European Journal of Nutrition Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Springer Verlag

Journal description

The European Journal of Nutrition publishes original papers invited reviews and short communications in nutritional sciences. The major focus of manuscripts submitted to the Eur J Nutr should consequently be on: cellular and molecular aspects of nutrition mechanistic studies on interactions between nutrients and non-nutrient food components on cell organ and body functions epidemiology with emphasis on the use of biomarkers nutrient metabolism in humans studies on the relation between individual genetic susceptibility nutrition and disease regulation of gene expression through nutrients or non-nutrient food components Animal nutrition studies will only be considered for publication if a strong relation to actual problems in human nutrition is presented. Indexing and Abstract Services

Current impact factor: 3.84

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 3.84
2012 Impact Factor 3.127
2011 Impact Factor 2.75
2010 Impact Factor 3.343
2009 Impact Factor 2.866
2008 Impact Factor 1.899
2007 Impact Factor 2.098
2006 Impact Factor 2.356
2005 Impact Factor 2.257
2004 Impact Factor 2.098
2003 Impact Factor 1.684
2002 Impact Factor 1.644
2001 Impact Factor 2.13
2000 Impact Factor 2.059

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 3.15
Cited half-life 5.60
Immediacy index 0.72
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.83
Website European Journal of Nutrition website
Other titles European journal of nutrition (Online)
ISSN 1436-6215
OCLC 42848305
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

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    • Author's pre-print on pre-print servers such as arXiv.org
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on any open access repository after 12 months after publication
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version (see policy)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bioavailability is a critical feature in the assessment of the role of micronutrients in human health. Poorly bioavailable micronutrients like carotenoids may reach significant concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract where they may exert biological actions. We evaluated a simple collection protocol to determine vitamin A, E and carotenoids in microsamples of human faeces as a non-invasive approach for nutritional studies. Microsamples of human faeces were collected using a commercially available device, extracted and analysed on two LC systems. Suitability of the protocol was assessed by evaluating several factors including the effect of simulated colonic conditions and two nutritional scenarios with different dietary components, chemical forms, nutritional goals and target groups. The protocol was reproducible and representative of a faeces sample. The major dietary and serum carotenoids, and several "unidentified" compounds (possibly metabolites) could be detected, and cis-/trans-β-carotene profile reflected dietary intervention. In faeces of neonates, free retinol, retinyl and α-tocopheryl acetate (from infant formula), long-chain fatty acid retinyl esters (from human milk), free γ-tocopherol and α-tocopherol could be detected. Our results show that the analysis of vitamin A, E and carotenoids in microsamples of human faeces is a suitable, non-invasive approach that may provide relevant information regarding responsiveness, nutrient stability and metabolism and may help assess adequacy of chemical forms and delivery systems reaching the colon.
    European Journal of Nutrition 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-0939-5
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to: (1) demonstrate an updated method for estimating flavonoid intake of US adults by combining USDA flavonoid databases and NHANES food consumption data; (2) document the intake and major food sources of flavonoids among US adults; and (3) determine whether the intake and major sources of dietary flavonoids have changed during the past decade in the USA. A cross-sectional population-based study. Differences over time in the average daily intake and food sources of flavonoids were estimated using food consumption data from NHANES 1999-2002 (n = 8833) and 2007-2010 (n = 9801). The total flavonoid intake of US adults aged 19 years and older remained unchanged between 1999-2002 (201.9 mg/d) and 2007-2010 (200.1 mg/d), with tea being the top food source of flavonoids. However, intake of anthocyanidins increased during this period, mainly due to greater consumption of berries and wine, which was consistent with the increase in per capita consumption of these foods based on USDA food availability data. The results of this study provide updated information on flavonoid intake and food contributors and warrant further studies on the health implications of flavonoid intake.
