Pneumologie

Publisher: Thieme Publishing

Description

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  • 5-year impact
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  • ISSN
    1438-8790
  • OCLC
    163410099
  • Material type
    Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Thieme Publishing

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    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
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    • Author can archive a post-print version
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    • On author's personal website immediately
    • On Institutional Repository and PubMed Central after 12 months embargo
    • Publisher's version/PDF can be used on author's personal website only
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Link to Publisher version (www.thieme-connect.com) must be included if article has been published online
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Globally, the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-co-infection has improved dramatically over the last 10 years. Nonetheless, the mortality of co-infected patients remains elevated. In European countries, the proportion of HIV-infected patients amongst all TB cases varies greatly; in Germany it is about 4 - 5 %. HIV-infection changes the molecular epidemiology of TB and the drug resistance situation. In endemic areas, HIV-infected patients are often re-infected after completion of treatment for active TB. HIV has a profound influence on the anti-TB-immune response and antiretroviral therapy (ART) cannot completely restore normal immune function. The clinical presentation in advanced HIV-infection is atypical and disseminated disease is common. New "Point-of-Care" test methods are poised to improve the diagnoses of TB in HIV-infection; however, further research is required. The treatment of co-infection is complicated by drug interactions and the immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS). New concepts and treatment regimens for chemoprevention of TB are necessary, especially for HIV-infected persons.
    Pneumologie 10/2014; 68(10):666.
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular biomarkers are becoming increasingly significant in the workup of lung carcinoma patients. They assist in diagnosis, selecting the most adequate therapy and determining prognosis. Obtaining blood based biomarkers or volatile markers in exhaled breath may provide a less invasive method in the future. For the time being, bronchoscopy is still the method of choice to obtain specimen and assess tissue based biomarkers. The techniques how specimen are collected and processed for analysis are of paramount importance.
    Pneumologie 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the case of a 65-year-old patient with superficial carcinoma of the bladder who developed systemic inflammatory reaction as a result of a severe disseminated infection with M. bovis BCG after intravesical instillation of BCG. Besides the recommended antituberculosis therapy, considering the resistance of M. bovis to PZA, we discuss here the option of using steroids in the therapeutic management of this patient.
    Pneumologie 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A variety of causes may result in nasal obstruction including allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, anatomic abnormalities, and postoperative nasal packing. There is both an epidemiological and clinical relationship between nasal obstruction and sleep disordered breathing. Subsequently, improving nasal patency via surgical or non-surgical means is expected to relieve sleep disordered breathing. The present review will discuss and review some of the literature related to the pathophysiological interaction of the human nose and sleep disordered breathing and provide a summary of the effects of related intervention trials.
    Pneumologie 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The study indicates the patient-centered care of patients with asthma with fixed-dose combination therapy (with three different combinations) regarding the claims-data of several sickness funds. The identified patients were grouped according to their fixed-dose combination, their course of treatment and the number of treatment days with the possibility of two puffs per day. The effects of the corresponding group, their course of treatment and the number of days with two puffs on duration and costs of hospitalisations were evaluated. 47.9 % of the 16 312 insured patients were supplied for only a maximum of 6 out of 24 months with two puffs per day with an ICS/LABA fixed-dose combination. Only 8.3 % received at least two puffs per day for the whole period of investigation. The results may explain the insufficient asthma control found in other studies and serve as basis for further investigations concerning patient centered care. The true reasons for the observed undertreatment remain speculative. The author's recommendations for daily practice are to remain vigilant about activities to measure and manage patient's adherence and their degree of compliance with the medical guidelines.
    Pneumologie 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Whereas pulmonary arterial hypertension is an orphan disease, the term pulmonary hypertension includes several common entities and is of major clinical significance. The pathophysiological triad of vasoconstriction, microthrombosis and vascular remodeling is found in most forms of pulmonary hypertension, independently of the underlying etiology. In this review, novel aspects in the pathogenesis of the remodeling, in particular microRNAs, will be discussed. MicroRNAs are small RNA fragments which bind specifically to the mRNA of a target gene thus decreasing its stability or inhibiting further translation ("gene silencing"). Of major interest is the association between microRNAs and the expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II which has been found to be dysregulated on pulmonary endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells in several forms of pulmonary hypertension. The specific inhibition of microRNAs by antagomiRs makes microRNAs a potential therapeutic target. Moreover, microRNAs are being validated in serum as biomarkers for diagnosis, severity and prognosis of pulmonary hypertension.
