Plant Biology

Publisher: Deutsche Botanische Gesellschaft; Koninklijke Nederlandse Botanische Vereniging, Blackwell Publishing

Description

  • Impact factor
    2.32
  • 5-year impact
    2.53
  • Cited half-life
    6.10
  • Immediacy index
    0.57
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.76
  • Other titles
    Plant biology (Stuttgart, Germany: Online)
  • ISSN
    1438-8677
  • OCLC
    45967059
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Blackwell Publishing

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    • no listing of affected journals available as yet
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    • See Wiley-Blackwell entry for articles after February 2007
    • Publisher version cannot be used
    • On author or institutional or subject-based server
    • Server must be non-commercial
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged with set statement ("The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com ")
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • 'Blackwell Publishing' is an imprint of 'Wiley-Blackwell'
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many mosses of the family Splachnaceae are entomophilous and rely on flies for spore dispersal. Splachnum ampullaceum produces a yellow- or pink-coloured hypophysis that releases volatile compounds, attracting flies to the mature moss. The biosynthetic sources of the visual and aromatic cues within the hypophysis have not been identified, and may be either symbiotic cyanobacteria or chromoplasts that break down lipids into volatile compounds. Here, we used transmission electron microscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the sources of these attractants, focusing on different tissues and stages of maturation. Microscopy revealed an abundance of plastids within the hypophysis, while no symbiotic bacteria were observed. During plant maturation, plastids differentiated from amyloplasts with large starch granules to photosynthetic chloroplasts and finally to chromoplasts with lipid accumulations. We used GC-MS to identify over 50 volatile organic compounds from mature sporophytes including short-chain oxygenated compounds, unsaturated irregular terpenoids, fatty acid-derived 6- and 8-carbon alcohols and ketones, and the aromatic compounds acetophenone and p-cresol. The hypophysis showed localised production of pungent volatiles, mainly short-chain fermentation compounds and p-cresol. Some of these volatiles have been shown to be produced from lipid oxidase degradation of linolenic acid within chromoplasts. However, other compounds (such as cyclohexanecarboxylic acid esters) may have a microbial origin. Further investigation is necessary to identify the origin of fly attractants in these mosses.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Plant Biology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Bulliform cells are large, thin-walled and highly vacuolated cells, and play an important role in controlling leaf rolling in response to drought and high temperature. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating bulliform cell development have not been well documented. Here, we report isolation and characterisation of a rice leaf-rolling mutant, named shallot-like 2 (sll2). The sll2 plants exhibit adaxially rolled leaves, starting from the sixth leaf stage, accompanied by increased photosynthesis and reduced plant height and tiller number. Histological analyses showed shrinkage of bulliform cells, resulting in inward-curved leaves. The mutant is recessive and revertible at a rate of 9%. The leaf rolling is caused by a T-DNA insertion. Cloning of the insertion using TAIL-PCR revealed that the T-DNA was inserted in the promoter region of LOC_Os07g38664. Unexpectedly, the enhanced expression of LOC_Os07g38664 by the 35S enhancer in the T-DNA is not responsible for the leaf rolling phenotype. Further, the enhancer also exerted a long-distance effect, including up-regulation of several bulliform cell-related genes. sll2 suppressed the outward leaf rolling of oul1 in the sll2oul1 double mutant. We conclude that leaf rolling in sll2 could be a result of the combined effect of multi-genes, implying a complex network in regulation of bulliform cell development.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Plant Biology 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Galls are anomalies in plant development of parasitic origin that affect the cellular differentiation or growth and represent a remarkable plant–parasite interaction. Byrsonima sericea DC. (Malpighiaceae) is a super host of several different types of gall in both vegetative and reproductive organs. The existence of galls in reproductive organs and their effects on the host plant are seldom described in the literature. In this paper, we present a novel study of galls in plants of the Neotropical region: the ‘witches' broom’ galls developed in floral structures of B. sericea. The unaffected inflorescences are characterised by a single indeterminate main axis with spirally arranged flower buds. The flower buds developed five unaffected brownish hairy sepals and five pairs of elliptical yellow elaiophores, five yellow fringed petals, 10 stamens and a pistil with superior tricarpellar and trilocular ovary. The affected inflorescences showed changes in architecture, with branches arising from the main axis and flower buds. The flower buds exhibited several morphological and anatomical changes. The sepals, petals and carpels converted into leaf-like structures after differentiation. Stamens exhibited degeneration of the sporogenous tissue and structures containing hyphae and spores. The gynoecium did not develop, forming a central meristematic region, from which emerges the new inflorescence. In this work, we discuss the several changes in development of reproductive structures caused by witches' broom galls and their effects on reproductive success of the host plants.