    European Journal of Nutrition 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-0942-x
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, adrenomedullin (ADM) was defined as a new member of the adipokine family. ADM secreted by adipocytes, through its vasodilator and antioxidant actions, might be protective against metabolic syndrome-associated cardiovascular complications. The aim of the study was to assess plasma mid-regional (MR)-proADM levels in obese adolescents compared to normal-weight subjects and its relation with BMI, body composition and metabolic indices. Plasma MR-proADM was measured in 32 healthy adolescents [BMI z-score (mean ± SEM) = 0.6 ± 0.09 and 0.8 ± 0.07 in females and males, respectively] and in 51 age-matched obese adolescents [BMI z-score (mean ± SEM) = 2.8 ± 0.12 and 2.9 ± 0.08 in female and males, respectively] by a time-resolved amplified cryptate emission technology assay. Plasma MR-proADM levels resulted significantly higher in obese than in normal-weight adolescents (MR-proADM: 0.33 ± 0.1 vs 0.40 ± 0.1 nmol/L, p < 0.0001). Using univariate analysis, we observed that MR-proADM correlated significantly with BMI z-score (p < 0.0001), fat mass (p < 0.0001), circulating insulin (p < 0.004), HOMA-IR (p < 0.005), total cholesterol (p < 0.03) and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05). Including MR-proADM as response variable and its significant correlates into a multiple regression analysis, we observed that fat mass (p = 0.014) and BMI z-score (p = 0.036) were independent determinants of circulating MR-proADM. Our study shows for the first time that obese adolescents have higher circulating levels of MR-proADM compared with normal-weight, appropriate controls suggesting its important involvement in obese patients.
    European Journal of Nutrition 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-0938-6
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    ABSTRACT: To measure the iodine status and iodine intake of New Zealand adults 18-64 years of age following mandatory fortification of bread with iodine. A cross-sectional survey of NZ adults living in Dunedin and Wellington during February-November 2012. Three hundred and one men and women aged 18-64 years randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll completed a 24-h urine collection, a demographic and iodine-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and had height and weight measured. Urine collections were analysed for iodine and reported as median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) µg/L and median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) µg/day. The FFQ was used to estimate iodine intake with and without discretionary iodised salt use. The median UIC for all adults was 73 µg/L, indicative of mild iodine deficiency. The mean urinary volume was 2.0 L. As an estimate of iodine intake, the median UIE was 127 µg/day. Estimated iodine intake, using the FFQ which included discretionary iodised salt use, was 132 µg/day. Iodine intakes were associated with UIC (P = 0.040) and UIE (P = 0.003), but not with bread iodine intake and iodised salt use. Using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD target for iodine sufficiency (a UIC of >100 µg/L) based on school-aged children with a mean urinary volume of 1.0 L, the iodine status of NZ adults does not reach adequate levels (73 µg/L). A more realistic parameter in a population with a higher urinary volume excretion (2.0 L) is the UIE. A median UIE of 127 µg/day suggests that the iodine status of NZ adults is now likely to be adequate.
    European Journal of Nutrition 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-0933-y
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    ABSTRACT: Tamoxifen has been used for the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers and in women who are at an increased risk of breast cancer. Acquired resistance to this drug and its toxicity still pose a clinically significant problem, especially in the prevention setting. Isothiocyanates present in cruciferous plants, such as sulforaphane or erucin, have been shown to reduce growth of breast cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we explored their ability to sensitize cancer cells to 4-hydroxytamoxifen. We used three ER-positive breast cancer cell lines, T47D, MCF-7 and BT-474, as well as the drug-resistant T47D and MCF-7 derivatives. We examined the effect of 4-hydroxytamoxifen, isothiocyanates and their combinations on cell viability by MTT and clonogenic assays. Impact of treatments on the levels of proteins engaged in apoptosis and autophagy was determined by Western blotting. Isothiocyanates act in a synergistic way with 4-hydroxytamoxifen, and co-treatment reduces breast cancer cell viability and clonogenic potential more effectively than treatment with any single agent. This is connected with a drop in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and the level of survivin as well as increased PARP cleavage, and elevation in ADRP, the mitochondrial stress marker. Moreover, isothiocyanates sensitize 4-hydroxytamoxifen-resistant T47D and MCF-7 cells to the drug. Isothiocyanates enhance response to 4-hydroxytamoxifen, which allows for reduction of the effective drug concentration. Combinatorial strategy may hold promise in development of therapies and chemoprevention strategies against ER-positive breast tumors, even those with acquired resistance to the drug.
