Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy (Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc)

Publisher: European Society of Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery and Arthroscopy, Springer Verlag

Journal description

Official journal of the European Society of Sports Traumatology Knee Surgery and Arthroscopy (ESSKA) Few other areas of orthopedic surgery and traumatology have undergone such a dramatic evolution in the last 10 years as knee surgery arthroscopy and sports traumatology. The goal of this European journal is to publish papers about innovative knee surgery sports trauma surgery and arthroscopy. Each issue features a series of peer-reviewed articles that deal with diagnosis and management and with basic research. Each issue also contains at least one review article about an important clinical problem. Case presentations or short notes about technical innovations are also accepted for publication. The articles cover all aspects of knee surgery and all types of sports trauma; in addition epidemiology diagnosis treatment and prevention and all types of arthroscopy (not only the knee but also the shoulder elbow wrist hip ankle etc.) are addressed. Articles on new diagnostic techniques such as MRI and ultrasound and high-quality articles about the biomechanics of joints muscles and tendons are included. Although this is largely a clinical journal it is also open to basic research with clinical relevance. Because the journal is supported by a distinguished European Editorial Board assisted by an international Advisory Board you can be assured that the journal maintains the highest standards. Reports of animal experiments must state that the "Principles of laboratory animal care" (NIH publication No. 86-23 revised 1985) were followed as well as specific national laws (e.g. the current version of the German Law on the Protection of Animals) where applicable. The editor reserves the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned requirements. The author will be held responsible for false statements or for failure to fulfil the above-mentioned requirements.

Current impact factor: 2.84

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.837
2012 Impact Factor 2.676
2011 Impact Factor 2.209
2010 Impact Factor 1.857
2009 Impact Factor 1.674
2008 Impact Factor 1.696
2007 Impact Factor 1.626
2006 Impact Factor 1.216
2005 Impact Factor 1.018
2004 Impact Factor 1.182
2003 Impact Factor 1.083
2002 Impact Factor 1.051
2001 Impact Factor 1.262

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 2.57
Cited half-life 4.90
Immediacy index 0.37
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 0.76
Website Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy website
Other titles Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy (Online)
ISSN 1433-7347
OCLC 60637767
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

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    • Author's pre-print on pre-print servers such as arXiv.org
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    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Because there are no studies that have evaluated the effects of fatigue on the kinematics of the trunk and pelvis or on muscle activation in subjects with ACL reconstruction, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fatigue on the lower limb, pelvis and trunk kinematics and lower limb muscle activation in subjects with ACL reconstruction during a single-leg landing compared to a healthy control group. The participants included 20 subjects with ACL reconstruction (ACL reconstruction group-ACLRG) and 20 healthy subjects (control group-CG) who were aged between 18 and 35 years. Kinematic and electromyographic analyses were performed during a single-leg landing before and after fatigue. The fatigue protocol included a series of 10 squats, two vertical jumps, and 20 steps. The effects of fatigue were increased peak trunk flexion and increased activation of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris (BF) and gluteus maximus (GMax) during the landing phase. After the fatigue protocol, an increase in peak trunk flexion and activation of the GMax and BF were observed, most likely as a strategy to reduce the load on the ACL. ACL injury prevention programs should include strength and endurance exercises for the hip and trunk extensor muscles so that they can efficiently control trunk flexion during landing. Prospective comparative study, Level II.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3762-x
