Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Theor Appl Genet)

Publisher: Springer Verlag

Journal description

Founded in 1929 as "Der Züchter" a German journal for theoretical and applied genetics. In 1966 its direction changed from national to international and from plant breeding to genetics and breeding research. The title changed in 1968 to "Theoretical and Applied Genetics". Edited by H. Stubbe from 1946 to 1976 by H. F. Linskens 1977 to 1987 and by G. Wenzel from 1988. TAG will publish original articles in the following areas: Genetic and physiological fundamentals of plant breeding Applications of plant biotechnology Theoretical considerations in combination with experimental data

Current impact factor: 3.51

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 3.507
2012 Impact Factor 3.658
2011 Impact Factor 3.297
2010 Impact Factor 3.264
2009 Impact Factor 3.363
2008 Impact Factor 3.49
2007 Impact Factor 3.137
2006 Impact Factor 2.715
2005 Impact Factor 3.063
2004 Impact Factor 2.981
2003 Impact Factor 2.287
2002 Impact Factor 2.264
2001 Impact Factor 2.438
2000 Impact Factor 2.358
1999 Impact Factor 2.082
1998 Impact Factor 2.224
1997 Impact Factor 2.04
1996 Impact Factor 2.313
1995 Impact Factor 2.452
1994 Impact Factor 2.536
1993 Impact Factor 2.364
1992 Impact Factor 2.095

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 4.06
Cited half-life 9.50
Immediacy index 0.66
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 1.00
Website Theoretical and Applied Genetics (TAG) website
Other titles Theoretical and applied genetics (Online), TAG, TAG, theoretical and applied genetics
ISSN 1432-2242
OCLC 39970596
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

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  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The potential for exploiting heterosis for sorghum hybrid production in Ethiopia with improved local adaptation and farmers preferences has been investigated and populations suitable for initial hybrid development have been identified. Hybrids in sorghum have demonstrated increased productivity and stability of performance in the developed world. In Ethiopia, the uptake of hybrid sorghum has been limited to date, primarily due to poor adaptation and absence of farmer's preferred traits in existing hybrids. This study aimed to identify complementary parental pools to develop locally adapted hybrids, through an analysis of whole genome variability of 184 locally adapted genotypes and introduced hybrid parents (R and B). Genetic variability was assessed using genetic distance, model-based STRUCTURE analysis and pair-wise comparison of groups. We observed a high degree of genetic similarity between the Ethiopian improved inbred genotypes and a subset of landraces adapted to lowland agro-ecology with the introduced R lines. This coupled with the genetic differentiation from existing B lines, indicated that these locally adapted genotype groups are expected to have similar patterns of heterotic expression as observed between introduced R and B line pools. Additionally, the hybrids derived from these locally adapted genotypes will have the benefit of containing farmers preferred traits. The groups most divergent from introduced B lines were the Ethiopian landraces adapted to highland and intermediate agro-ecologies and a subset of lowland-adapted genotypes, indicating the potential for increased heterotic response of their hybrids. However, these groups were also differentiated from the R lines, and hence are different from the existing complementary heterotic pools. This suggests that although these groups could provide highly divergent parental pools, further research is required to investigate the extent of heterosis and their hybrid performance.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00122-015-2545-6
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    ABSTRACT: The rapid accumulation of pre-existing mutations may play major roles in the establishment and shaping of adaptability for local regions in current rice breeding programs. The cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., which originated from tropical regions, is now grown worldwide due to the concerted efforts of breeding programs. However, the process of establishing local populations and their origins remain unclear. In the present study, we characterized DNA polymorphisms in the rice variety KITAAKE from Hokkaido, one of the northern limits of rice cultivation in the world. Indel polymorphisms were attributed to transposable element-like insertions, tandem duplications, and non-TE deletions as the original mutation events in the NIPPONBARE and KITAAKE genomes. The allele frequencies of the KITAAKE alleles markedly shifted to the current variety types among the local population from Hokkaido in the last two decades. The KITAAKE alleles widely distributed throughout wild rice and cultivated rice over the world. These have accumulated in the local population from Hokkaido via Japanese landraces as the ancestral population of Hokkaido. These results strongly suggested that combinations of pre-existing mutations played a role in the establishment of adaptability. This approach using the re-sequencing of local varieties in unique environmental conditions will be useful as a genetic resource in plant breeding programs in local regions.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00122-015-2543-8
