European Journal of Nutrition Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Springer Verlag

Journal description

The European Journal of Nutrition publishes original papers invited reviews and short communications in nutritional sciences. The major focus of manuscripts submitted to the Eur J Nutr should consequently be on: cellular and molecular aspects of nutrition mechanistic studies on interactions between nutrients and non-nutrient food components on cell organ and body functions epidemiology with emphasis on the use of biomarkers nutrient metabolism in humans studies on the relation between individual genetic susceptibility nutrition and disease regulation of gene expression through nutrients or non-nutrient food components Animal nutrition studies will only be considered for publication if a strong relation to actual problems in human nutrition is presented. Indexing and Abstract Services

Current impact factor: 3.47

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 3.467
2013 Impact Factor 3.84
2012 Impact Factor 3.127
2011 Impact Factor 2.75
2010 Impact Factor 3.343
2009 Impact Factor 2.866
2008 Impact Factor 1.899
2007 Impact Factor 2.098
2006 Impact Factor 2.356
2005 Impact Factor 2.257
2004 Impact Factor 2.098
2003 Impact Factor 1.684
2002 Impact Factor 1.644
2001 Impact Factor 2.13
2000 Impact Factor 2.059

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 3.26
Cited half-life 4.80
Immediacy index 0.93
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.85
Website European Journal of Nutrition website
Other titles European journal of nutrition (Online)
ISSN 1436-6215
OCLC 42848305
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

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  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Weng-Yew Wong · Leigh C Ward · Chee Wai Fong · Wei Ney Yap · Lindsay Brown
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that γ- and δ-tocotrienols are more effective than α-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol in attenuating the signs of diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Methods: Five groups of rats were fed a corn starch-rich (C) diet containing 68 % carbohydrates as polysaccharides, while the other five groups were fed a diet (H) high in simple carbohydrates (fructose and sucrose in food, 25 % fructose in drinking water, total 68 %) and fats (beef tallow, total 24 %) for 16 weeks. Separate groups from each diet were supplemented with either α-, γ-, δ-tocotrienol or α-tocopherol (85 mg/kg/day) for the final 8 of the 16 weeks. Results: H rats developed visceral obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, cardiovascular remodelling and fatty liver. α-Tocopherol, α-, γ- and δ-tocotrienols reduced collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart. Only γ- and δ-tocotrienols improved cardiovascular function and normalised systolic blood pressure compared to H rats. Further, δ-tocotrienol improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and abdominal adiposity. In the liver, these interventions reduced lipid accumulation, inflammatory infiltrates and plasma liver enzyme activities. Tocotrienols were measured in heart, liver and adipose tissue showing that chronic oral dosage delivered tocotrienols to these organs despite low or no detection of tocotrienols in plasma. Conclusion: In rats, δ-tocotrienol improved inflammation, heart structure and function, and liver structure and function, while γ-tocotrienol produced more modest improvements, with minimal changes with α-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol. The most important mechanism of action is likely to be reduction in organ inflammation.
    European Journal of Nutrition 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-1064-1
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Increased awareness of the importance of dietary fibre has led to increased interest in "functional" fibre components like digestion-resistant maltodextrin (RMD). This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study assessed the effects of RMD in the colonic transit time (CTT) and defecation characteristics (frequency, stool volume and consistency). Methods: Sixty-six healthy adult volunteers (32 men) who did not have a daily defecation habit had a 7-day run-in period before the 21-day intervention period with RMD or placebo. CTT and segmental CTT (SCTT) were assessed by a single abdominal X-ray film taken at the end of both periods after radiopaque marker ingestion. Defecation characteristics and intestinal functions were also assessed, which were self-reported by patients. Intragroup comparisons were evaluated by Student's paired t test, Bonferroni test and Chi-square test, while time comparisons by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and time-by-treatment interaction by repeated-measures ANOVA. Results: Fifty-seven subjects were assessed for CTT (placebo, n = 28; RMD, n = 29). In the RMD group, the total CTT, left SCTT and rectosigmoidal SCTT decreased significantly compared to baseline (p < 0.01 each; -13.3, -4.7, -8.7 h, respectively). Significant differences between groups were observed in total CTT and left SCTT. Significant time-by-treatment interaction was observed in the RMD group for stool volume (p = 0.014), increasing 56 % compared to baseline (p < 0.01), while remained unchanged in the placebo group. Stool consistency was improved only in the RMD group (p < 0.01). No adverse effects related to study products were observed. Conclusions: The results show that RMD improved CTT, stool volume, stool consistency and some intestinal functions in a healthy population.