    European Journal of Nutrition 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-0930-1
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Vitamin B6 status in the body is affected by several factors including dietary supply of the antivitamin B6 factor, 1-amino D-proline (1ADP) which is present in flaxseed. Owing to the prevalence of moderate B6 deficiency in the general population, a co-occurrence of 1ADP may lead to a further deterioration of B6 status. To this end, we applied a non-targeted metabolomics approach to identify potential plasma lipophilic-biomarkers of deleterious effect of 1ADP on moderately vitamin B6-deficient rats using a high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS). Methods: Twenty-four rats were fed with a semi-purified diet containing pyridoxine∙HCl (PN∙HCl) either 7mg/kg diet (optimal B6) or 0.7mg/kg diet (moderate B6). The rats were divided into four treatments (n=6), and one treatment in each diet group was also fed ad libitum with 10mg/kg diet of synthetic 1ADP. After 5 weeks of study, plasma was collected from the rats and lipophilic-metabolites were extracted using acetonitrile as a solvent for analysis. Results: Ten potential plasma lipophilic-biomarkers were identified out of >2500 detected entities which showed significant differences between the treatments. Plasma glycocholic acid glycoursodeoxycholic acid, murocholic acid, N-docosahexaenoyl GABA, N-arachidonoyl GABA, lumula, nandrolone and orthothymotinic acid concentrations were significantly elevated while plasma cystamine and 3-methyleneoxindole concentrations were significantly reduced as a result of either low B6 status or 1ADP or their interaction. Conclusion: Changes in these metabolites revealed a potential defect in pathways linked with the biosynthesis and metabolism of bile acid components, N-acyl amino acids, analgenic androgens, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective molecules. We also noted that the changes in these biomarkers can be alleviated by the application of adequate vitamin B6.
    European Journal of Nutrition 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-0934-x
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of the consumption of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from bread crust (BC) on iron, copper and zinc body retention and tissue distribution, determining whether these effects are related to the molecular weight of browning products. During an 88-day study period, rats were fed a Control diet or diets containing BC as source of MRPs, its soluble high or low molecular weight fractions (BC, LMW or HMW diets). A mineral balance was conducted throughout the experiment to determine iron, copper and zinc retention. At day 88, animals were killed, blood was drawn for haemoglobin determination and some organs removed to analyse minerals. Copper and zinc balances were unchanged, and scant modification detected in their body delivery. However, the Fe retention rate from the diet increased (13, 22 and 32 % for BC, LMW and HMW diets), and a parallel higher Fe body concentration was observed (13-18 % higher than the Control group). Incoming iron accumulated particularly in the liver, femur and small intestine, but functional iron tended to decrease, as reflected by haemoglobin levels. The long-term intake of BC or derivatives did not produce a notable effect on copper or zinc balances, although slightly increased iron retention rate and the body concentration of this mineral were observed. Iron accumulated in some organs, but the production of haemoglobin was not improved. In view of the differences observed between the effects of BC and its derivatives, our results underline the importance of working with real food matrices, where the joint presence of different components modulates the in vivo final effects.
    European Journal of Nutrition 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-0935-9
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    ABSTRACT: Using ob/ob mice as a model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we investigated the effect of moderate alcohol intake on the development of NAFLD and molecular mechanisms involved. Ob/ob mice were fed water or ethanol solution (2.5 g/kg body weight/day) for 6 weeks, and markers of liver injury, insulin signalling and adiponectin in visceral adipose tissue were determined. Whereas bodyweight and the degree of liver steatosis did not differ among ob/ob mouse groups, those consuming ethanol had markedly less macrovesicular hepatic fat accumulation, inflammatory alterations and significantly lower transaminase levels. Despite similarly elevated protein levels of tumour necrosis factor α, protein concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 were significantly lower in livers of ob/ob mice consuming ethanol in comparison with controls. The hepato-protective property of moderate alcohol ingestion in ob/ob mice was associated with an induction of the sirtuin-1/adiponectin-signalling cascade in visceral fat tissue and an activation of Akt in the liver. Similar effects of moderate alcohol exposure were also found in vitro in 3T3-L1 and AML-12 cells. These data suggest that moderate alcohol intake may diminish the development of NAFLD through sirtuin-1/-adiponectin-dependent signalling cascades.
    European Journal of Nutrition 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-0929-7
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of a moderate physical training (T) on the blood and splenic lymphocytes subsets and the rate of apoptosis in adult offspring submitted to perinatal low-protein (LP) diet. Male Wistar rats were divided according to their mother's diet: control (C, 17 % casein) and undernourished (LP, 8 % casein). At the 60th day, pups were submitted to moderate physical training (8 weeks, 5 days week(-1), 60 min day(-1), at 70 % of VO2max). After T period, pups received an injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). B, NK, and TCD3+ lymphocytes subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Spleen lymphocytes apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation, phosphatidylserine externalization (PSE), and mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization (MTD) using a flow cytometer. Plasma TNF-α concentrations were analyzed by ELISA. LP + LPS pups showed a higher percentage of blood B, CD4+, and NK and a reduction in TCD3+, CD8+ than C pups. The percentage of NK and CD3+ was restored in LP + T + LPS pups. In the spleen, T normalized the percentage of NK in LP + LPS pups. LP + LPS pups showed a higher percentage of cells with PSE and MTD than C + LPS pups that was attenuated by T. The concentration of TNF-α was higher in LP + LPS than C + LPS, but it was attenuated in LP + T + LPS pups. Moderate physical training was able to revert the effects of perinatal LP diet on circulation lymphocytes subsets and attenuated splenic lymphocytes apoptosis and plasma TNF-α concentrations.