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    ABSTRACT: Mapping-by-sequencing and SNP marker analysis were used to fine map the Ligon-lintless-1 ( Li 1 ) short fiber mutation in tetraploid cotton to a 255-kb region that contains 16 annotated proteins. The Ligon-lintless-1 (Li 1 ) mutant of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has been studied as a model for cotton fiber development since its identification in 1929; however, the causative mutation has not been identified yet. Here we report the fine genetic mapping of the mutation to a 255-kb region that contains only 16 annotated genes in the reference Gossypium raimondii genome. We took advantage of the incompletely dominant dwarf vegetative phenotype to identify 100 mutants (Li 1 /Li 1 ) and 100 wild-type (li 1 /li 1 ) homozygotes from a mapping population of 2567 F2 plants, which we bulked and deep sequenced. Since only homozygotes were sequenced, we were able to use a high stringency in SNP calling to rapidly narrow down the region harboring the Li 1 locus, and designed subgenome-specific SNP markers to test the population. We characterized the expression of all sixteen genes in the region by RNA sequencing of elongating fibers and by RT-qPCR at seven time points spanning fiber development. One of the most highly expressed genes found in this interval in wild-type fiber cells is 40-fold under-expressed at the day of anthesis (DOA) in the mutant fiber cells. This gene is a major facilitator superfamily protein, part of the large family of proteins that includes auxin and sugar transporters. Interestingly, nearly all genes in this region were most highly expressed at DOA and showed a high degree of co-expression. Further characterization is required to determine if transport of hormones or carbohydrates is involved in both the dwarf and lintless phenotypes of Li 1 plants.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00122-015-2539-4
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    ABSTRACT: Fivefold diversity for cooking time found in a panel of 206 Phaseolus vulgaris accessions. Fastest accession cooks nearly 20 min faster than average. SNPs associated with cooking time on Pv02, 03, and 06. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient dense food and a dietary staple in parts of Africa and Latin America. One of the major factors that limits greater utilization of beans is their long cooking times compared to other foods. Cooking time is an important trait with implications for gender equity, nutritional value of diets, and energy utilization. Very little is known about the genetic diversity and genomic regions involved in determining cooking time. The objective of this research was to assess cooking time on a panel of 206 P. vulgaris accessions, use genome- wide association analysis (GWAS) to identify genomic regions influencing this trait, and to test the ability to predict cooking time by raw seed characteristics. In this study 5.5-fold variation for cooking time was found and five bean accessions were identified which cook in less than 27 min across 2 years, where the average cooking time was 37 min. One accession, ADP0367 cooked nearly 20 min faster than average. Four of these five accessions showed close phylogenetic relationship based on a NJ tree developed with ~5000 SNP markers, suggesting a potentially similar underlying genetic mechanism. GWAS revealed regions on chromosomes Pv02, Pv03, and Pv06 associated with cooking time. Vis/NIR scanning of raw seed explained 68 % of the phenotypic variation for cooking time, suggesting with additional experimentation, it may be possible to use this spectroscopy method to non-destructively identify fast cooking lines as part of a breeding program.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00122-015-2531-z
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    ABSTRACT: Eight morphological, biomass and biofuel traits were found with high broad-sense heritability and 18 significant QTLs discovered including one locus controlling the stem juice trait for sorghum grown in Denmark and China. Sweet sorghum with tall plant, fast maturation and high stem Brix content can be bred as a biofuel crop for Northern Europe. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolour), a native tropical C4 crop, has attracted interest as a bioenergy crop in northern countries due to its juice-rich stem and high biomass production. Little is known about the traits important for its adaptation to high altitude climatic conditions and their genetic controls. Recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between a sweet and a grain kaoliang sorghum were used in five field trials in Denmark and in China to identify the stability and genetic controls of morphological, biomass and biofuel traits during three consecutive summers with short duration, cool temperatures and long days. Eight out of 15 traits were found with high broad-sense heritability. Strong positive correlations between plant height and biomass traits were observed, while Brix and juice content were under different genetic controls. Using newly developed PAV (presence and absence variant) markers, 53 QTLs were detected, of which 18 were common for both countries, including a locus controlling stem juice (LOD score = 20.5, r (2) = 37.5 %). In Denmark, the heading stage correlated significantly with biomass and morphology traits, and two significant maturity QTLs detected on chromosomes SBI01 and SBI02 co-localised with QTLs previously associated with early-stage chilling tolerance, suggesting that accelerating maturation might be a means of coping with low-temperature stress. Our results suggest that selection for tall and fast maturating sorghum plants combined with high Brix content represents a high potential for breeding bioenergy crop for Northern Europe.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00122-015-2538-5