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    ABSTRACT: Revision ACL reconstruction requires careful analysis of failure causes particularly in cases of two previous graft ruptures. Intrinsic factors as excessive tibial slope or narrow femoral notch increase failure risks but are rarely addressed in revision surgery. The authors report outcomes, at minimum follow-up of 2 years, for second revision ACL reconstructions combined with tibial deflexion osteotomy for correction of excessive slope (>12°). Nine patients that underwent second revision ACL reconstruction combined with tibial deflexion osteotomy were retrospectively studied. The mean age was 30.3 ± 4.4 years (median 28; range 26-37), and mean follow-up was 4.0 ± 2.0 years (median 3.6; range 2.0-7.6). Autografts were harvested from the quadriceps tendon (n = 8) or hamstrings (n = 1), and tibial osteotomy was done by anterior closing wedge, without detachment of the patellar tendon, to obtain a slope of 3° to 5°. All patients had fused osteotomies, stable knees, and there were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The mean posterior tibial slope decreased from 13.2° ± 2.6° (median 13°; range 12°-18°) preoperatively to 4.4° ± 2.3° (median 4°; range 2°-8°) postoperatively. The mean Lysholm score was 73.8 ± 5.8 (median 74; range 65-82), and the IKDC-SKF was 71.6 ± 6.1 (median 72.8; range 62.2-78.5). The satisfactory results of second revision ACL reconstruction combined with tibial deflexion osteotomy at minimum follow-up of 2 years suggest that tibia slope correction protects reconstructed ACL from fatigue failure in this study. The authors stress the importance of careful analysis failure causes prior to revision ACL reconstruction, and recommend correction of tibial slope if it exceeds 12°, to reduce the risks of graft retear. III.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3758-6
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that injuries and surgical procedures in the lower extremities affect bone mineral both in the injured limb and in the contralateral limb. The possible effect on bone mineral after upper extremity surgery is not well studied, and the aim of this study was to study the effect on bone mineral in the calcanei after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Twenty-two men scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery underwent bone mineral area (BMA) mass measurements in both calcanei using the Calscan DXL device prior to surgery and after 6, 18, 36 and 60 months. On every occasion, the Tegner activity score and EuroQoL 5-dimensions (EQ-5D) were assessed. During 5 years, there was a significant decrease in the BMA in both calcanei (p = 0.003). The Tegner activity score decreased from preinjury to the operation and did not increase significantly after the operation. The EQ-5D increased significantly after the operation. The bone mineral in the calcanei in men during the 5-year study period decreased more than the expected age-dependent decline after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. There was an increase in health-related quality of life as measured with the EQ-5D after arthroscopic Bankart reconstruction. Case-control study, Level III.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3760-z
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    ABSTRACT: In order to provide science-based guidelines for injury prevention or return to play, regular measurement of isometric and eccentric internal (IR) and external (ER) rotator strength is warranted in overhead athletes. However, up to date, no normative database exists regarding these values, when measured with a hand-held dynamometer. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to provide a normative database on isometric and eccentric rotator cuff (RC) strength values in a sample of overhead athletes, and to discuss gender, age and sports differences. A HHD was used to measure RC strength in 201 overhead athletes between 18 and 50 years old from three different sports disciplines: tennis, volleyball and handball. Isometric as well as eccentric strength was measured in different shoulder positions. Outcome variables of interest were isometric ER and IR strength, eccentric ER strength, and intermuscular strength ratios ER/IR. Our results show significant side, gender and sports discipline differences in the isometric and eccentric RC strength. However, when normalized to body weight, gender differences often are absent. In general, strength differences are in favour of the dominant side, the male athletes and handball. Intermuscular ER/IR ratios showed gender, sports, and side differences. This normative database is necessary to help the clinician in the evaluation of RC strength in healthy and injured overhead athletes. In view of the preventive screening and return-to-play decisions in overhead athletes, normalization to body weight and calculating intermuscular ratios are key points in this evaluation. Diagnostic study, Level III.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3755-9
