Theoretical and Applied Genetics (Theor Appl Genet )

Publisher: Springer Verlag


Founded in 1929 as "Der Züchter" a German journal for theoretical and applied genetics. In 1966 its direction changed from national to international and from plant breeding to genetics and breeding research. The title changed in 1968 to "Theoretical and Applied Genetics". Edited by H. Stubbe from 1946 to 1976 by H. F. Linskens 1977 to 1987 and by G. Wenzel from 1988. TAG will publish original articles in the following areas: Genetic and physiological fundamentals of plant breeding Applications of plant biotechnology Theoretical considerations in combination with experimental data

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    Theoretical and applied genetics (Online), TAG, TAG, theoretical and applied genetics
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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Key message Genetic analysis and genome mapping of a major seedling oat crown rust resistance gene, designated PcKM, are described. The chromosomal location of the PcKM gene was identified and linked markers were validated. Abstract Crown rust (Puccinia coronata Corda f. sp. avenae Eriks) is the most important foliar disease of oats and can cause considerable yield loss in the absence of appropriate management practices. Utilization of novel resistant genes is the most effective, economic and environmentally sound approach to control the disease. Crown rust resistance present in the cultivar ‘Morton’ was evaluated in a population developed from the cross OT3019 × ‘Morton’ to elucidate the genetic basis of resistance. Crown rust reaction evaluated in field nurseries and greenhouse tests demonstrated that resistance provided by ‘Morton’ was controlled by a single gene, temporarily designated as PcKM. The gene was initially linked to a random amplified polymorphic DNA band and subsequently converted into a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Genotyping with the PcKM SCAR on the ‘Kanota’ × ‘Ogle’ population, used to create the first oat chromosome-anchored linkage map, placed the PcKM gene on chromosome 12D. Consensus map markers present in the same region as the PcKM SCAR were tested on the OT3019 × ‘Morton’ population and two additional phenotyped populations segregating for PcKM to identify other markers useful for marker-assisted selection. Three markers were perfectly linked to the PcKM phenotype from which TaqMan and KBioscience competitive allele-specific PCR assays were developed and validated on a set of 25 oat lines. The assays correctly identified PcKM carriers. The markers developed in this study will facilitate fine mapping of the PcKM gene and simplify selection for this crown rust resistance.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The prominent attributes of foxtail millet (Setaria italica, cultivated) and green foxtail (S. viridis, wild) including small genome size, short life-cycle, in-breeding nature, genetic close-relatedness to several cereals, millets and bioenergy grasses, and potential abiotic stress tolerance have accentuated these two Setaria species as novel model system for studying C4 photosynthesis, stress biology and biofuel potential. Considering this, studies have been performed on structural and functional genomics of these plants to develop genetic and genomic resources, and to delineate the physiology and molecular biology of stress tolerance, for the improvement of millets, cereals and bioenergy grasses. The release of foxtail millet genome sequence has provided a new dimension to Setaria genomics, resulting in large-scale development of genetic and genomic tools, construction of informative databases, and genome-wide association and functional genomic studies. In this context, this review discusses the advancements made in Setaria genomics, which have generated a considerable knowledge that could be used for the crop improvement of millets, cereals and biofuel crops. Further, this review also shows the nutritional potential of foxtail millet in providing health benefits to global population and provides a preliminary information on introgressing the nutritional properties in graminaceous species through molecular breeding and transgene-based approaches.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Brassica rapa is a highly polymorphic species containing many vegetables and oleiferous types. An interesting group of oleiferous types is the yellow sarson group (subspecies trilocularis) grown mostly in eastern India. This group contains lines that have bilocular ovaries, a defining trait of Brassicaceae, but also lines that have tetralocular ovaries. Yellow sarson lines commonly have high silique width which is further enhanced in the tetralocular types. We mapped the locus influencing tetralocular ovary in B. rapa using three mapping populations (F2, F6 and F7) derived from a cross between Chiifu (subspecies pekinensis, having bilocular ovary) and Tetralocular (having tetralocular ovary). QTL mapping of silique width was undertaken using the three mapping populations and a F2 population derived from a cross between Chiifu and YSPB-24 (a bilocular line belonging to yellow sarson group). Qualitative mapping of the trait governing locule number (tet-o) in B. rapa mapped the locus to linkage group A4. QTL mapping for silique width detected a major QTL on LG A4, co-mapping with the tet-o locus in bilocular/tetralocular cross. This QTL was not detected in the bilocular/bilocular cross. Saturation mapping of the tet-o region with SNP markers identified Bra034340, a homologue of CLAVATA3 of Arabidopsis thaliana, as the candidate gene for locule number. A C → T transition at position 176 of the coding sequence of Bra034340 revealed co-segregation with the tetralocular phenotype. The study of silique related traits is of interest both for understanding evolution under artificial selection and for breeding of cultivated Brassica species.