Plant Biology

Publisher: Deutsche Botanische Gesellschaft; Koninklijke Nederlandse Botanische Vereniging, Blackwell Publishing

Description

  • Impact factor
    2.32
  • 5-year impact
    2.53
  • Cited half-life
    6.10
  • Immediacy index
    0.57
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.76
  • Other titles
    Plant biology (Stuttgart, Germany: Online)
  • ISSN
    1438-8677
  • OCLC
    45967059
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Blackwell Publishing

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • Some journals impose embargoes typically of 6 or 12 months, occasionally of 24 months
    • no listing of affected journals available as yet
  • Conditions
    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On author's server, institutional server or subject-based server
    • Server must be non-commercial
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with set statement ("The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com")
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'Blackwell Publishing' is an imprint of 'Wiley'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The component Allee effect has been defined as “a positive relationship between any measure of individual fitness and the number or density of conspecifics.” Larger plant populations or large patches have shown a higher pollinator visitation rate, which may give rise to an Allee effect in reproduction of the plants. We experimentally tested the effect of number of conspecifics on reproduction and pollinator visitation in Eschscholzia californica Cham., an invasive plant in Chile. We then built patches with two, eight and 16 flowering individuals of E. californica (11 replicates per treatment) in an area characterised by dominance of the study species. We found that E. californica exhibits a component Allee effect, as the number of individuals of this species has a positive effect on individual seed set. However, individual fruit production was not affected by the number of plants examined. Pollinator visitation rate was also independent of the number of plants, so this factor would not explain the Allee effect. This rate was positively correlated with the total number of flowers in the patches. We also found that the number of plants did not affect the seed mass or proportion of germinated seeds in the patches. Higher pollen availability in patches with 16 plants and pollination by wind could explain the Allee effect. The component Allee effect identified could lead to a weak demographic Allee effect that might reduce the rate of spread of E. californica. Knowledge of this would be useful for management of this invasive plant in Chile.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Plant Biology 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inga species are characterised by generalist or mixed pollination system. However, this feature does not enhance reproductive rates in species with very low fruit set under natural conditions. Some ecological and genetic factors are associated with this feature, and to test the effect of massive visits on pollination success in Inga subnuda subsp. luschnathiana, we studied the efficacy of polyads deposited on stigmas of flowers isolated from visitors and polyads exposed to visitors. The proportion of polyads fixed in stigmas decreased after exposure to visitors (24 h) in comparison to stigmas isolated from visitors (hummingbirds, bees, wasps, hawkmoths and bats), and fruit set was very low. Furthermore, nectar production, sugar composition and other floral biology traits were evaluated. Increased nectar production, sugar availability and sucrose dominance during the night indicates adaptation to nocturnal visitors and supports their role as main pollinators; although the brush-flower morphology, time of anthesis, nectar dynamics and chemical composition also allow daytime visitors. Thus the species is an important resource for a diverse group of floral visitors. We conclude that excess visits (diurnal and nocturnal) are responsible for the decrease in fixed polyads in stigmas of I. subnuda subsp. luschnathiana flowers, thus contributing, with others factors, to its low fruit set. Therefore, the generalist pollination system does not result in reproductive advantages because the low fruit set in natural conditions could be the result of a negative effect of visitors/pollinators.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Plant Biology 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An untested theory states that C4 grass seeds could germinate under lower water potentials (Ψ) than C3 grass seeds. We used hydrotime modelling to study seed water relations of C4 and C3 Canadian prairie grasses to address Ψ divergent sensitivities and germination strategies along a risk-spreading continuum of responses to limited water. C4 grasses were Bouteloua gracilis, Calamovilfa longifolia and Schizachyrium scoparium; C3 grasses were Bromus carinatus, Elymus trachycaulus, Festuca hallii and Koeleria macrantha. Hydrotime parameters were obtained after incubation of non-dormant seeds under different Ψ PEG 6000 solutions. A t-test between C3 and C4 grasses did not find statistical differences in population mean base Ψ (Ψb(50)). We found idiosyncratic responses of C4 grasses along the risk-spreading continuum. B. gracilis showed a risk-taker strategy of a species able to quickly germinate in a dry soil due to its low Ψb(50) and hydrotime (θH). The high Ψb(50) of S. scoparium indicates it follows the risk-averse strategy so it can only germinate in wet soils. C. longifolia showed an intermediate strategy: the lowest Ψb(50) yet the highest θH. K. macrantha, a C3 grass which thrives in dry habitats, had the highest Ψb(50), suggesting a risk-averse strategy for a C3 species. Other C3 species showed intermediate germination patterns in response to Ψ relative to C4 species. Our results indicate that grasses display germination sensitivities to Ψ across the risk-spreading continuum of responses. Thus seed water relations may be poor predictors to explain differential recruitment and distribution of C3 and C4 grasses in the Canadian prairies.