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to review the indications for and outcomes of high tibial osteotomy in the treatment of patients with chronic knee laxity. A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify surgical indications and results of high tibial osteotomy for the treatment of chronic knee laxity. Four distinct situations were identified in which a high tibial osteotomy may be advantageous: (1) anterior laxity with varus osteoarthritis, (2) chronic anterior laxity in the setting of varus with lateral ligamentous laxity, (3) chronic anterior laxity in the setting of a high tibial slope, and (4) chronic posterior laxity or posterolateral corner injury. A total of 24 studies were included in this report, including reports of the treatment of 410 knees as well as several review articles. The most frequently reported indication for that addition of HTO was anterior laxity in the setting of varus OA, which was noted to have good results, minimizing anterior knee laxity and allowing return to sports, while reducing the progression of osteoarthritis. More advanced cases in which lateral structures have also become stretched and incompetent are an excellent indication for HTO, with the need for subsequent lateral procedures dependent on the degree of varus laxity and especially hyperextension that is present. Excessive tibial slope has been identified as a cause of ACL reconstruction failure, and some authors have recommended addressing very high slope in revision cases. In knees with chronic posterior or posterolateral instability, correction of alignment first is generally recommended, with subsequent ligamentous procedures performed when instability persists. Knees with chronic instability pose a difficult treatment challenge. In all cases, the contribution of coronal plane alignment to varus-valgus knee stability must be carefully considered and addressed prior to ligament surgery. Sagittal plane alignment is also key and must not be overlooked. Such considerations drive the indication for osteotomy as well as the type of osteotomy that is chosen. Level of evidence IV.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3752-z
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    ABSTRACT: Bone tunnel creation techniques influence the 3-dimensional (3D) position of bone tunnels and graft-bending angle in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. This study assessed graft-bending angle and 3D characteristics of femoral bone tunnels and compared them between outside-in (OI) and transportal (TP) techniques. Participants comprised 64 patients who underwent anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction, allocated to OI and TP groups (n = 32 each). The graft orientation plane exhibiting the largest graft-bending angle at the femoral tunnel aperture with the knee in extension was reconstructed from CT data using 3D imaging software. In this plane, graft-bending angle was compared between the OI and TP techniques. Although positionings of the intra-articular apertures of the femoral and tibial bone tunnels were similar, several spatial parameters of bone tunnels differed between techniques. Graft-bending angles of both anteromedial and posterolateral bundles were significantly more acute with the OI technique than with the TP technique. On coronal-plane CT, angle of the bone tunnel axis relative to the distal condylar axis correlated negatively with graft-bending angle, while in the axial plane, angle of the bone tunnel axis relative to the posterior condylar axis correlated positively with graft-bending angle. Lysholm score, pivot shift test, and anteroposterior laxity at >2.5-year follow-up demonstrated no significant differences between techniques. Different bone tunnel directions in OI and TP techniques substantially affected graft-bending angle , despite similar positionings of the intra-articular apertures. Graft-bending angle with the OI technique was acute, but risk of posterior blowout of the lateral femoral condyle was decreased. Surgeons should create the femoral tunnel while considering an obtuse graft-bending angle without increasing the risk of posterior blowout. III.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3761-y
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effects of continuous passive motion (CPM) on accelerated flexion after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and whether CPM application measures (i.e. initial angle and daily increment) are associated with functional outcomes. A retrospective investigation was conducted at the rehabilitation centre of a university-based teaching hospital. Patients who received CPM therapy immediately after TKA surgery were categorized into rapid-, normal-, and slow-progress groups according to their response to CPM during their acute inpatient stay. Knee pain, passive knee flexion, and knee function-measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC)-were assessed preoperatively at discharge and at 3- and 6-month outpatient follow-up visits. A total of 354 patients were followed for 6 months after inpatient-stay discharge. The patients in the rapid-progress group (n = 119) exhibited significantly greater knee flexions than those in the slow-progress group did (n = 103) at the 3-month follow-up [mean difference (MD) = 10.3°, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.3°-16.3°, p < 0.001] and 6-month follow-up (MD = 10.9°, 95 % CI 6.3°-15.6°, p < 0.001). Significant WOMAC score differences between the rapid- and slow-progress groups were observed at the 3-month follow-up (MD = 7.2, 95 % CI 5.4-9.1, p < 0.001) and 6-month follow-up (MD = 16.1, 95 % CI 13.4-18.7, p < 0.001). CPM initial angles and rapid progress significantly predicted short- and long-term outcomes in knee flexion and WOMAC scores (p < 0.001). When CPM is used, early application with initial high flexion and rapid progress benefits knee function up to 6 months after TKA. II.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3754-x
