Archives of Virology (Arch Virol )

Publisher: International Union of Microbiological Societies. Virology Division, Springer Verlag


Archives of Virology publishes original contributions from all branches of research on viruses virus-like agents and virus infections of humans animals plants insects and bacteria. Coverage includes the broadest spectrum of topics from initial descriptions of newly discovered viruses to studies of virus structure composition and genetics to studies of virus interactions with host cells host organisms and host populations. Multidisciplinary studies are particularly welcome as are studies employing molecular biologic molecular genetics and modern immunologic and epidemiologic approaches. For example studies on the molecular pathogenesis pathophysiology and genetics of virus infections in individual hosts and studies on the molecular epidemiology of virus infections in populations are encouraged. Studies involving applied research such as diagnostic technology development monoclonal antibody panel development vaccine devleopment and antiviral drug development are also encouraged. However such studies are often better presented in the context of a specific application or as they bear upon general principles of interest to many virologists. In all cases it is the quality of the research work its significance and its originality which will decide acceptability.

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    Archives of virology (Online), Arch virol
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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Samples containing two viruses belonging to the genus Polerovirus, beet chlorosis virus (BChV) and beet mild yellowing virus (BMYV), were collected from French and Polish sugar beet fields. The molecular properties of 24 isolates of BChV and BMYV were investigated, and their genetic diversity was examined in the coat protein (CP)- and P0-encoding genes. For the first time, we have demonstrated that beet polerovirus populations include recombinants between BChV and BMYV containing breakpoints within the CP gene. Moreover, a partial correlation between geographic origin and phylogenetic clustering was observed for BMYV isolates.
    Archives of Virology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The recently described novel gyroviruses may infect chickens and/or humans; however, their pathogenic potential is unknown. In our metagenomic investigation, we detected many of the novel gyroviruses in the fecal viromes of ferrets with lymph node and organ enlargement. The complete genomic sequences of selected gyrovirus strains showed 90.7-99.4 % similarity to homologous reference gyrovirus strains. This study did not demonstrate an association between gyrovirus shedding from ferrets and the observed background disease; however, it provides evidence for genetic diversity among gyroviruses and raises the possibility that pet ferrets may transmit gyroviruses to heterologous hosts, e.g., humans.
    Archives of Virology 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Begomovirus isolates ToF3B2 and ToF3B17 and betasatellite isolate SatBToF3 were obtained from the same infected tomato plant showing begomovirus disease symptoms in Fontem, Cameroon. The full-length nucleotide sequences of ToF3B2, ToF3B17 and SatBToF3 were cloned and sequenced and were determined to be 2,797 nt, 2,794 and 1,373 nt long respectively. When compared with other begomovirus and betasatellite sequences, ToF3B2 was 93.5 % identical to Tomato leaf curl Togo virus, ToF3B17 was 95 % identical to Tomato leaf curl Cameroon virus and SatBToF3 was 92 % identical to Ageratum leaf curl Cameroon betasatellite (ALCCMB), respectively. The identification of ALCCMB in Ageratum and now in tomato strongly suggests Ageratum may be an alternative host to these viruses and that ALCCMB is non host specific and may cause severe diseases when transmitted to other crops.
    Archives of Virology 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: βC1 proteins, encoded by betasatellites, are known to be pathogenicity determinants, and they are responsible for symptom expression in many devastating diseases caused by begomoviruses. We report the involvement of βC1 in pathogenicity determination of a mastrevirus. Analysis of field samples of wheat plants containing wheat dwarf India virus (WDIV) revealed the presence of a full-length and several defective betasatellite molecules. The detected betasatellite was identified as ageratum yellow leaf curl betasatellite (AYLCB). No begomovirus was detected in any of the samples. The full-length AYLCB contained an intact βC1 gene, whereas the defective molecules contained complete or partial deletions of βC1. Agroinoculation of wheat with the full-length AYLCB and WDIV or of tobacco with ageratum enation virus enhanced the pathogenicity and accumulation of the respective viruses, whereas the defective molecules could not. This study indicates that βC1 is a pathogenicity determinant for WDIV and can interact functionally not only with begomoviruses but also with a mastrevirus.
    Archives of Virology 07/2014; 159(11):3071-3076.
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    ABSTRACT: Swine influenza (SI) is an acute, highly contagious respiratory disease caused by swine influenza A viruses (SwIVs), and it poses a potential global threat to human health. Classical H1N1 (cH1N1) SwIVs are still circulating and remain the predominant subtype in the swine population in China. In this study, a high-growth reassortant virus (GD/PR8) harboring the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from a novel cH1N1 isolate in China, A/Swine/Guangdong/1/2011 (GD/11) and six internal genes from the high-growth A/Puerto Rico/8/34(PR8) virus was generated by plasmid-based reverse genetics and tested as a candidate seed virus for the preparation of an inactivated vaccine. The protective efficacy of this vaccine was evaluated in mice and pigs challenged with GD/11 virus. Prime and boost inoculation of GD/PR8 vaccine yielded high-titer serum hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies and IgG antibodies for GD/11 in both mice and pigs. Complete protection of mice and pigs against cH1N1 SIV challenge was observed, with significantly fewer lung lesions and reduced viral shedding in vaccine-inoculated animals compared with unvaccinated control animals. Our data demonstrated that the GD/PR8 may serve as the seed virus for a promising SwIVs vaccine to protect the swine population.