    European Journal of Nutrition 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-1045-4
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Milk protein ingestion reduces post-meal glycemia when consumed either before or together with carbohydrate foods. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of dairy and soy milk consumed either before (preload) or together with (co-ingestion) a carbohydrate (bread), on postprandial blood glucose, insulin and gastric emptying in healthy participants. Methods: Twelve healthy Chinese male participants were studied on five separate occasions using a randomized crossover design. White wheat bread consumed with water was used as a reference meal. Capillary and venous bloods were sampled pretest and 3.5 h post-test meal for glucose and insulin measurement. Gastric emptying was measured using real-time ultrasonography. Results: Co-ingestion of dairy milk or soy milk with bread lowered postprandial blood glucose response and glycemic index. Co-ingesting soy milk with bread increased insulin response and insulinemic index significantly compared to co-ingestion of dairy milk and preload treatments. Preloads (30 min prior to bread) significantly lowered postprandial glycemia and insulinemia compared to co-ingestion. Gastric emptying was slower after co-ingesting dairy milk with bread than after reference meal. Conclusions: Preloading either soy milk or dairy milk results in greater reduction in glycemic response compared to co-ingestion alone. This dietary practice may have therapeutic advantage in communities consuming high GI diets. Optimal glucose control may have the potential for increasing the time of transition from prediabetes to type 2 diabetes in Asian communities. Clinical trial registration: This trial was registered at as NCT 02151188.
    European Journal of Nutrition 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-1059-y
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To date, several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown phenolic compounds occurring naturally in olives and olive oil to be beneficial for human health due to their interaction with intracellular signaling pathways. However, the bioavailability of the most important of these compounds, hydroxytyrosol, and its transformation into derivatives within the organism after oral intake are still not completely understood, requiring further in vivo research. This study deals with the differential bioavailability and metabolism of oral hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives in rats. Methods Hydroxytyrosol (HT), hydroxytyrosol acetate (HTA), and 2,3-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were administered at doses of 1 and 5 mg/kg to Sprage-Dawley rats (n=9 per treatment) by oral gavage. Their plasma kinetics and absorption ratio, assessed as their excretion in 24-h urine, were determined by UHPLC/MS/MS. Results Plasma and urine levels indicated that although the three compounds are efficiently absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and show similar metabolism, the bioavailability is strongly dependent on the derivative considered, dosage, and gender. Inter-conversion among them has been described also, suggesting an interaction with internal routes. Microbiota metabolites derived from these phenolics were also taken into account; thereby, homovanillic alcohol and tyrosol (Tyr) were identified and quantified in urine samples after enzymatic de-conjugation, concluding the metabolic profile of hydroxytyrosol. Conclusions Our results suggest that different dosages of HT, HTA, and DOPAC do not provide a linear, dose-dependent plasma concentration or excretion in urine, both of which can be affected by the saturation of first-phase metabolic processes and intestinal transporters.
    European Journal of Nutrition 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-1071-2
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The consumption of refined, fructose-enriched food continuously increases and has been linked to development of obesity, especially in young population. Low-grade inflammation and increased oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders including type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined alterations in inflammation and antioxidative defense system in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of fructose-fed young female rats, and related them to changes in adiposity and insulin sensitivity. Methods: We examined the effects of 9-week fructose-enriched diet applied immediately after weaning on nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) intracellular distribution, and on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα) and key antioxidative enzymes in the VAT of female rats. Insulin signaling in the VAT was evaluated at the level of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) protein and its inhibitory phosphorylation on Ser(307). Results: Fructose-fed rats had increased VAT mass along with increased NF-κB nuclear accumulation and elevated IL-1β, but not TNFα expression. The protein levels of antioxidative defense enzymes, mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase 2, and glutathione peroxidase, were reduced, while the protein content of IRS-1 and its inhibitory phosphorylation were not altered by fructose diet. Conclusions: The results suggest that fructose overconsumption-related alterations in pro-inflammatory markers and antioxidative capacity in the VAT of young female rats can be implicated in the development of adiposity, but do not affect inhibitory phosphorylation of IRS-1.