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    ABSTRACT: Arthroscopic remplissage of a Hill-Sachs lesion is classically described as a capsulotenodesis of the infraspinatus within the posterolateral humeral head. The aim of this cadaveric study was to evaluate the anatomic relationship between the position of anchors and sutures placed for remplissage and the infraspinatus and teres minor. The hypothesis was that remplissage actually corresponds to a capsulomyodesis of the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles. A two-anchor arthroscopic remplissage was performed followed by open dissection of ten fresh-frozen human cadaveric shoulders. The exit point of sutures related to muscle-tendon unit as well as the distance between the anchors and the rotator cuff was measured. The superior sutures were localized generally in the infraspinatus, near the musculotendinous junction. The inferior sutures passed through the teres minor muscle in seven of ten cases. The distance between the superior and inferior anchors and the posterolateral greater tuberosity was 14 ± 2 and 12 ± 3 mm, respectively. Arthroscopic remplissage is a capsulomyodesis of infraspinatus and teres minor rather than a capsulotenodesis of the infraspinatus alone as previously believed. Muscular damage may explain posterosuperior pain observed in patients who underwent remplissage.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3756-8
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulating clinical evidence indicates the risk of tendinopathy and spontaneous and/or simultaneous tendon ruptures associated with statin use. This experimental study was designed to evaluate and compare the biomechanical and histopathological effects of the three most commonly prescribed statins (simvastatin, atorvastatin and rosuvastatin) on the Achilles tendon in rats. Statins were administered by gavage to rats at daily doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg for 3 weeks. One week later, the Achilles tendons were dissected and their biomechanical properties, including ultimate tensile force, yield force and elastic modulus, were determined. The samples were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and examined under a light microscope. The biomechanical properties of the tibia were tested by three-point bending test. Bone mineral density (BMD) and the lengths of tibias were measured by computed tomography. All the statins caused deterioration of the biomechanical parameters of the Achilles tendon. Histopathological analysis demonstrated foci of dystrophic calcification only in the statin-treated groups. However, the number and the total area of calcific deposits were similar between the statin groups. The biomechanical parameters of tibias were improved in all the statin groups. BMD in the statin-treated groups was not significantly different from the control group. All the statins tested are associated with calcific tendinopathy risk of which full awareness is required during everyday medical practice. However, statin-associated improvement of bone biomechanical properties is a favourable feature which may add to their beneficial effects in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, especially in the elderly.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3728-z
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the success and factors associated with failure, of using cement spacers impregnated with high-dose Ceftazidime and Vancomycin when performing two-stage revision for infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A retrospective analysis was performed using a prospectively collected database of 82 patients (median age 68 years, range 39-87) with a confirmed deep TKA infection treated with a two-stage revision. All cement spacers were impregnated with high-dose Ceftazidime and Vancomycin. The rate of success was recorded-an association between failure of treatment, and patient factors, previous surgical treatment, and microbial characteristics was sought. The mean time to infection from index arthroplasty was 45 months (range 3-240). The initial two-stage revision was successful in 70/82 patients (85.4 %), who remained free of infection at average follow-up of 36.2 months (range 24-85). A second two-stage revision for infection was required in 12/82 patients (14.6 %), which was successful in 4/12 (33 %). A third two-stage revision was performed in three