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    ABSTRACT: Characterized novel mutations present at Ppo loci account for the substantial reduction of the total kernel PPO activity present in a putative null Ppo - A1 genetic background. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) polyphenol oxidase (PPO) contributes to the time-dependent discoloration of Asian noodles. Wheat contains multiple paralogous and orthologous Ppo genes, Ppo-A1, Ppo-D1, Ppo-A2, Ppo-D2, and Ppo-B2, expressed in wheat kernels. To date, wheat noodle color improvement efforts have focused on breeding cultivars containing Ppo-D1 and Ppo-A1 alleles conferring reduced PPO activity. A major impediment to wheat quality improvement is a lack of additional Ppo alleles conferring reduced kernel PPO. In this study, a previously reported very low PPO line, 07OR1074, was found to contain a novel allele at Ppo-A2 and null alleles at the Ppo-A1 and Ppo-D1 loci. To examine the impact of each mutation upon kernel PPO, populations were generated from crosses between 07OR1074 and the hard white spring wheat cultivars Choteau and Vida. Expression analysis using RNA-seq demonstrated no detectable Ppo-A1 transcripts in 07OR1074 while Ppo-D1 transcripts were present at less than 10 % of that seen in Choteau and Vida. Novel markers specific for the Ppo-D1 and Ppo-A2 mutations discovered in 07OR1074, along with the Ppo-A1 STS marker, were used to screen segregating populations. Evaluation of lines indicated a substantial genotypic effect on PPO with Ppo-A1 and Ppo-D1 alleles contributing significantly to total PPO in both populations. These results show that the novel mutations in Ppo-A1 and Ppo-D1 present in 07OR1074 are both important to lowering overall wheat seed PPO activity and may be useful to produce more desirable and marketable wheat-based products.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00122-015-2535-8
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    ABSTRACT: Comparing standard errors of treatment differences using fixed or random block effects with the approximation of Kackar and Harville helps in choosing the preferable assumption for blocks in the analysis of field experiments. Blocked designs are common in plant breeding field trials. Depending on the precision of variance estimates, recovery of inter-block information via random block effects may be worthwhile. A challenge in practice is to decide when recovery of information should be pursued. To investigate this question, a series of sugar beet trials laid out as α-designs were analysed assuming fixed or random block effects. Additionally, small trials laid out as α-designs or partially replicated designs were simulated and analysed assuming fixed or random block effects. Nine decision rules, including the Kackar-Harville adjustment, were used for choosing the better assumption regarding the block effects. In general, use of the Kackar-Harville adjustment works well and is recommended for partially replicated designs. For α-designs, using inter-block information is preferable for designs with four or more blocks.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00122-015-2530-0
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    ABSTRACT: Wheat yellow mosaic virus resistance of Madsen is governed by two complementary QTLs, Qym1 and Qym2 , located on chromosome arms 2DL and 3BS. Wheat yellow mosaic, caused by Wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV), is one of the most serious wheat diseases in East Asia. In this study, recombinant inbred lines (RILs, F9) from a cross between cultivars Madsen (resistant) and Hokushin (susceptible) grown in a WYMV-infected nursery field were tested for the presence of WYMV in leaves by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and genotyped by using genome-wide molecular markers. Two major QTLs were detected: Qym1 located between Xgwm539 and Xgwm349 on chromosome 2DL and Qym2 located between Xbarc147 and Xwmc623 on chromosome 3BS. The resistance alleles for both QTLs originated from Madsen. The third QTL Qym3 located near Xwmc457 on chromosome 4D, where the resistant allele for this QTL originated from Hokushin. Although the Qym3 was rather minor, it was essential to complement Qym1 and Qym2 for complete avoidance of WYMV infection. Near-isogenic lines carrying the resistance QTLs were developed by repeated backcrosses using Madsen as the donor parent and Hokushin as the recurrent parent. The lines that were resistant to WYMV (as tested by ELISA) were homozygous for the Madsen alleles at both Qym1 and Qym2. Qym1 dominance was partial, whereas that of Qym2 was nearly complete. Qym1 was closely linked to Xwmc41; Qym2 was closely linked to Xwmc754. These markers will be useful in marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding for WYMV resistance; this study will facilitate cloning the WYMV resistance genes.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00122-015-2532-y
