (i.e., galaxolide, tonalide), using sediments as an indicator of their presence in the water column. Material and methods Surficial sediment samples from 17 stations located in the intertidal zone of the Todos os Santos Bay and infralittoral zone along the north coast of Salvador were tested for the presence of some PPCPs using LC-MS/MS (for drugs) and GC-MS/MS (for fragrances). Results and discussion The PPCPs examined were present in all sediment samples at levels of parts per billion of dry sediment. The highest concentrations were found for the fragrances galaxolide (52.5 ng g−1) and tonalide (27.9 ng g−1), followed by caffeine (23.4 ng g−1) and pharmaceuticals ibuprofen (14.3 ng g−1), atenolol (9.84 ng g−1), carbamazepine (4.81 ng g−1), erythromycin (2.29 ng g−1), diclofenac (1.06 ng g−1), and diazepam (0.71 ng g−1). Conclusions Pharmaceuticals were found to be ubiquitous in the sediments of the study areas. The texture of the sediment was an important factor in PPCPs fixation and deposition. The concentrations of all PPCPs had statistically significant positive correlations with the percentage of clay in the sediments.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 07/2014; 14(7).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The temporal variabilities of both soil erosion by water and sediment redistribution in watersheds are directly related to rainfall characteristics. The purpose of this work was to assess the temporal pattern of rainfall in a semiarid watershed in Brazil and explain how this feature controls soil erosion and sediment yield. Materials and methods Daily and 5-min rainfall records were used to assess the temporal pattern down to the sub-hourly scale. To study the effect of the rainfall on sediment processes, erosivity and sediment yield at the Aiuaba (12 km2) and Benguê (933 km2) watersheds, Brazil were determined. Erosivity was calculated based on the rainfall kinetic energy method, while sediment yield was estimated from sediment rating curves and daily water discharge measurements. Results and discussion A large portion of annual rainfall is restricted to a few rain events and strong concentration in the sub-daily scale occurs, producing high erosivity. The temporal concentration of erosivity is greater than that of rainfall; the 10th percentile of the highest magnitude events encompasses 51% of the precipitation, but 80% of the erosivity. The temporal concentration of sediment yield is more pronounced; 88 and 98% of the sediment yield for the Aiuaba and Benguê watersheds, respectively, are within the 10th percentile of events. Conclusions The strong temporal concentration of precipitation causes events with high intensity and erosivity, thus allowing for soil detachment. Nonetheless, the low runoff rates limit downstream sediment transport. Such behavior produces a much higher temporal concentration of sediment yield, which reaches its maximal after a sequence of rainy days, when hydrological connectivity is enhanced and the sediments are propagated throughout the entire transport-limited system.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 07/2014; 14(7).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The Shallow Landsliding Stability Model (SHALSTAB) and Stability Index Mapping (SINMAP) models have been applied to various landslide management and research studies. Both models combine a hydrological model with an infinite slope stability model for predicting landslide occurrence. The objectives of the present study were to apply these two models to the Cunha River basin, Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, where many landslides occurred in November 2008, and perform a comparative analysis of their results. Materials and methods Soil samples were collected to determine the input parameters. The models were calibrated with a landslide scar inventory, and rainfall data were obtained from three rain gauges. A comparison of their results obtained from the models was undertaken with the success and error index. Results and discussion Based on the maps of stability and instability areas for the study basin, the models performed well. Since the initial equations of both models are not particularly different, their results are similar. Locations with steep slopes, as well as areas with concave relief that tend to have larger contribution areas and moisture, have lower stability indexes. SHALSTAB classified only ~13 % of the total area of the Cunha River basin as unstable, while SINMAP classified ~30 % as unstable. Conclusions The analysis of maps based on the results of the two models shows that if SHALSTAB is correctly calibrated, based on hydrological parameters, its results could be more accurate than SINMAP in the prediction of landslide areas. Although SINMAP showed better calibration of the landslide scars, its classification over the basin results in an overestimation of stability areas. The conclusion is that SHALSTAB is more suitable than SINMAP for the prediction of landslides in the Cunha River basin, Brazil.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 07/2014; 14(7).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose This study investigated the behavior of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in urban sediments collected in commercial, residential, and industrial areas of the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, and evaluated different degrees of pollution in this urban subdrainage basin through the use of the geoaccumulation index (Igeo). Materials and methods Concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn were analyzed using acid digestion (EPA method 3050) in fractions <63 μm in 20 composite samples of urban sediment collected using a portable vacuum in 20 different sampling points on roads from three areas with diverse use: commercial, industrial, and residential. Results and discussion The values of Igeo were commercial area (3.35, Zn; 3.76, Cd; 3.60, Ni; 2.63, Pb) > residential area (3.34, Zn; 3.36, Cd; 2.94, Ni; 1.46, Pb) > industrial area (2.74, Zn; 1.78, Cd; 3.01, Ni; 1.45, Pb), indicating that the sediment was “highly contaminated” in the case of Zn and Ni, while for Cd, it was “moderately to highly contaminated,” and for Pb, it was “moderately contaminated.” The pollution is associated with traffic flow in all areas. Conclusions Research should be increased to make urban systems more sustainable, reducing their pollution potential and minimizing the delivery of potentially polluting particles into freshwater bodies. The Igeo allows for the determination of a simple index of diffuse pollution state associated with urban sediments.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 07/2014; 14(7).
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose This study deals with an alternate acoustic calibration method to determine suspended sediment concentration (SSC). Materials and methods Calculations of backscattering from a suspension of spherical particles were compared with a series of experimental measurements neglecting attenuation. Backscattering predictions were obtained using the “form function” description of spherical scattering from modal theory and by fitting according to Beer’s law, which was originally used to measure the transmitted light scattered by a collection of particles, to calculate the acoustic backscattering intensity. Measurements were undertaken in a laboratory using a simple experimental apparatus; an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) operating at a central frequency of 6 MHz was immersed in a 50-l acrylic tank in which known concentrations of glass microspheres (63- to 90-μm size range) were mixed in freshwater to obtain a homogeneous solution. Results and discussion Measurements expressed in terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR) were taken with different acoustic equipment settings and compared to theoretical predictions. Modal theory form function for elastic glass spheres was used taking into consideration the contributions due to natural vibrations induced by acoustic insonification and because the principal constituent of non-cohesive sediments is quartz. Traditional calibrating procedures were performed; the power of the equipment had an important effect on the results. The preliminary theoretical backscattering predictions were qualitatively satisfactory and suggested that the model can be used to generate the calibration curves for different particle properties. Conclusions It is feasible to use the proposed model to calibrate the ADV from a reduced number of water samples. From this, it is possible to obtain the characteristics of the particles (shape, density, and size distribution) and so estimate the SSC using the modeled backscattering intensity as a function of appropriate form functions and the number of particles in the ADV sampling volume.
    Journal of Soils and Sediments 07/2014; 14(7).

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