patients, all of whom had a polymicrobial infection of which only one patient had successful eradication of infection. Recurrent infection was correlated with irrigation and debridement with implant retention prior to initial two-stage revision (p < 0.01), polymicrobial infections (p = 0.035), and infections presenting <6 months after index surgery (p = 0.031). No correlation was seen with age, BMI, type of organism, diabetes mellitus, or Charlson Comorbidity Index. The findings of this study suggest that the combination of Ceftazidime and Vancomycin in cement spacers is as efficacious as other published single or combined antibiotic mixtures, which is clinically relevant to clinicians treating this difficult problem in the setting of patients with compromised renal function.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3753-y
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    ABSTRACT: The structural properties of hamstring tendon grafts were evaluated in a porcine model, after processing it to a flat shape, to better replace or augment anatomic flat structures (e.g. ACL, MPFL or MCL). In this biomechanical study, porcine flexor tendons were used which have a comparable shape to semitendinosus and gracilis tendons. One part of the tendon was prepared to a flat tendon construct by splitting the tendon longitudinally with a knife to half of the diameter of the tendon. The semi-split tendon was scratched out to a flat shape. The other matched part was tested in its original round shape. The tendons (n = 40) have been fixed in a uniaxial testing machine (Zwick/Roell) by cryo-clamps after preparing the fixed ends by 2-0 polyester sutures (2-0 Ethibond(®) EXCEL, Ethicon, Somerville, NJ). In every specimen, there was a free 60-mm tendon part between both clamps. The tendons have been loaded to failure to evaluate typical biomechanical parameters such as stiffness, yield load and maximum load. No statistically significant differences (n.s.) regarding stiffness, yield load and maximum load between natively round and processed flat tendons could be detected. A prepared flat-shaped tendon does not show any different structural properties compared with an original round tendon. Therefore, a flat tendon seems to be a biomechanical stable graft option for anatomic reconstruction or augmentation of injured natively flat-shaped structures such as MCL, MPFL or ACL.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3749-7
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the biomechanical effects of intra-tendinous injections of PRGF on the healing Achilles tendon after repair in a sheep model. Thirty sheep were randomly assigned into one of the six groups depending on the type of treatment received (PRGF or placebo) and survival time (2, 4 and 8 weeks). The Achilles tendon injury was repaired by suturing the tendinous edges employing a three-loop pulley pattern. A trans-articular external fixation system was then used for immobilization. The PRGF or placebo was administered on a weekly basis completing a maximum of three infiltrations. The force, section and tension values were compared between the operated and healthy Achilles tendons across all groups. The PRGF-treated tendons had higher force at 8 weeks compared with the placebo group (p = 0.007). Between 2 and 4 weeks, a significant increase in force in both the PRGF-treated tendon (p = 0.0027) and placebo group (p = 0.0095) occurred. No significant differences were found for section ratio between PRGF-treated tendons and the placebo group for any of the time periods evaluated. At 2 weeks, PRGF-treated tendons had higher tension ratio compared with placebo group tendons (p = 0.0143). Both PRGF and placebo treatments significantly improved the force (p < 0.001 and p = 0.0095, respectively) and tension (p = 0.009 and p = 0.0039, respectively) ratios at 8 weeks compared with 2 weeks. The application of PRGF increases Achilles tendon repair strength at 8 weeks compared with the use of placebo. The use of PRGF does not modify section and tension ratios compared with placebo at 8 weeks. The tension ratio progressively increases between 2 and 8 weeks compared with the placebo.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3725-2
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of posterolateral corner (PLC) injury in the multiligament-injured knee is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcome of acute or sub-acute surgical repair of Type 1 and 2 PLC peel-off lesions in a multiligament setting. Mini-open direct repair of the PLC was performed in 13 patients. Combined PCL, ACL and MCL injuries were simultaneously managed. Telos valgus and varus stress radiographs at 30° of flexion with 150 N load were used to investigate medial and lateral joint opening. Posterior stress radiograph with 150 N load was used to investigate the function of the PCL. External rotational laxity was assessed with a dial test at 30° of knee flexion, and photographs were taken to measure angles. Anterior displacement