    European Journal of Nutrition 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-1065-0
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Over the past few decades, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has gained special attention for management of cholesterol-associated metabolic disorders and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) owing to its neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic properties. Several epidemiological studies have reported the effect of DHA in reducing the risk of developing AD by lowering cholesterol. Hypercholesterolemia is a pro-amyloidogenic factor influencing the enzymatic processing of amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) to toxic β-amyloid. However, the mechanism by which DHA modulates the cholesterol pathway has not been established. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of regulation of cholesterol metabolism by DHA in an AβPP695 overexpressing AD cell model. Methods: A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the targeted profiling of 11 cholesterol metabolites in DHA-treated Chinese hamster ovary wild-type (CHO-wt) and AβPP695 overexpressing (CHO-AβPP695) cells. The differential metabolite profiles between DHA- and vehicle-treated groups were further analyzed using fold change values of the ratio of concentration of metabolites in CHO-AβPP695 to CHO-wt cells. Effect of DHA on key rate-limiting enzymatic activities within the cholesterol pathway was established using biochemical assays. Results: Our results showed that DHA reduced the levels of key cholesterol anabolites and catabolites in CHO-AβPP695 cells as compared to CHO-wt cells. Further enzymatic studies revealed that the cholesterol-lowering effect of DHA was mediated by regulating HMG-CoA reductase and squalene epoxidase enzyme activities. Conclusion: We demonstrate for the first time the dual effects of DHA in inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and squalene epoxidase and modulating the sterol biosynthesis axis of the cholesterol pathway in AβPP695 overexpressing AD. Our novel findings underscore the potential of DHA as a multi-target hypocholesterolemic agent for the prophylaxis of AD and other cholesterol-associated diseases.
    European Journal of Nutrition 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-1053-4
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Infants on prolonged breastfeeding are known to grow slower during the first year of life. It is still unclear if such effects are similar in offspring exposed to gestational diabetes (GDM) in utero. We examined the associations of infant milk feeding on postnatal growth from birth till 36 months of age in offspring exposed and unexposed to GDM. Methods: Pregnant mothers undertook 75 g 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests at 26-28 weeks of gestation for GDM diagnosis. Up to 9 measurements of offspring weight and length were collected from birth till 36 months, and interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to ascertain the duration of breastfeeding. Results: There was a statistically significant interaction between GDM status and breastmilk intake by any (p interaction = 0.038) or exclusive/predominant breastfeeding (p interaction = 0.035) for the outcome of conditional weight gain. In offspring of non-GDM mothers (n = 835), greater breastmilk intake (BF ≥ 4 milk months) was associated with lower conditional gains in weight [B (95 % CI) -0.48 (-0.58, -0.28); p < 0.001] within the first year of life, as well as decreasing weight SDS velocity [-0.01 (-0.02, -0.005); p < 0.001] and BMI SDS velocity [-0.008 (0.01, -0.002); p = 0.008] across age in the first 36 months. In offspring of GDM mothers (n = 181), however, greater breastmilk intake was associated with increased conditional gains in weight [0.72 (0.23, 1.20); p = 0.029] and BMI SDS [0.49 (0.04, 0.95); p = 0.04] in the first 6 months and did not demonstrate the decreasing weight and BMI SDS velocity observed in offspring of non-GDM mothers. Conclusions: The reduced weight gain in the first year of life conferred by greater breastmilk intake in non-GDM children was not observed in GDM children. Clinical trial registration: This study is registered under the Clinical Trials identifier NCT01174875; .
    European Journal of Nutrition 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-1057-0
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: During growth, protein deprivation impairs epiphyseal growth plate (EGP) height, bone volume (BV) and endochondral ossification. During catch-up growth, Ca availability becomes essential to ensure the extra amount needed to achieve optimal peak bone mass and strength. GOS and FOS improve mineral absorption in the colon. Purpose: The effect of a mixture of GOS/FOS(®) 9:1 added to a 0.5 %Ca (NCa) and a 0.3 %Ca (LCa) diets on Ca, P and Mg absorptions and bone mineralization, density and structure using an experimental model of growing rats recovering from early protein malnutrition was investigated. Methods: To induce protein malnutrition, rats were fed a low protein diet: 4 % (LPD) during 1 week and then were randomly assigned to recovery groups (R) until day 50 (T = 50) as follows: R0.5 %: NCa; RP0.5 %: NCa + 5.3 % GOS/FOS(®); R0.3 %: LCa and RP0.3 %: LCa + 5.3 % GOS/FOS(®). Control groups received the 0.5 %Ca or 0.3 %Ca diet from weaning until day 40 or 50. Results: Body weight and length increased in C groups throughout the study; both were arrested in all R during LPD consumption and increased immediately after re-feeding. Independently of dietary Ca content, LS counts, β-glucosidase and Ca, P and Mg absorption increased, whereas cecum pH, β-glucuronidase, urease and tryptophanase decreased in RP0.5 %: and RP0.3 %: as compared to the other studied groups (p < 0.01). Prebiotic consumption decreased CTX levels and increased femur Ca, Mg and P contents, total skeleton bone mineral content, proximal tibia and spine BMD, BV, EGP height and hypertrophic zone thickness, stiffness and elastic modulus as compared to recovery groups fed the prebiotic-free diets. Conclusion: Under the present experimental conditions, GOS/FOS(®) mixture induced colonic positive effects, which increased Ca, P and Mg absorption. Thus, consuming the prebiotic-containing diet resulted in an extra amount of minerals that improved bone development in growing rats recovering from protein malnutrition.