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Plant Biology 12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Folivores are major plant antagonists in most terrestrial ecosystems. However, the quantitative effects of leaf area loss on multiple interacting plant traits are still little understood. We sought to contribute to filling this lack of understanding by applying different types of leaf area removal (complete leaflets versus leaflet parts) and degrees of leaf damage (0, 33 and 66%) to lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants. We quantified various growth and fitness parameters including above- and belowground biomass as well as the production of reproductive structures (fruits, seeds). In addition, we measured plant cyanogenic potential (HCNp, direct chemical defence) and production of extrafloral nectar (EFN; indirect defence). Leaf damage reduced above- and belowground biomass production in general, but neither variation in quantity nor type of damage resulted in different biomass. Similarly, the number of fruits and seeds was significantly reduced in all damaged plants without significant differences between treatment groups. Seed mass, however, was affected by both type and quantity of leaf damage. Leaf area loss had no impact on HCNp, whereas production of EFN decreased with increasing damage. While EFN production was quantitatively affected by leaf area removal, the type of damage had no effect. Our study provides a thorough analysis of the quantitative and qualitative effects of defoliation on multiple productivity-related and defensive plant traits and shows strong differences in plant response depending on trait. Quantifying such plant responses is vital to our understanding of the impact of herbivory on plant fitness and productivity in natural and agricultural ecosystems.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Plant Biology 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mechanical wounding or treatment with exogenous jasmonates (JA) induces differentiation of the laticifer in Hevea brasiliensis. JA is a key signal for latex biosynthesis and wounding response in the rubber tree. Identification of JAZ (jasmonate ZIM-domain) family of proteins that repress JA responses has facilitated rapid progress in understanding how this lipid-derived hormone controls gene expression and related physiological processes in plants. In this work, the full-length cDNAs of six JAZ genes were cloned from H. brasiliensis (termed HbJAZ). These HbJAZ have different lengths and sequence diversity, but all of them contain Jas and ZIM domains, and two of them contain an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in the N-terminal. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that HbJAZ have different expression patterns and tissue specificity. Four HbJAZ were up-regulated, one was down-regulated, while two were less effected by rubber tapping treatment, suggesting that they might play distinct roles in the wounding response. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that HbJAZ proteins interact with each other to form homologous or heterogeneous dimer complexes, indicating that the HbJAZ proteins may expand their function through diverse JAZ–JAZ interactions. This work lays a foundation for identification of the JA signalling pathway and molecular mechanisms of latex biosynthesis in rubber trees.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Plant Biology 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Exposure of plants to UV-C irradiation induces gene expression and cellular responses that are commonly associated with wounding and pathogen defence, and in some cases can lead to increased resistance against pathogen infection. We examined, at a physiological, molecular and biochemical level, the effects of and responses to, sub-lethal UV-C exposure on Arabidopsis plants when irradiated with increasing dosages of UV-C radiation. Following UV-C exposure plants had reduced leaf areas over time, with the severity of reduction increasing with dosage. Severe morphological changes that included leaf glazing, bronzing and curling were found to occur in plants treated with the 1000 J m-2 dosage. Extensive damage to the mesophyll was observed, and cell death occurred in both a dosage- and time-dependent manner. Analysis of H2O2 activity and the pathogen defence marker genes PR1 and PDF1.2 demonstrated induction of these defence-related responses at each UV-C dosage tested. Interestingly, in response to UV-C irradiation the production of callose (β-1,3-glucan) was identified at all dosages examined. Together, these results show plant responses to UV-C irradiation at much lower doses than have previously been reported, and that there is potential for the use of UV-C as an inducer of plant defence.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Plant Biology 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we analysed the habitat association of tree species in an old-growth temperate forest across all life stages to test theories on the coexistence of tree species in forest communities. An inventory for trees was implemented at a 6-ha plot in Ogawa Forest Reserve for adults, juveniles, saplings and seedlings. Volumetric soil water content (SMC) and light levels were measured in 10-m grids. Relationships between the actual number of stems and environmental variables were determined for 35 major tree species, and the spatial correlations within and among species were analysed. The light level had no statistically significant effect on distribution of saplings and seedlings of any species. In contrast, most species had specific optimal values along the SMC gradient. The optimal values were almost identical in earlier life stages, but were more variable in later life stages among species. However, no effective niche partitioning among the species was apparent even at the adult stage. Furthermore, results of spatial analyses suggest that dispersal limitation was not sufficient to mitigate competition between species. This might result from well-scattered seed distribution via wind and bird dispersal, as well as conspecific density-dependent mortality of seeds and seedlings. Thus, both niche partitioning and dispersal limitation appeared less important for facilitating coexistence of species within this forest than expected in tropical forests. The tree species assembly in this temperate forest might be controlled through a neutral process at the spatial scale tested in this study.