    Pneumologie 04/2014;
  • Pneumologie 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This review presents the potential indications for different airway devices in the intensive care unit (ICU). Since the interface during noninvasive ventilation is located outside the body, sedation is not regularly needed. Therefore, selection of a fitting mask is essential to avoid mask intolerance which is one of the biggest problems during noninvasive ventilation. Full-face masks are the interfaces mostly used for noninvasive ventilation to treat acute respiratory failure; here, mouth breathing is possible which is often necessary during acute respiratory failure. Good alternatives are total face masks and the helmet, whereas nasal masks and mouthpieces are not regularly used on the ICU. Extraglottic airway devices and coniotomy are used for the management of difficult airway situations on the ICU. Endotracheal intubation remains the gold standard procedure for airway management. However, this procedure is associated with a number of complications. Tracheostomy is the airway access of choice when long-term mechanical ventilation is necessary.
    Pneumologie 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Inhaled medications play an important role in the daily treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The classic route of administration was nebulisation via jet nebulisers. Respiratory delivery of fluid particles should loosen the viscid respiratory secretions, making airway clearance via cough or physiotherapy more efficient. Until recently, only jet nebulisers allowed to administer high doses of aerosolised antipseudomonal antibiotics. Powder inhalers for the treatment of cystic fibrosis have recently been made available. The newly developed powders and inhalers differ considerably from conventional dry powder inhalers used for the treatment of chronic obstructive airway disease. The present article will review two inhaled antibiotics, i. e. tobramycin and colistin, and the hyperosmotic agent mannitol, which increases the hydration of the airways. Topics are particle engineering, efficacy and tolerability results from clinical trials, as well as functional and practical aspects related to these new drugs.
    Pneumologie 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, patients with asthma were interviewed with regard to their treatment adherence. It was shown that adherence is significantly influenced by age, occupation, quality of information about the disease and interest of the patient in disease, mode of action and use of the inhalation device. Younger, working patients who do not feel "completely adequately" informed are more likely to be not-adherent. Each aspect should be noted separately.The characterization enables forming target groups for appropriate counselling initiatives in pulmonology practice and allows the effectiveness of the measures to be examined. The results confirm the importance of doctor/patient communication for achieving a high level of adherence and thus therapeutic success.It is suggested that, in addition to questionnaires already in use, asthma patients should be given the following questions in writing during routine monitoring of therapy; based on the results of the survey, the extent of advice necessary can be determined- Do you feel sufficiently informed about your illness?- Do you feel sufficiently informed about the effect of the drug therapy?- Do you feel sufficiently informed about the handling of the inhalationdrugs?- Are you satisfied with the handling of your inhalation medication?The following options to answer the questions should be available:completely - mainly - somewhat - not at allThere were significant differences in adherence between patients who were completely satisfied with the handling of their device and those that were not. However, there was no significant difference between the devices. Therefore, the same therapy adherence can be predicted for all devices when the device is suitable for the patient and also provides complete satisfaction in handling. Since it is the subjective perception of patients, the data show significant differences between study centres. These were mirrored in a blind benchmark to stimulate improvements.
    Pneumologie 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Particularly in young children the diagnosis of asthma is difficult and mostly based on clinical symptoms like wheezing, cough and dyspnea. Children with nocturnal wheezing often suffer from a low quality of sleep and impaired sense of well-being during the day. Physicians recommend that parents record the frequency of asthma attacks or symptoms to help manage their children's disease. The lack of an appropriate method for standardized and objective monitoring makes asthma management difficult. The aim of this paper is to present a new method for automated wheeze and cough detection and analysis. The mobile LEOSound recording and analysing system described here should help improve diagnosis and monitoring of asthma symptoms in children.
    Pneumologie 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pleural effusion often represents the first clinical symptom of lung carcinoma and malignant mesothelioma. As pleural punctation is performed quite early in the diagnostic procedure, effusion cytology frequently gives the first evidence about the presence of tumour cells and tumor histogenesis. In this study, we report on seven cases which were evaluated in our institution for the Employers' Liability Insurance Association, based solely on cytology findings.The mean age of the seven patients with a given long-term asbestos exposure during their working life was 81.7 years. On average eight smears per patient were investigated. In addition to routine cytology, immunocytochemistry, DNA image cytometry, AgNOR-analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization were applied in a case-specific way. The results were interpreted against the clinical and occupational history of the respective patient.Definitive diagnosis could be made in six cases. In three of them, the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma was made. Two cases were diagnosed as malignant effusion due to metastatic lung cancer. In one case, cells of high-grade Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) were diagnosed and a malignant mesothelioma was excluded. In the last case, malignant mesothelioma could not be diagnosed unequivocally by cytology. In all seven cases, our interpretation was accepted by Employers' Liability Insurance Association. The five mesothelioma or lung cancer cases were accepted as asbestos-associated occupational disease, while the NHL case was rejected. In the last case, malignant mesothelioma was diagnosed later by autopsy, and the case was retroactively accepted as occupational disease.Cytology-based tumor diagnosis including adjuvant methods is a useful and reliable approach in cases of asbestos-associated tumours. Acceptance of occupational disease on the basis of cytological diagnoses even by the Employers' Liability Insurance Association helps avoid invasive pleural or lung biopsies in cases with an unequivocally positive effusion cytology of lung cancer or malignant mesothelioma.