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    ABSTRACT: We reported the first development of Gossypium anomalum -derived microsatellite markers and identification of recombination between sexually incompatible species by a synthesized hexaploid on genome level. To continue to develop improved cotton varieties, it is essential to transfer desired characters from diploid wild cotton species such as Gossypium anomalum to cultivated allotetraploid cotton species. However, interspecific reproductive barriers limit gene transfer between species. In a previous study, we used colchicine treatment to produce a synthesized hexaploid derived from an interspecific hybrid between Gossypium hirsutum and G. anomalum and demonstrated its hybridity and doubled status using morphological, cytological and molecular marker methods. In the current study, to effectively monitor G. anomalum genome components in the G. hirsutum background, we developed 5974 non-redundant G. anomalum-derived SSR primer pairs using RNA-Seq technology, which were combined with a publicly available physical map. Based on this combined map and segregation data from the BC2F1 population, we identified a set of 230 informative G. anomalum-specific SSR markers distributed on the chromosomes, which cover 95.72 % of the cotton genome. After analyzing BC2F1 segregation data, 50 recombination types from 357 recombination events were identified, which cover 81.48 % of the corresponding G. anomalum genome. A total of 203 recombination events occurred on chromosome 11, accounting for 56.86 % of the recombination events on all chromosomes. Recombination hotspots were observed at marker intervals JAAS1148-NAU5100 on chromosome 1 and JAAS0426-NAU998 on chromosome 2. Therefore, all G. anomalum chromosomes are capable of recombining with At chromosomes in G. hirsutum. This study represents an important step towards introgressing desirable traits into cultivated cotton from the wild cotton species G. anomalum.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00122-015-2528-7
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    ABSTRACT: Soybean mosaic virus resistance was significantly improved in multiple soybean cultivars through genetic transformation induced by inverted repeat-SMV- HC - Pro genes based on RNAi and post-transcriptional gene silencing. Here, we demonstrate Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) resistance in transgenic soybean plants. Transformation of five soybean genotypes with a construct containing inverted repeat-SMV-HC-Pro genes-induced high-level SMV resistance. Through leaf-painting assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) verification and LibertyLink(®) strip detection, 105 T0 and 1059 T1 plants were confirmed as transgene-positive. Southern blotting confirmed insertion of the T-DNA into the genomic DNA and revealed a low-copy integration pattern. Most T0 plants were fertile and transmitted the exogenous genes to their progenies (ratios of 3:1 or 15:1). In the T1 generation, virus resistance was evaluated visually after inoculation with SMV (strain SC3) and 441 plants were highly resistant (HR). SMV disease rating was classified on a scale with 0 = symptomless and 4 = mosaic symptoms with severe leaf curl. In the positive T1 plants, the disease rating on average was 1.42 (range 0.45-2.14) versus 3.2 (range 2-4) for the nontransformed plants. With the T2 generation, 75 transgene-positive plants were inoculated with SC3, and 57 HR plants were identified. Virus-induced seed coat mottling was eliminated in the resistant lines. Analysis of SMV levels in the plants was performed using quantitative real-time PCR and double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays; the results revealed no virus or a gradual reduction over time in the viral content, thereby supporting the visual examination results. This is the first report demonstrating pathogen-derived resistance to SMV induced by inverted repeat-SMV-HC-Pro genes in multiple soybean cultivars. Our findings contribute positively to the study of transgenic SMV-resistance using RNA interference.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00122-015-2522-0
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    ABSTRACT: Disease resistance against xylem-colonizing pathogenic bacteria in crops. Plant pathogenic bacteria cause destructive diseases in many commercially important crops. Among these bacteria, eight pathogens, Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. campestris pv. campestris, Erwinia amylovora, Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, and Xylella fastidiosa, infect their host plants through different infection sites and paths and eventually colonize the xylem tissues of their host plants, resulting in wilting symptoms by blocking water flow or necrosis of xylem tissues. Noticeably, only a relatively small number of resistant cultivars in major crops against these vascular bacterial pathogens except X. oryzae pv. oryzae have been found or generated so far, although these pathogens threaten productivity of major crops. In this review, we summarize the lifestyles of major xylem-colonizing bacterial pathogens and then discuss the progress of current research on disease resistance controlled by qualitative disease resistance genes or quantitative trait loci against them. Finally, we propose infection processes of xylem-colonizing bacterial pathogens as one of possible reasons for why so few qualitative disease resistance genes against these pathogens have been developed or identified so far in crops.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00122-015-2521-1