    Plant Biology 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new contact zone between Centaurea aspera and Centaurea seridis was found in Morocco. Chromosome counts and flow cytometry showed that both taxa were tetraploid (4x = 44). A literature review and morphometric analysis established that C. aspera corresponds to the autopolyploid C. aspera subsp. gentilii and C. seridis corresponds to the allopolyploid C. seridis var. auriculata. This contact area was compared with the homologous contact zones in Spain formed by the diploid C. aspera subsp. stenophylla and the tetraploid C. seridis subsp. maritima. Natural hybrids between parental species were frequent in both areas. In Spain, hybrids were triploid (from reduced gametes A and gamete AB), highly sterile and exerted a 'triploid block'. In Morocco, cytometry showed that hybrids were tetraploid and, therefore, probably fertile, but all the capitula lacked achenes. It is likely that the resulting genome of the new tetraploid hybrid (AAAB), through the fusion of reduced gametes AA (from subsp. gentilii) and AB (from var. auriculata), could explain irregularities in meiosis through formation of aneuploid gametes and, therefore, infertility of the hybrid. Moroccan sterile tetraploid hybrids develop, but have the identical irregularities to Spanish triploids, probably due to the odd number of homologous chromosomes. The new hybrid is first described as C. x subdecurrens nothosubsp. paucispinus. In addition, distribution and ecological traits are analysed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Plant Biology 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Species of the subtribe Cassiinae present a wide diversity of floral types. Until recently it was considered that this diversity did not extend to their reproductive mechanisms. However, studies have recorded some variations in the enantiostylous pattern in this plant group. This study aims to investigate the morphological and functional variations of enantiostyly in species of the subtribe Cassiinae. Additionally, it proposes the recognition of enantiostylous types (ET) based on pollen deposition and capture mode. Morphological data were collected in fresh and fixed (alcohol 70%) buds and flowers, and also using photos and rehydrated material from herbarium sheets, for a total of 59 species. The parameters used to establish the ETs were pollination type, nature of pollen deposition on the pollinator body, deposition type, number of petals involved in pollen deposition, and pollen pathway. Morpho-functional features allowed the recognition of seven enantiostylous types (Flexuosa, Cana, Macranthera, Martiana, Amiciella, Repens and Ramosa) that present several levels of complexity. The type Ramosa was the most common and the Cana type was the least common. The types Repens, Martiana and Flexuosa do not have reciprocal pollen deposition, thus species with these types may be considered atypical. The groups resulting from similarity analysis partially coincide with the clades proposed in phylogenetic studies of Cassiinae. The recognition of functional ETs is important for understanding the evolution of reproductive strategies of Cassiinae species, and indicates an interesting line of investigation of enantiostyly in other plant groups.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Plant Biology 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polyamine biosynthesis starts with putrescine production through the decarboxylation of arginine or ornithine. In Arabidopsis thaliana, putrescine is synthesised exclusively by arginine decarboxylase (ADC), which exists as two isoforms (ADC1 and 2) that are differentially regulated by abiotic stimuli, but their role in defence against pathogens has not been studied in depth. This work analysed the participation of ADC in Arabidopsis defence against Pseudomonas viridiflava. ADC activity and expression, polyamine levels and bacterial resistance were analysed in null mutants of each ADC isoform. In non-infected wild-type (WT) plants, ADC2 expression was much higher than ADC1. Analysis of adc mutants demonstrated that ADC2 contributes to a much higher extent than ADC1 to basal ADC activity and putrescine biosynthesis. In addition, adc2 mutants showed increased basal expression of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-dependent PR genes. Bacterial infection induced putrescine accumulation and ADC1 expression in WT plants, but pathogen-induced putrescine accumulation was blocked in adc1 mutants. Results suggest a specific participation of ADC1 in defence, although basal resistance was not decreased by dysfunction of either of the two ADC genes. In addition, and as opposed to WT plants, bacterial infection increased ADC2 expression and ADC activity in adc1 mutants, which could counterbalance the lack of ADC1. Results demonstrate a major contribution of ADC2 to total ADC activity and the specific induction of ADC1 in response to infection. A certain degree of functional redundancy between the two isoforms in relation to their contribution to basal resistance is also evident.