    Archives of Virology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Lactococcus garvieae is an emerging pathogen responsible for lactococcosis, a serious disease in trout aquaculture. The identification of new bacteriophages against L. garvieae strains may be an effective way to fight this disease and to study the pathogen’s biology. Three L. garvieae phages, termed WP-1, WWP-2 and SP-2, were isolated from different environments, and their morphological features, genome restriction profiles and structural protein patterns were studied. Random cloning of HindIII-cut fragments was performed, and the fragments were partially sequenced for each phage. Although slight differences were observed by transmission electron microscopy, all of the phages had hexagonal heads and short non-contractile tails and were classified as members of the family Podoviridae. Restriction digestion analysis of the nucleic acids of the different phages revealed that the HindIII and AseI digests produced similar DNA fragment patterns. Additionally, SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the isolated phages have similar structural proteins. The sequence BLAST results did not show any significant similarity with other previously identified phages. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first molecular characterization of L. garvieae phages.
    Archives of Virology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine foamy virus (BFV) infections are highly prevalent among cattle worldwide. However, relatively little is known about the impact of this virus on the host immune system. In our study, we focused on a bovine macrophage cell line (BoMac) and examined changes in the BoMac transcriptome after in vitro infection with BFV using bovine BLOPlus oligo microarrays. One hundred twenty-four genes showed significant changes in expression level. The biological process categories found to be enriched include metabolic processes, cell communication, transport, immune system processes, and response to extracellular stimuli. RT-qPCR was applied to confirm the results obtained for representative genes.
    Archives of Virology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), a member of the family Potyviridae, is an important viral pathogen affecting soybean production in Korea. Variations in helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) sequences and the pathogenicity of SMV samples from seven Korean provinces were compared with those of previously characterized SMV isolates from China, Korea and the United States. Phylogenetic analysis separated 16 new Korean SMV isolates into two groups. Fourteen of the new Korean SMV samples belonged to group II and were very similar to U.S. strain SMV G7 and Chinese isolate C14. One isolate in group II, A297-13, differed at three amino acid positions (L54F, N286D, D369N) in the HC-Pro coding sequence from severe isolates and SMV 413, showed very weak silencing suppressor activity, and produced only mild symptoms in soybean. To test the role of each amino acid substitution in RNA silencing and viral RNA accumulation, a series of point mutations was constructed. Substitution of N for D at position 286 in HC-Pro of SMV A297-12 significantly reduced silencing suppression activity. When the mutant HC-Pro of A297-13 was introduced into an infectious clone of SMV 413, accumulation of viral RNA was reduced to less than 3 % of the level of SMV 413 containing HC-Pro of A297-12 at 10 days post-inoculation (dpi) but increased to 40 % of SMV 413(HC-Pro A297-12) at 40 dpi. At 50 dpi RNA accumulation of SMV 413(HC-Pro A297-13) was similar to that of SMV 413(HC-Pro A297-12). However, at 50 dpi, the D at position 286 of HC-Pro in SMV 413(HC-Pro A297-13) was found to have reverted to N. The results showed that 1) a naturally occurring mutation in HC-Pro significantly reduced silencing suppression activity and accumulation of transgene and viral RNAs, and 2) that there was strong selection for revision to wild type when the mutation was introduced into an infectious clone of SMV.
    Archives of Virology 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Mosavirus (mosavirus A1, M-7/2010/USA, JF973687), a novel picornavirus, was found in a canyon mouse (Peromyscus crinitus) in the USA in 2010. It represents a novel species (Mosavirus A) in a novel genus (Mosavirus) in the family Picornaviridae. In this study, the first complete genome sequence of another mosavirus, SZAL6-MoV/2011/HUN (KF958461), was determined from one out of 18 fecal samples from an Afro-Palearctic migratory bird, the European roller (Coracias garrulus). The complete genome of SZAL6-MoV/2011/HUN is 8385 nt long (from poly(C) tract to poly(A) tail), contains a 646-nt-long 5'UTR that forms a type II IRES, and encodes a potential 2550-aa-long polyprotein precursor including an aphthovirus-like L(pro)-proteinase, a small aphthovirus-like 2A(NPG↓P), and two 3B(VPg) proteins. SZAL6-MoV/2011/HUN has 67 %, 74 %, and 76 % aa sequence identity in the P1, P2, and P3 region, respectively, to M-7/2010/USA and represents a second mosavirus type, mosavirus A2.