    Plant Biology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cold stratification provided by snow cover is essential to break seed dormancy in many alpine plant species. The forecast reduction in snow precipitation and snow cover duration in most temperate mountains as a result of global warming could threaten alpine plant populations, especially those at the edge of their species distribution, by altering the dynamics of early life stages. We simulated some effects of a reduction in the snow cover period by manipulating the duration of cold stratification in seeds of Silene ciliata, a Mediterranean alpine specialist. Seeds from three populations distributed along an altitudinal gradient were exposed to different periods of cold stratification (2, 4 and 6 months) in the laboratory and then moved to common garden conditions in a greenhouse. The duration of the cold stratification treatment and population origin significantly affected seed emergence percentage, emergence rate and seedling size, but not the number of seedling leaves. The 6-month and 4-month cold stratification treatments produced higher emergence percentages and faster emergence rates than seeds without cold stratification treatment. No significant cold stratification duration x seed population origin interactions were found, thus differential sensitivity to cold stratification along elevation is not supported.
    Plant Biology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding factors that modulate plant development is still a challenging task in plant biology. Although research has highlighted the role of abiotic and biotic factors in determining final plant structure, we know little of how these factors combine to produce specific developmental patterns. Here, we studied patterns of cell and tissue organisation in galled and non-galled organs of Baccharis reticularia, a Neotropical shrub that hosts over ten species of galling insects. We employed qualitative and quantitative approaches to understand patterns of growth and differentiation in its four most abundant gall morphotypes. We compared two leaf galls induced by sap-sucking Hemiptera and stem galls induced by a Lepidopteran and a Dipteran, Cecidomyiidae. The hypotheses tested were: (i) the more complex the galls, the more distinct they are from their non-galled host; (ii) galls induced on less plastic host organs, e.g. stems, develop under more morphogenetic constraints and, therefore, should be more similar among themselves than galls induced on more plastic organs. We also evaluated the plant sex preference of gall-inducing insects for oviposition. Simple galls were qualitative and quantitatively more similar to non-galled organs than complex galls, thereby supporting the first hypothesis. Unexpectedly, stem galls had more similarities between them than to their host organ, hence only partially supporting the second hypothesis. Similarity among stem galls may be caused by the restrictive pattern of host stems. The opposite trend was observed for host leaves, which generate either similar or distinct gall morphotypes due to their higher phenotypic plasticity. The Relative Distance of Plasticity Index for non-galled stems and stem galls ranged from 0.02 to 0.42. Our results strongly suggest that both tissue plasticity and gall inducer identity interact to determine plant developmental patterns, and therefore, final gall structure.
    Plant Biology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pollination syndromes are defined as suites of floral traits evolved in response to selection imposed by a particular group of pollinators (e.g., butterflies, hummingbirds, bats). Although numerous studies demonstrated their occurrence in plants pollinated by radically different pollinators, it is less known whether it is possible to identify them within species pollinated by one functional pollinator group. In such a framework, we expect floral traits to evolve also in response to pollinator subgroups (e.g., species, genera) within that unique functional group. On this, specialised pollination systems represent appropriate case studies to test such expectations. Calceolaria is a highly diversified plant genus pollinated by oil-collecting bees in genera Centris and Chalepogenus. Variation in floral traits in Calceolaria has recently been suggested to reflect adaptations to pollinator types. However, to date no study has explicitly tested that observation. In this paper, we quantitatively test that hypothesis by evaluating the presence of pollination syndromes within the specialised pollination system formed by several Calceolaria and their insect pollinators. To do so, we use multivariate approaches and explore the structural matching between the morphology of 10 Calceolaria taxa and that of their principal pollinators. Our results identify morphological matching between floral traits related to access to the reward and insect traits involved in oil collection, confirming the presence of pollinator syndromes in Calceolaria. From a general perspective, our findings indicate that the pollination syndrome concept can be also extended to the intra-pollinator group level.