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Plant Biology 11/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tomato plants colonised with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum show systemic induced resistance to the foliar pathogen Alternaria alternata, as observed in interactions of other AM-colonised plants with a range of pathogens. The role of jasmonic (JA) and salicylic (SA) acid in expression of this mycorrhiza-induced resistance (MIR) against A. alternata was studied by measuring: (i) activity of enzymes reported to be involved in their biosynthesis, namely lipoxygenase (LOX) and phenylammonia lyase (PAL); and (ii) levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and SA. Transcript abundance of some defence genes associated with JA and SA response pathways were also studied. Both LOX and PAL activity increased twofold in response to pathogen application to control plants. AM-colonised plants had three-fold higher LOX activity compared to control plants, but unlike controls, this did not increase further in response to pathogen application. Higher LOX activity in AM-colonised plants correlated with four-fold higher MeJA in leaves of AM-colonised plants compared to controls. Treatment of plants with the JA biosynthesis inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) led to 50% lower MeJA in both control and AM-colonised plants and correlated with increased susceptibility to A. alternata, suggesting a causal role for JA in expression of MIR against the pathogen. Genes involved in JA biosynthesis (OPR3) and response (COI1) showed six- and 42-fold higher expression, respectively, in leaves of AM-colonised plants compared to controls. AM-colonised plants also showed increased expression of the SA response gene PR1 and that of the wound-inducible polypeptide prosystemin. Our results suggest that the systemic increase in JA in response to AM colonisation plays a key role in expression of MIR against A. alternata.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Plant Biology 10/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of elevated CO2 and drought on ecophysiological parameters in grassland species have been examined, but few studies have investigated the effect of competition on those parameters under climate change conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated CO2 and drought on the response of plant water relations, gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence and aboveground biomass in four grassland species, as well as to assess whether the type of competition modulates that response. Elevated CO2 in well-watered conditions increased aboveground biomass by augmenting CO2 assimilation. Drought reduced biomass by reducing CO2 assimilation rate via stomatal limitation and, when drought was more severe, also non-stomatal limitation. When plants were grown under the combined conditions of elevated CO2 and drought, drought limitation observed under ambient CO2 was reduced, permitting higher CO2 assimilation and consequently reducing the observed decrease in aboveground biomass. The response to climate change was species-specific and dependent on the type of competition. Thus, the response to elevated CO2 in well-watered grasses was higher in monoculture than in mixture, while it was higher in mixture compared to monoculture for forbs. On the other hand, forbs were more affected than grasses by drought in monoculture, while in mixture the negative effect of drought was higher in grasses than in forbs, due to a lower capacity to acquire water and mineral nutrients. These differences in species-level growth responses to CO2 and drought may lead to changes in the composition and biodiversity of the grassland plant community in future climate conditions.
    Plant Biology 10/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The plastid ribosome proteins (PRPs) play important roles in plastid protein biosynthesis, chloroplast differentiation and early chloroplast development. However, the specialised functions of individual protein components of the chloroplast ribosome in rice (Oryza sativa) remain unresolved. In this paper, we identified a novel rice PRP mutant named asl2 (Albino seedling lethality 2) exhibiting an albino, seedling death phenotype. In asl2 mutants, the alteration of leaf colour was associated with chlorophyll (Chl) content and abnormal chloroplast development. Through map-based cloning and complementation, the mutated ASL2 gene was isolated and found to encode the chloroplast 50S ribosome protein L21 (RPL21c), a component of the chloroplast ribosome large subunit, which was localised in chloroplasts. ASL2 was expressed at a higher level in the plumule and leaves, implying its tissue-specific expression. Additionally, the expression of ASL2 was regulated by light. The transcript levels of the majority of genes for Chl biosynthesis, photosynthesis and chloroplast development were strongly affected in asl2 mutants. Collectively, the absence of functional ASL2 caused chloroplast developmental defects and seedling death. This report establishes the important role of RPL21c in chloroplast development in rice.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Plant Biology 10/2014;