was examined using the manual maximum test performed with a KT-1000 arthrometer. A statistically significant reduction between pre- and postoperative laxity values was achieved for every test. Particularly, lateral joint opening side-to-side difference reduced from 10.3 ± 4.0 to 1.0 ± 3.2 mm and external rotation reduced from 15 ± 8° to 0° ± 6° more than that of the contralateral uninjured knee. The medial joint opening side-to-side difference reduced from 11.5 ± 5.6 to 2.6 ± 2.7 mm in the 7 patients surgically managed for MCL lesion. The anterior tibial displacement side-to-side difference reduced from 14.0 ± 5.0 to 3.0 ± 5.0 mm in the 9 patients surgically managed for ACL lesion. The posterior tibial translation side-to-side difference reduced from 11.1 ± 5.1 to 4.4 ± 3.9 mm in the 11 patients treated for PCL lesion. The main finding of the current study is that acute repair of Type 1 and 2 PLC peel-off injury proved to be an effective procedure to restore PLC function in a multiligament-injured knee. These data enabled the current literature with an effective treatment option to face such a complex and various scenarios such as multiligament-injured knee. IV.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3741-2
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether professional and amateur athletes showed differences in ankle function when treated with endoscopic technique for posterior ankle impingement syndrome, to verify the impact of the presence of associated lesions in clinical evolution and to assess time to return to sport (we hypothesize that time will be the only difference between groups). Thirty-two athletes with a diagnosis of posterior impingement syndrome underwent surgery endoscopically. The American Orthopaedics Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scale was used to compare functional results between amateur (15) and professional athletes (17). The satisfaction, time to return to sport, operative time, intraoperative findings and complications were evaluated, and the presence of associated injuries interfering in these results was verified. The preoperative AOFAS score range for the professional group was 62.9 ± 14 preoperatively and 92.3 ± 7.7 postoperatively, and for the amateur group was 67.9 ± 19.7 and 94 ± 9.3. The satisfaction was excellent or good in 94 % of all cases and fair in 6 %. The average time of surgery was 48.3 + 25 min. Bone involvement was present in 100 % of cases and complications in three cases. Time to return to sports was similar (n.s.) in both groups, and the mean time was 15.6 ± 13.7 and 16.3 ± 9 weeks, respectively. CONCLUSION: No significant difference regarding functional results and time to return to sports between professionals and amateur athletes operated was found. Athletes showed mainly good and excellent results and low complication rate. The presence of associated injuries did not significantly influence the results. With these results, the high-level athlete can better programme their surgeries so they can fully recover and perform better in the most important competitions. Level III.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3747-9
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of single-dose intra-articular bupivacaine plus morphine versus bupivacaine alone for pain management following arthroscopic knee surgery. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials that used single-dose intra-articular bupivacaine plus morphine and bupivacaine alone for post-operative pain, using MEDLINE (1966-2014), Cochrane Library and EMBASE databases. The weighted mean difference (WMD), relative risk (RR) and their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using RevMan statistical software. A total of twenty-nine trials (n = 1167) were included. The post-operative visual analog scale (VAS) pain score of the bupivacaine plus morphine group compared with the bupivacaine alone group was significantly lower (WMD -1.15, 95 % CI -1.67 to -0.63, p < 0.0001). As far as safety, there was no significant difference in side effects between the two groups (RR 1.10, 95 % CI 0.59-2.04, n.s.). Sensitivity analyses suggested that the results of these two primary outcomes were stable and reliable. However, the current evidence did not suggest a superior effect with respect to the time to first analgesic request (WMD 51.33, 95 % CI -110.99 to 213.65, n.s.) and the number of patients requiring supplementary analgesia (RR 1.13, 95 % CI 0.92-1.39, n.s.). On the basis of the currently available literature, this study is the first to suggest that single-dose intra-articular bupivacaine plus morphine was shown to be significantly better than bupivacaine alone at relieving post-operative pain after arthroscopic knee surgery without increasing the short-term side effects. Routine use of single-dose intra-articular bupivacaine plus morphine is an effective way for pain management after arthroscopic knee surgery. II.
    Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00167-015-3748-8