    Plant Biology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Endo-dormant flower buds of tree peony must have sufficient chilling duration to reinitiate growth, which is a major obstacle to the forcing culture of tree peony in winter. We used a combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) to identify the differentially expressed proteins of tree peony after three different chilling treatments: endo-dormancy, endo-dormancy release and eco-dormancy stages. More than 200 highly reproducible protein spots were detected, and 31 differentially expressed spots (P < 0.05) were selected for further analysis. Finally, 20 protein spots were confidently identified from databases, which were annotated and classified into seven functional categories: response to abiotic or biotic stimulus (four), metabolic processes (four), other binding (three), transcription or transcription regulation (two), biological processes (one), cell biogenesis (one) and unclassified (five). The results of qPCR of five genes were mainly consistent with that of the protein accumulation analysis as determined by 2-DE. This indicated that most of these genes were mainly regulated at transcriptional level. The activity of nitrate reductase and pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 was consistent with the 2-DE results. The proteomic profiles indicated activation of citrate cycle, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, energy production, calcium signalling and cell growth processes by chilling fulfilment to facilitate dormancy release in tree peony. Analysis of functions of identified proteins will increase our knowledge of endo-dormancy release in tree peony.
    Plant Biology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Seed dispersal influences a wide range of ecological processes. However, measuring dispersal patterns, particularly long-distance dispersal, has been a difficult task. Marking bird-dispersed seeds with stable 15N isotopes has been shown to be a user-friendly method to trace seed dispersal. In this study, we determined whether 15N urea solution could be used to enrich seeds of two common wind-dispersed plants, Eupatorium glaucescens (Asteraceae) and Sericocarpus tortifolius (Asteraceae). We further tested if the water type (distilled versus tap) in 15N urea solutions influences the level and variability of enrichment of plant seeds, and if increasing spraying frequency per se increases enrichment. Because droughts may lower seed set or kill plants, we wanted to investigate if the additional use of an externally applied anti-transpirant affects the intake of externally applied 15N into seeds. The results demonstrate that 15N enrichment of seeds can facilitate dispersal experiments with wind-dispersed plants. The use of distilled water in 15N urea solutions did not increase 15N enrichment compared to tap water. Further, enrichment was more efficient at lower spray frequencies. Both the use of tap water and low frequencies could lower time, effort and project costs. The results suggest that species can be protected from drought using an anti-transpirant without decreasing the incorporation of 15N into seeds.
    Plant Biology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Duckweeds belong to the smallest flowering plants that undergo fast vegetative growth in an aquatic environment. They are commonly used in wastewater treatment and animal feed. Whereas duckweeds have been studied at the biochemical level, their reduced morphology and wide environmental adaption had not been subjected to molecular analysis until recently. Here, we review the progress that has been made in using a DNA barcode system and the sequences of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes to identify duckweed species at the species or population level. We also review analysis of the nuclear genome sequence of Spirodela that provides new insights into fundamental biological questions. Indeed, reduced gene families and missing genes are consistent with its compact morphogenesis, aquatic floating and suppression of juvenile-to-adult transition. Furthermore, deep RNA sequencing of Spirodela at the onset of dormancy and Landoltia in exposure of nutrient deficiency illustrate the molecular network for environmental adaption and stress response, constituting major progress towards a post-genome sequencing phase, where further functional genomic details can be explored. Rapid advances in sequencing technologies could continue to promote a proliferation of genome sequences for additional ecotypes as well as for other duckweed species.