    European Journal of Nutrition 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-0925-y
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    ABSTRACT: This randomised controlled trial assessed the acute and long-term effects of daily supplementation of kanuka honey, formulated with cinnamon, chromium and magnesium on glucose metabolism, weight and lipid parameters in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Twelve individuals with type 2 diabetes received 53.5 g of a formulated honey and a control (non-formulated) kanuka honey in a random order for 40 days, using cross-over design. Fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, lipids and anthropometric measures were measured at baseline and end of treatment. A meal tolerance test was performed at baseline to assess acute metabolic response. There was no statistically significant difference in acute glucose metabolism between treatment groups, as measured by the Matsuda index and AUC for glucose and insulin. After the 40-day intervention with honey, fasting glucose did not differ significantly between the two treatments (95 % CI -2.6 to 0.07). There was no statistically significant change in HbA1c or fasting insulin. There was a statistically significant reduction in total cholesterol by -0.29 mmol/L (95 % CI -0.57 to -0.23), LDL cholesterol by -0.29 mmol/L (95 % CI -0.57 to -0.23) and weight by -2.2 kg (95 % CI -4.2 to -0.1). There was a trend towards increased HDL and reduced systolic blood pressure in the intervention treatment. The addition of cinnamon, chromium and magnesium supplementation to kanuka honey was not associated with a significant improvement in glucose metabolism or glycaemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Use of the formulated honey was associated with a reduction in weight and improvements in lipid parameters, and should be investigated further.
    European Journal of Nutrition 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-0926-x
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    ABSTRACT: Functional gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, distension, constipation, diarrhea and flatulence have been noted in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The diversity of symptoms has meant that finding an effective treatment has been challenging with most treatments alleviating only the primary symptom. A novel treatment option for IBS and IBD currently generating much excitement is the low fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyol (FODMAP) diet. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the evidence of the efficacy of such a diet in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal symptoms. Electronic databases were searched through to March 2015 to identify relevant studies. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated for the effect of a low FODMAP diet on the reduction in IBS [Symptoms Severity Score (SSS)] score and increase in IBS quality of life (QOL) score for both randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and non-randomized interventions using a random-effects model. Six RCTs and 16 non-randomized interventions were included in the analysis. There was a significant decrease in IBS SSS scores for those individuals on a low FODMAP diet in both the RCTs (OR 0.44, 95 % CI 0.25-0.76; I (2) = 35.52, p = 0.00) and non-randomized interventions (OR 0.03, 95 % CI 0.01-0.2; I (2) = 69.1, p = 0.02). In addition, there was a significant improvement in the IBS-QOL score for RCTs (OR 1.84, 95 % CI 1.12-3.03; I (2) = 0.00, p = 0.39) and for non-randomized interventions (OR 3.18, 95 % CI 1.60-6.31; I (2) = 0.00, p = 0.89). Further, following a low FODMAP diet was found to significantly reduce symptom severity for abdominal pain (OR 1.81, 95 % CI 1.13-2.88; I (2) = 0.00, p = 0.56), bloating (OR 1.75, 95 % CI 1.07-2.87; I (2) = 0.00, p = 0.45) and overall symptoms (OR 1.81, 95 % CI 1.11-2.95; I (2) = 0.00, p = 0.4) in the RCTs. In the non-randomized interventions similar findings were observed. The present meta-analysis supports the efficacy of a low FODMAP diet in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal symptoms. Further research should ensure studies include dietary adherence, and more studies looking at greater number of patients and long-term adherence to a low FODMAP diet need to be conducted.
    European Journal of Nutrition 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-0922-1
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    ABSTRACT: The aim was to investigate the impact of hypercholesterolemic diet on the metabolome of male Wistar rats by a multiplatform metabolomic fingerprinting. Male Wistar rats were fed with two different diets [control (C) and high-cholesterol diet (HC)-containing 2 % cholesterol and 0.5 % cholic acid]. After 7 weeks of experimental feeding, the rats were euthanized for blood collection and plasma recovery. The metabolite fingerprint was then achieved by applying a multiplatform comprising LC-MS, GC-MS and CE-MS. Multivariate statistical analysis showed a clear separation between the C and HC groups. Individual differences in metabolites were evaluated using univariate statistical analysis, and multiple metabolites were identified and confirmed in the plasma. A global profiling integrates for the first time pathways affected by high-cholesterol diet intake and allowed us to elucidate some of the associated alterations underlying the hypercholesterolemia event in Wistar rats. HC feeding stimulated the alteration of multiple pathways in Wistar rats, warning of the risk of developing important diseases, which can be modulated by the diet. Further studies are required to investigate the possibilities to revert or ameliorate the negative effects triggered by HC intake.