    Archives of Virology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: By screening 104 faecal samples from asymptomatic calves in Italy, bovine norovirus RNA was detected with a prevalence rate of 10.5 % (11/104). A continuous sequence spanning the RdRp region and the 5' end of the capsid gene was generated for 7 of the 11 strains. Upon phylogenetic analysis, five strains were grouped with GIII.2 Newbury2-like viruses, and one strain was grouped with GIII.1 Jena-like noroviruses. Interestingly, one strain (80TE/IT) was genetically related to the GIII.1/Jena/80/De in the RdRp but resembled the GIII.2/Newbury2/76/UK in the capsid gene, suggesting a recombination event occurring in the ORF1/ORF2 junction region.
    Archives of Virology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: H6 influenza viruses are prevalent in domestic and wild birds in Eurasian countries and have been isolated from pigs and a human. To prepare for an influenza pandemic, we have established an influenza virus library consisting of more than 1,300 influenza virus strains, including 144 combinations of 16 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase subtypes. H6 viruses in the library were classified into Early, Group II, Group III, and W312 sublineages and the North America lineage on the basis of their phylogenetic features. Chicken antisera to A/duck/Hong Kong/960/1980 (H6N2) of the Early sublineage broadly reacted with viruses of different sublineages in a hemagglutinin inhibition test. A whole inactivated virus particle vaccine was prepared from A/duck/Hong Kong/960/1980 (H6N2) which was stocked in the influenza virus library. The potency of this vaccine against A/duck/Vietnam/OIE-0033/2012 (H6N2), which belongs to a different sublineage, was evaluated in mice. The test vaccine was sufficiently potent to induce an immune response that reduced the impact of disease caused by a challenge with A/duck/Vietnam/OIE-0033/2012 (H6N2) in mice. The present results indicate that the whole inactivated virus particle vaccine prepared from a virus strain in the influenza virus library is useful as a vaccine against pandemic influenza.
    Archives of Virology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus initiates the infection process by binding to sialic acid receptors on upper respiratory cells in the host. In contrast to avian influenza viruses, which bind to sialic acids connected by an α2-3 linkage to the penultimate galactose, human influenza viruses prefer sialic acids with an α2-6 linkage. Recently, there have been multiple cases of severe human infections associated with an HA D222G mutant influenza virus. In this study, we have investigated the pathogenic effects of the HA D222G substitution in a 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus in mice. Compared with the A/Korea/01/2009 (K/09) virus, the HA D222G mutant showed reduced growth in cells and reduced binding avidity to human and turkey red blood cells. In a BALB/c mouse infection model, infection with the HA D222G mutant virus resulted in less body weight loss when compared to the parental K/09 virus. Altogether, our data suggest that the HA D222G substitution in the K/09 virus might be deleterious to viral fitness.
    Archives of Virology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The complete genome sequence of a porcine epidemic diarrhea virus variant, strain SHQP/YM/2013, from China was determined and compared with those of other porcine epidemic diarrhea viruses. The full-length genome was 28,038 nucleotides (nt) in length without the poly (A) tail, and it was similar to that of other reported PEDV strains, with the characteristic gene order 5'-replicase (1a/1b) -S-ORF3-E-M-N-3'. Nucleotide sequence analysis based on individual virus genes indicated a close relationship between the S gene of SHQP/YM/2013 and those of the four Korean field strains from 2008-2009. Its ORF3 gene, however, fell into three groups. Recent prevalent Chinese PEDV field isolates were divided between group 1 and group 3, which suggests that the recent prevalent Chinese PEDV field isolates represent a new genotype that differs from the genotype that includes the vaccine strains. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the M gene, ORF3 gene and S gene, our study demonstrated that prevalent PEDV isolates in China may have originated from Korean strains. This report describes the complete genome sequence of SHQP/YM/2013, and the data will promote a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of PEDV field isolates in eastern China.
    Archives of Virology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). ATL cells possess a CD4+ CD25+ phenotype, similar to that of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tax has been reported to play a crucial role in the leukemogenesis of HTLV-1. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ), which is encoded by the minus strand of the viral genomic RNA, is expressed in all ATL cases and induces neoplastic and inflammatory disease in vivo. To test whether HBZ and Tax are both required for T cell malignancy, we generated HBZ/Tax double transgenic mice in which HBZ and Tax are expressed exclusively in CD4+ T cells. Survival was much reduced in HBZ/Tax double-transgenic mice compared with wild type littermates. Transgenic expression of HBZ and Tax induced skin lesions and T-cell lymphoma in mice, resembling diseases observed in HTLV-1 infected individuals. However, Tax single transgenic mice did not develop major health problems. In addition, memory CD4+ T cells and Foxp3+ Treg cells counts were increased in HBZ/Tax double transgenic mice, and their proliferation was enhanced. There was very little difference between HBZ single and HBZ/Tax double transgenic mice. Taken together, these results show that HBZ, in addition to Tax, plays a critical role in T-cell lymphoma arising from HTLV-1 infection.
    Archives of Virology 05/2014;