    Plant Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Measuring biomarkers from plant tissue samples is challenging and expensive when the desire is to integrate transcriptomics, fluxomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, proteomics, physiomics and phenomics. We present a computational biology method where only the transcriptome needs to be measured and is used to derive a set of parameters for deterministic kinetic models of metabolic pathways. The technology is called Transcriptome-To-Metabolome™ (TTM™) biosimulations, currently under commercial development, but available for non-commercial use by researchers. The simulated results on metabolites of 30 primary and secondary metabolic pathways in rice (Oryza sativa) were used as the biomarkers to predict whether the transcriptome was from a plant that had been under drought conditions. The rice transcriptomes were accessed from public archives and each individual plant was simulated. This unique quality of the TTM™ technology allows standard analyses on biomarker assessments, i.e. sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve and area under the ROC curve (AUC). Two validation methods were also used, the holdout and 10-fold cross validations. Initially 17 metabolites were identified as candidate biomarkers based on either statistical significance on binary phenotype when compared with control samples or recognition from the literature. The top three biomarkers based on AUC were gibberellic acid 12 (0.89), trehalose (0.80) and sn1-palmitate-sn2-oleic-phosphatidylglycerol (0.70). Neither heat map analyses of transcriptomes nor all 300 metabolites clustered the stressed and control groups effectively. The TTM™ technology allows the emergent properties of the integrated system to generate unique and useful ‘Omics’ information.
    Plant Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To avoid winter frost damage, evergreen coniferous species develop cold hardiness with suitable phenology for the local climate regime. Along the elevational gradient, a genetic cline in autumn phenology is often recognised among coniferous populations, but further quantification of evolutionary adaptation related to the local environment and its responsible signals generating the phenological variation are poorly understood. We evaluated the timing of cold hardening among populations of Abies sachalinensis, based on time series freezing tests using trees derived from four seed source populations × three planting sites. Furthermore, we constructed a model to estimate the development of hardening from field temperatures and the intraspecific variations occurring during this process. An elevational cline was detected such that high-elevation populations developed cold hardiness earlier than low-elevation populations, representing significant genetic control. Because development occurred earlier at high-elevation planting sites, the genetic trend across elevation overlapped with the environmental trend. Based on the trade-off between later hardening to lengthen the active growth period and earlier hardening to avoid frost damage, this genetic cline would be adaptive to the local climate. Our modelling approach estimated intraspecific variation in two model components: the threshold temperature, which was the criterion for determining whether the trees accumulated the thermal value, and the chilling requirement for trees to achieve adequate cold hardiness. A higher threshold temperature and a lower chilling requirement could be responsible for the earlier phenology of the high-elevation population. These thermal responses may be one of the important factors driving the elevation-dependent adaptation of A. sachalinensis.
    Plant Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Duckweed can be utilised to produce ethanol, butanol and biogas, which are promising alternative energy sources to minimise dependence on limited crude oil and natural gas. The advantages of this aquatic plant include high rate of nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) uptake, high biomass yield and great potential as an alternative feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol, butanol and biogas. The objective of this article is to review the published research on growing duckweed for the production of the biofuels, especially starch enrichment in duckweed plants. There are mainly two processes affecting the accumulation of starch in duckweed biomass: photosynthesis for starch generation and metabolism-related starch consumption. The cost of stimulating photosynthesis is relatively high based on current technologies. Considerable research efforts have been made to inhibit starch degradation. Future research need in this area includes duckweed selection, optimisation of duckweed biomass production, enhancement of starch accumulation in duckweeds and use of duckweeds for production of various biofuels.
    Plant Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Despite rapid doubling time, simple architecture and ease of metabolic labelling, a lack of genetic tools in the Lemnaceae (duckweed) has impeded the full implementation of this organism as a model for biological research. Here, we present technologies to facilitate high-throughput genetic studies in duckweed. We developed a fast and efficient method for producing Lemna minor stable transgenic fronds via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regeneration from tissue culture. Additionally, we engineered an artificial microRNA (amiRNA) gene silencing system. We identified a Lemna gibba endogenous miR166 precursor and used it as a backbone to produce amiRNAs. As a proof of concept we induced the silencing of CH42, a magnesium chelatase subunit, using our amiRNA platform. Expression of CH42 in transgenic L. minor fronds was significantly reduced, which resulted in reduction of chlorophyll pigmentation. The techniques presented here will enable tackling future challenges in the biology and biotechnology of Lemnaceae.