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    ABSTRACT: Breakage of the tight linkage between rice seed lipoxygenase - 3 and easy preharvest sprouting trait led to breeding of lines with few stale flavors after long storage and desirable preharvest sprouting resistance. Lipoxygenase-3 (LOX-3) is involved in the production of volatile constituents in stored rice, and the development of stale flavor is delayed in LOX-3 null rice. In the process of breeding new LOX-3-null lines with long storability, we found a close association between LOX-3 and preharvest sprouting resistance. To determine whether this relationship was due to the tight linkage of two genes or the pleiotropic effect of LOX-3, we performed marker-assisted selection using a BC3F3 population derived from crosses between LOX-3-present/preharvest sprouting-resistant lines and LOX-3-null/preharvest susceptible lines. In one individual, a recombination event occurred 13 kb downstream of LOX-3 (RM15750) and a significant quantitative trait locus, namely qPHS3, for easy preharvest sprouting trait (LOD = 10.4) was detected in an 842-kb region between RM15711 and RM15768. Using BC3F4 and BC3F5 populations, we succeeded in selecting LOX-3-absent and preharvest sprouting-resistant lines with only a 393-kb introgressed chromosome segment from the donor line for LOX-3-null at the LOX-3 locus on chromosome 3. This result indicated that the LOX-3 gene and the locus affecting preharvest sprouting are distinct. The selected line was named 'Hokuriku 244'. Sensory testing of rice grains with and without LOX-3 confirmed that stale flavor production in LOX-3-null rice during storage was lower than in normal LOX-3 rice. These results indicated that rice varieties with little stale flavor after long storage and preharvest sprouting resistance had been selected.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00122-015-2516-y
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    ABSTRACT: The Raso2 , novel QTL for Korea biotype foxglove aphid resistance in soybean from PI 366121 was identified on chromosome 7 using GoldenGate SNP microarray. Foxglove aphid, Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach), is a hemipteran insect that infects a wide variety of plants worldwide and causes serious yield losses in crops. The objective of this study was to identify the putative QTL for foxglove aphid resistance in wild soybean, PI 366121, (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.). One hundred and forty-one F4-derived F8 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross of susceptible Williams 82 and PI 366121 were used. The phenotyping of antibiosis and antixenosis resistance was done through choice and no-choice tests with total plant damage and primary infestation leaf damage; a genome-wide molecular linkage map was constructed with 504 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers utilizing a GoldenGate assay. Using inclusive composite interval mapping analysis for foxglove aphid resistance, one major candidate QTL on chromosome 7 and three minor QTL regions on chromosomes 3, 6 and 18 were identified. The major QTL on chromosome 7 showed both antixenosis and antibiosis resistance responses. However, the minor QTLs showed only antixenosis resistance response. The major QTL mapped to a different chromosome than the previously identified foxglove aphid resistance QTL, Raso1, from the cultivar Adams. Also, the responses to the Korea biotype foxglove aphid were different for Raso1, and the gene from PI 366121 against the Korea biotype foxglove aphid was different. Thus, the foxglove aphid resistance gene from PI 366121 was determined to be an independent gene from Raso1 and was designated as Raso2. This result could be useful in breeding for new foxglove aphid-resistant soybean cultivars.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00122-015-2519-8
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    ABSTRACT: This study cloned two novel TaLox genes on chromosome of 4BS and developed a co-dominant marker, Lox-B23, in bread wheat that showed highly significant association with lipoxygenase activity. Lipoxygenase (Lox), a critical enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, significantly influences the color and processing quality of wheat-based products. Two novel Lox genes, designated TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3, were cloned on chromosome 4BS of Chinese bread wheat. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that both TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3 genes encoded an 861-aa protein and possessed a lipoxygenase superfamily domain at the 170-838 interval. Two different TaLox-B2 alleles, designated TaLox-B2a and TaLox-B2b, were subsequently discovered. A co-dominant marker, Lox-B23, was developed based on sequences of TaLox-B2a, TaLox-B2b, and TaLox-B3 genes to precisely distinguish these three alleles in Chinese bread cultivars. Among five allelic combinations of Lox genes at Lox-B1, Lox-B2, and Lox-B3 loci, wheat cultivars with TaLox-B1a/TaLox-B2a/TaLox-B3a combination exhibited the highest Lox activity, whereas those with TaLox-B1a/TaLox-B2b/TaLox-B3b combination significantly showed the lowest Lox activity. A RIL population was used to evaluate the influence of TaLox-B3a gene on Lox activity. Results showed that TaLox-B3a gene could significantly increase the Lox activity in bread wheat. Physical mapping indicated that both TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3 genes were located on chromosome 4BS in bread wheat. This study provides useful information to further understand the molecular and genetic bases of Lox activity in bread wheat.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00122-015-2518-9