    European Journal of Nutrition 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-0914-1
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    ABSTRACT: Walnuts contain several bioactive compounds, including pedunculagin, a polyphenol metabolized by microbiota to form urolithins, namely urolithin A (UA). The aim of this study was to determine gene expression changes in prostate cancer cells after incubation with UA. We performed a genomic analysis to study the effect of UA on LNCaP prostate cells. Cells were incubated with 40 µM UA for 24 h, and RNA was extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix Human Genome U219 array. Microarray results were analyzed using GeneSpring v13 software. Differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05, fold change > 2) were used to perform biological association networks. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry and apoptosis measured by the rhodamine method and by caspases 3 and 7 activation. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. We identified two nodes, FN-1 and CDKN1A, among the differentially expressed genes upon UA treatment. CDKN1A was validated, its mRNA and protein levels were significantly up-regulated, and the promoter activation measured by luciferase. Cell cycle analysis showed an increase in G1-phase, and we also observed an induction of apoptosis and caspases 3 and 7 activation upon UA treatment. Our results indicate a potential role of UA as a chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer.
    European Journal of Nutrition 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-0924-z
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    ABSTRACT: Decreased smell could cause appetite suppression and malnutrition. However, there is a paucity of longitudinal data between olfaction and nutritional status in older adults. We aimed to prospectively examine the relationship between olfactory impairment and overall diet quality (reflecting adherence to dietary guidelines) in a population-based cohort of older adults. We used 5-year follow-up data from 557 adults (aged 60+ years at baseline) whose olfaction was measured using the San Diego Odor Identification Test (SDOIT). Dietary data were collected using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. A total diet score (TDS) was calculated for intake of selected food groups and nutrients for each participant as described in the national dietary guidelines. Final scores ranged from 0 to 20; higher scores indicated closer adherence to dietary guidelines. After adjusting for all potential confounders, older adults with moderate/severe olfactory impairment (SDOIT score ≤ 3; lower scores indicate impairment) compared with those with no olfactory impairment had significantly lower adjusted mean (±SE) TDS, 9.09 (0.40) versus 9.94 (0.10), p = 0.04. Women with moderate/severe impaired olfaction (i.e., scored poorly on the odor identification test) compared with those with normal olfaction had significantly lower adjusted mean TDS, 8.87 (0.69) versus 10.31 (0.13), p = 0.04. No associations were observed between olfaction and TDS in men. Olfactory impairment in older women could signal an increased risk of poorer diet quality, defined as adherence to national dietary guidelines. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to confirm or refute the observed link between olfactory loss and overall patterns of food intake in older adults.
    European Journal of Nutrition 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-0921-2
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    ABSTRACT: High phosphorus content in the diet may have adverse effect on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether the New Nordic Diet (NND), based mainly on local, organic and less processed food and large amounts of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain and fish, versus an Average Danish Diet (ADD) would reduce the phosphorus load due to less phosphorus-containing food additives, animal protein and more plant-based proteins. Phosphorus and creatinine were measured in plasma and urine at baseline, week 12 and week 26 in 132 centrally obese subjects with normal renal function as part of a post hoc analysis of data acquired from a 26-week controlled trial. We used the fractional phosphorus excretion as a measurement of phosphorus absorption. Mean baseline fractional phosphorus excretion was 20.9 ± 6.6 % in the NND group (n = 82) and 20.8 ± 5.5 % in the ADD group (n = 50) and was decreased by 2.8 ± 5.1 and 3.1 ± 5.4 %, respectively, (p = 0.6) at week 26. At week 26, the mean change in plasma phosphorus was 0.04 ± 0.12 mmol/L in the NND group and -0.03 ± 0.13 mmol/L in the ADD group (p = 0.001). Mean baseline phosphorus intake was 1950 ± 16 mg/10 MJ in the NND group and 1968 ± 22 mg/10 MJ in the ADD group and decreased less in the NND compared to the ADD (67 ± 36 mg/10 MJ and -266 ± 45 mg/day, respectively, p < 0.298). Contrary to expectations, the NND had a high phosphorus intake and did not decrease the fractional phosphorus excretion compared with ADD. Further modifications of the diet are needed in order to make this food concept beneficial regarding phosphorus absorption.
    European Journal of Nutrition 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-0913-2