    Plant Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reabsorption is a phase of nectar dynamics that occurs concurrently with secretion; it has been described in floral nectaries that exude nectar through stomata or unicellular trichomes, but has not yet been recorded in extrafloral glands. Apparently, nectar reabsorption does not occur in multicellular secretory trichomes (MST) due to the presence of lipophilic impregnations – which resemble Casparian strips – in the anticlinal walls of the stalk cells. It has been assumed that these impregnations restrict solute movement within MST to occur unidirectionally and exclusively by the symplast, thereby preventing nectar reflux toward the underlying nectary tissues. We hypothesised that reabsorption is absent in nectaries possessing MST. The fluorochrome lucifer yellow (LYCH) was applied to standing nectar of two floral and extrafloral glands of distantly related species, and then emission spectra from nectary sections were systematically analysed using confocal microscopy. Passive uptake of LYCH via the stalk cells to the nectary tissues occurred in all MST examined. Moreover, we present evidence of nectar reabsorption in extrafloral nectaries, demonstrating that LYCH passed the stalk cells of MST, although it did not reach the deepest nectary tissues. Identical (control) experiments performed with neutral red (NR) demonstrated no uptake of this stain by actively secreting MST, whereas diffusion of NR did occur in plasmolysed MST of floral nectaries at the post-secretory phase, indicating that nectar reabsorption by MST is governed by stalk cell physiology. Interestingly, non-secretory trichomes failed to reabsorb nectar. The role of various nectary components is discussed in relation to the control of nectar reabsorption by secretory trichomes.
    Plant Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Plant responses to elevated CO2 and high temperature are critically regulated through a complex network of phytohormones and redox homeostasis. However, the involvement of abscisic acid (ABA) in plant adaptation to heat stress under elevated CO2 conditions has not been thoroughly studied. This study investigated the interactive effects of elevated CO2 (800 μmol·mol−1) and heat stress (42 °C for 24 h) on the endogenous level of ABA and the cellular redox state of two genotypes of tomato with different ABA biosynthesis capacities. Heat stress significantly decreased maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and leaf water potential, but also increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage (EL) in both genotypes. Heat-induced damage was more severe in the ABA-deficient mutant notabilis (not) than in its parental cultivar Ailsa Craig (Ailsa), suggesting that a certain level of endogenous ABA is required to minimise the heat-induced oxidative damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. Irrespective of genotype, the enrichment of CO2 remarkably stimulated Fv/Fm, MDA and EL in heat-stressed plants towards enhanced tolerance. In addition, elevated CO2 significantly strengthened the antioxidant capacity of heat-stressed tomato seedlings towards a reduced cellular redox state for a prolonged period, thereby mitigating oxidative stress. However, elevated CO2 and heat stress did not alter the endogenous level of ABA or the expression of its biosynthetic gene NCED2 in either genotype, indicating that ABA is not involved in elevated CO2-induced heat stress alleviation. The results of this study suggest that elevated CO2 alleviated heat stress through efficient regulation of the cellular redox poise in an ABA-independent manner in tomato plants.
    Plant Biology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Significant inter- and intraspecific genetic variation exists in duckweed, thus the potential for genome plasticity and manipulation is high. Polyploidy is recognised as a major mechanism of adaptation and speciation in plants. We produced several genome-duplicated lines of Landoltia punctata (Spirodela oligorrhiza) from both whole plants and regenerating explants using a colchicine-based cocktail. These lines stably maintained an enlarged frond and root morphology. DNA ploidy levels determined by florescence-activated cell sorting indicated genome duplication. Line A4 was analysed after 75 biomass doublings. Frond area, fresh and dry weights, rhizoid number and length were significantly increased versus wild type, while the growth rate was unchanged. This resulted in accumulation of biomass 17–20% faster in the A4 plants. We sought to determine if specific differences in gene products are found in the genome duplicated lines. Non-targeted ultra performance LC-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry was employed to compare some of the lines and the wild type to seek identification of up-regulated metabolites. We putatively identified differential metabolites in Line A65 as caffeoyl hexoses. The combination of directed genome duplication and metabolic profiling might offer a path for producing stable gene expression, leading to altered production of secondary metabolites.
    Plant Biology 07/2014;

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