    European Journal of Nutrition 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-1052-5
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: A phytochemical- and mineral-rich filtered sugarcane molasses concentrate (FMC), when added to carbohydrate-containing foods as a functional ingredient, lowers postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses. We hypothesised that this beneficial effect would also occur if FMC was administered as an oral supplement taken before a meal. Methods: This study measured the postprandial glucose and insulin responses elicited by different doses of FMC administered immediately prior to a standard breakfast to healthy subjects. Each subject was given three or five breakfast meals once, on different days. The composition of the meals was identical, except for the addition of either placebo syrup (test meal 1) or increasing doses of FMC (test meals 2-5). Results: The plasma glucose concentration curves were similar for the five test meals. Plasma insulin curves were lowered in a dose-dependent manner. Stratifying subjects based on age, BMI and insulin resistance showed greater effects of low doses of FMC on lowering insulin responses in those subjects with potentially greater insulin resistance. When insulin response is standardised to amount of carbohydrate in the meal/dose combination, the reduction in response is linear and inversely proportional to the FMC dose. Conclusions: FMC shows promise as an agent that can reduce insulin responses and lessen the load on the pancreatic beta cells.
    European Journal of Nutrition 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-1043-6
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Overnutrition during early development has been linked to metabolic disease and obesity in adulthood. Interventions to ameliorate this metabolic malprogramming are needed. Our objective was to determine whether prebiotic fibre would reduce weight gain and improve satiety hormone profiles in rats overnourished during the suckling period. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats reared in small litter (SL 3 pups) or normal litter (NL 12 pups) were randomized at weaning to AIN-93 (control) or a 10 % oligofructose (OFS) diet for 16 weeks. Body composition, an oral glucose tolerance test for glucose and gut hormones, and gut microbiota were assessed. Results: At weaning, body weight was higher in SL than in NL rats (P < 0.03). At 19 weeks, body weight was lower with OFS than control (P < 0.04). There was a diet × litter size interaction wherein OFS in SL rats reduced body fat (%) to levels seen in NL rats (P < 0.05). OFS attenuated the glucose response in SL but not in NL rats (P < 0.015). Independent of litter size, OFS decreased total AUC for glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (P < 0.002) and increased total AUC for peptide YY (P < 0.01) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (P < 0.04) when compared to control. OFS, not litter size, played the predominant role in altering gut microbiota which included increased bifidobacteria and Akkermansia muciniphila with OFS. Conclusions: Postnatal consumption of OFS by rats raised in SL was able to attenuate body fat and glycaemia to levels seen in NL rats. OFS appears to influence satiety hormone and gut microbiota response similarly in overnourished and control rats.
    European Journal of Nutrition 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-1047-2
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Studies in humans suggest that consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets (LC-HF) could be detrimental for growth and bone health. In young male rats, LC-HF diets negatively affect bone health by impairing the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis (GH/IGF axis), while the effects in female rats remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether sex-specific effects of LC-HF diets on bone health exist. Methods: Twelve-week-old male and female Wistar rats were isoenergetically pair-fed either a control diet (CD), "Atkins-style" protein-matched diet (LC-HF-1), or ketogenic low-protein diet (LC-HF-2) for 4 weeks. In females, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry analyses were performed on the distal femur. Sex hormones were analysed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and endocrine parameters including GH and IGF-I were measured by immunoassay. Results: Trabecular bone volume, serum IGF-I and the bone formation marker P1NP were lower in male rats fed both LC-HF diets versus CD. LC-HF diets did not impair bone health in female rats, with no change in trabecular or cortical bone volume nor in serum markers of bone turnover between CD versus both LC-HF diet groups. Pituitary GH secretion was lower in female rats fed LC-HF diet, with no difference in circulating IGF-I. Circulating sex hormone concentrations remained unchanged in male and female rats fed LC-HF diets. Conclusion: A 4-week consumption of LC-HF diets has sex-specific effects on bone health-with no effects in adult female rats yet negative effects in adult male rats. This response seems to be driven by a sex-specific effect of LC-HF diets on the GH/IGF system.