    Pneumologie 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced pulmonary diffusion capacity is a hallmark of COPD, although the relative contribution of the subcomponents of pulmonary diffusion - membranous component (Dm) and capillary volume (Vc) - is unknown. These components can be measured with the method of NO single-breath diffusion (DLNO).In a prospective study, pulmonary function tests including spirometry, body plethysmography and single-breath measurements of diffusion capacity with CO and NO were performed in 183 patients with COPD of varying severity. There was a severity-dependent decrease in DLCO. Furthermore, Dm as well as Vc was positively correlated with the severity of COPD measured by FEV1. In all stages of COPD, reduction of Vc was more pronounced than constriction of Dm. In patients with most severe COPD, the preponderance of the reduction of Vc was significantly more marked than in milder stages.We conclude that Dm as well as Vc contributes to the reduction of DLCO in COPD, with a predominance of Vc at all stages of COPD. This confirms the idea that the loss of pulmonary capillaries in COPD is functionally relevant.
    Pneumologie 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Malignant pleural mesothelioma, a typical long-term consequence of exposure to asbestos, represents a therapeutic challenge. In the early stages of the disease, trimodal therapy combining surgery, radiation and chemotherapy is used as standard care. In advanced stages, the combination of cisplatin and pemetrexed has been approved as first-line therapy, but there is a lack of randomised controlled drug trials for second-line treatment.Monotherapy with pemetrexed, vinorelbine or gemcitabine may provide some survival benefit compared to treatment aiming at symptom control only. Immunotherapy seems to be a promising new concept.The so-called frustrated phagocytosis, with continuing antigen presentation leading to persisting local inflammation and antigen tolerance, can be interrupted by blocking the T-cell surface protein CTLA-4. The monoclonal antibodies ipilimumab and tremelimumab that block CTLA-4 can stimulate immune response and thus increase the number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Clinical studies exploring this avenue of treatment are being awaited with great excitement.
    Pneumologie 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia can manifest itself with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (pavm). A transcatheter coil embolization should be made to avoid complications and to close off relevant arteriovenous shunts. We report on a patient with expectoration of embolization coils 15 years after embolotherapy. In case of hemoptysis following embolotherapy with coils, even years after their placement one should consider coil migration into the pulmonary system, besides newly formed pavms, in the differential diagnosis and initiate contrast-CT of the thorax and bronchoscopy.
    Pneumologie 03/2014;
  • Pneumologie 03/2014; 68(3):171-2.
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term oxygen treatment (LTOT) has been demonstrated to improve prognosis in patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency. In terms of pathogenesis, improved oxygenation, reduction of pulmonary artery pressure as well as reduction of respiratory work are important. Since there are considerable differences between the LTOT systems, individually tailored therapy is needed. In particular, the mobility aspects of the patients must be taken into consideration. It is important to distinguish between stationary/mobile devices with a liquid oxygen system and stationary/mobile devices with oxygen concentrator. Oxygen titration should be performed in relation to rest and activity phases (e. g. 6 minute walk test) as well as in relation to the sleep phase. Employing devices with demand-controlled valves should be critically examined. This can be undertaken only under physician orders and requires continuous monitoring.
    Pneumologie 03/2014; 68(3):193-8.
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    ABSTRACT: On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Scientific Working Group for the Therapy of Lung Diseases (WATL) the history is described from its foundation to the present situation. Research topics during this long period are specified and the studies are briefly outlined. In the beginning, WATL was engaged mainly in studies on tuberculosis, later on, the spectrum of WATL was broadened considerably to diseases like sarcoidosis, pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis, pulmonary emphysema due to α1-antitrypsin deficiency, chronic obstructive bronchitis and bronchial asthma as well as nontuberculous mycobacterioses. Finally, realising that the methodological capabilities of WATL were not sufficient to conduct large trials in classical lung diseases considering current requirements, WATL has begun to acquire competence in rare lung diseases such as lymphangioleiomyomatosis and alveolar proteinosis. In addition, WATL is dedicated to educative aims by organising conferences on topics which are not part of main stream respiratory medicine.
    Pneumologie 03/2014; 68(3):199-205.