    European Journal of Nutrition 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-1040-9
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Limited data are available indicating the effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on metabolic status of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Purpose: The present study was conducted to determine the effects of CoQ10 administration on glucose homeostasis parameters, lipid profiles, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among patients with MetS. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed among 60 overweight or obese and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with coronary heart disease aged 40-85 years old. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups. Group A (n = 30) received 100 mg CoQ10 supplements and group B (n = 30) received placebo for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study and after 8-week intervention to quantify glucose homeostasis parameters, lipid profiles and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Results: Compared with the placebo, CoQ10 supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in serum insulin levels (-2.1 ± 7.1 vs. +4.1 ± 7.8 µIU/mL, P = 0.002) and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (-0.7 ± 2.1 vs. +1.0 ± 2.0, P = 0.002) and homeostatic model assessment-beta cell function (-5.9 ± 22.2 vs. +15.9 ± 34.0, P = 0.005). In addition, patients who received CoQ10 supplements had a significant increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) concentrations (+26.0 ± 105.0 vs. -162.2 ± 361.8 mmol/L, P = 0.008) compared with the placebo group. However, after adjustment for the baseline levels, age and baseline BMI, the effect on TAC levels (P = 0.08) disappeared. Additionally, compared with the placebo group, a significant positive trends in plasma glutathione (P = 0.06) and a significant reduction in malondialdehyde (P = 0.08) were seen among patients who received CoQ10 supplement. We did not observe any significant changes in fasting plasma glucose, lipid concentrations and inflammatory markers. Conclusions: Overall, daily intake of 100 mg CoQ10 supplements among patients with MetS for 8 weeks had beneficial effects on serum insulin levels, HOMA-IR, HOMA-B and plasma TAC concentrations. Clinical trial registration number: : IRCT201502245623N35.
    European Journal of Nutrition 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-1042-7
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Beneficial effects of green tea (GT) polyphenols against obesity have been reported. However, until this moment the molecular mechanisms of how green tea can modulate obesity and regulates fat metabolism, particularly in adipose tissue, remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of GT extract in the adipose tissue of obese animals and its effect on weight gain, metabolism and function (de novo lipogenesis and lipolysis), and the involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Methods and results: Male Wistar rats were treated with GT by gavage (12 weeks/5 days/week; 500 mg/kg of body weight), and obesity was induced by cafeteria diet (8 weeks). Here, we show that obese rats treated with GT showed a significant reduction in indicators of obesity such as hyperlipidemia, fat synthesis, body weight, and fat depots as compared to those treated with standard control diet. AMPK was induced in adipose tissue in rats that were treated with GT and likely restored insulin sensitivity, increased mRNA expression of GLUT4, reducing the concentrations of plasma and liver lipid content, also stimulating fatty acid oxidation in the same tissue. Importantly, repression of de novo lipogenesis in the adipose tissue, reduced lipid droplets in the liver, and the development of insulin resistance in diet-induced obese rats were accompanied by AMPK activation. Conclusion: Our study identified that metabolic changes caused by GT intake induced AMPK activation and modulate the expression of genes involved in metabolism, particularly in adipose tissue, thus offering a therapeutic strategy to combat insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and obesity in rats.
    European Journal of Nutrition 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-1033-8
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Consuming 30 g of nuts/day is recommended to reduce chronic disease. However, nut consumption appears far from ideal among several populations. A potential strategy to increase consumption is to add nuts to a staple, for example, bread. Whether the health benefits and acceptability of nuts persist in this form is currently unknown. Thus, we examined the effects of consuming three nut-enriched breads on postprandial glycaemia, satiety, gastrointestinal tolerance, dietary intakes, and acceptance. Methods: In this controlled, crossover study, 32 participants were randomly allocated to receive one of four breads for 8 days each. Three breads contained either 30 g of finely sliced hazelnuts, 30 g semi-defatted hazelnut flour, or 15 g of each (amounts per 120 g bread) and were compared with a control nut-free bread. Blood glucose response was measured over 120 min, along with ratings of gastrointestinal discomfort. Appetite ratings and diet diaries were completed during each treatment period. Results: Area under the blood glucose curve was significantly lower for the nut breads compared to the control bread (all P < 0.001), with no significant differences between the nut breads (all P ≥ 0.130). There were no significant differences in satiety (all P ≥ 0.135) or gastrointestinal symptoms (all P ≥ 0.102) between the breads. Acceptance was highest for the finely sliced hazelnut bread. Furthermore, consuming hazelnut-enriched bread improved diet quality, increasing monounsaturated fat, vitamin E, and dietary fibre intakes. Conclusion: Bread appears to be an effective and acceptable vehicle for increasing nut consumption, resulting in improved postprandial glycaemia and diet profiles. Long-term studies are now required.
    European Journal of Nutrition 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-1038-3