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Analyses of registration trials of winter barley suggested that yield and yield stability can be enhanced by developing hybrid instead of line varieties. Yield stability is central to cope with the expected increased frequency of extreme weather conditions. The objectives of our study were to (1) examine the dimensioning of field trials needed to precisely portray yield stability of individual winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes, (2) compare grain yield performance and yield stability of two-rowed lines with those of six-rowed lines and hybrids, and (3) investigate the association of various agronomic traits with yield stability. Static and dynamic yield stability as well as grain yield performance was determined in five series of 3-year registration trials of winter barley in Germany. Each series included 4 or 5 six-rowed hybrids, 40-46 six-rowed inbred lines, as well as 42-49 two-rowed inbred lines. The genotypes were evaluated in 10-45 environments, i.e. year-by-location combinations. We found that precise assessment of yield stability of individual genotypes requires phenotyping in at least 40 test environments. Therefore, selection for yield stability is not usually feasible since the required number of test environments exceeds the common capacity of barley breeding programs. Also, indirect improvement of yield stability by means of agronomic traits seemed not possible since there was no constant association of any agronomic trait with yield stability. We found that compared with line varieties, hybrids showed on average higher grain yield performance combined with high dynamic yield stability. In conclusion, breeding hybrid instead of line varieties may be a promising way to develop high yielding and yield stable varieties.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Four major SPC-specific loci were identified, and these accounted for 8.5-15.1 % of the phenotypic variation, thus explaining why certain soybean varieties have a high PC but a low SPC. Water-soluble protein content (SPC) is a critical factor in both food quality and the production of isolated soybean proteins. However, few data are available regarding the genetic control and the mechanisms contributing to elevated SPC. In this study, a soybean collection of 192 accessions from a wide geographic range was used to identify genomic regions associated with soybean protein content (PC) and SPC using an association mapping approach employing 1,536 SNP makers and 232 haplotypes. The diverse panel revealed a large genetic variation in PC and SPC. Association mapping was performed using three methods to minimize false-positive associations. This resulted in 4/8 SNPs and 3/6 haplotypes that were significantly associated with soybean PC/SPC in two or more environments based on the mixed model. An SNP that was highly significantly associated with PC, BARC-021267-04016, was localized 0.28 cM away from a published glycinin gene, G7, and was detected across all four environments. Four major SPC-specific loci, BARC-029149-06088, BARC-018023-02499, BARC-041663-08059 and haplotype 15 (hp15), were stably identified on chromosomes five and eight and explained 8.5-15.1 % of the phenotypic variation. Moreover, a glutelin type-B 2-like gene was identified on chromosome eight and may be related to soybean protein solubility. These markers, which are located in previously reported QTL, reconfirmed previous findings and may be important targets for the identification of protein-related genes. These novel SNPs and haplotypes are important for further understanding the genetic basis of PC and SPC. In addition, by comparing the correlation and genetic loci between PC and SPC, we provide new insights into why certain soybean varieties have a high protein content but a low SPC.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 06/2014; 127(9):1905-1915.
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    ABSTRACT: An integrated dense genetic linkage map was constructed in a B. carinata population and used for comparative genome analysis and QTL identification for flowering time. An integrated dense linkage map of Brassica carinata (BBCC) was constructed in a doubled haploid population based on DArT-Seq(TM) markers. A total of 4,031 markers corresponding to 1,366 unique loci were mapped including 639 bins, covering a genetic distance of 2,048 cM. We identified 136 blocks and islands conserved in Brassicaceae, which showed a feature of hexaploidisation representing the suggested ancestral crucifer karyotype. The B and C genome of B. carinata shared 85 % of commonly conserved blocks with the B genome of B. nigra/B. juncea and 80 % of commonly conserved blocks with the C genome of B. napus, and shown frequent structural rearrangements such as insertions and inversions. Up to 24 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for flowering and budding time were identified in the DH population. Of these QTL, one consistent QTL (qFT.B4-2) for flowering time was identified in all of the environments in the J block of the B4 linkage group, where a group of genes for flowering time were aligned in A. thaliana. Another major QTL for flowering time under a winter-cropped environment was detected in the E block of C6, where the BnFT-C6 gene was previously localised in B. napus. This high-density map would be useful not only to reveal the genetic variation in the species with QTL analysis and genome sequencing, but also for other applications such as marker-assisted selection and genomic selection, for the African mustard improvement.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A point mutation in the AHAS1 gene leading to resistance to imidazolinone in chickpea was identified. The resistance is inherited as a single gene. A KASP marker targeting the mutation was developed. Weed control in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is challenging due to poor crop competition ability and limited herbicide options. A chickpea genotype with resistance to imidazolinone (IMI) herbicides has been identified, but the genetic inheritance and the mechanism were unknown. In many plant species, resistance to IMI is caused by point mutation(s) in the acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) gene resulting in an amino acid substitution preventing herbicide attachment to the molecule. The main objective of this research was to characterize the resistance to IMI herbicides in chickpea. Two homologous AHAS genes namely AHAS1 and AHAS2 sharing 80 % amino acid sequence similarity were identified in the chickpea genome. Cluster analysis indicated independent grouping of AHAS1 and AHAS2 across legume species. A point mutation in the AHAS1 gene at C675 to T675 resulting in an amino acid substitution from Ala205 to Val205 confers the resistance to IMI in chickpea. A KASP marker targeting the point mutation was developed and effectively predicted the response to IMI herbicides in a recombinant inbred (RI) population of chickpea. The RI population was used in molecular mapping where the major locus for the reaction to IMI herbicide was mapped to chromosome 5. Segregation analysis across an F2 population and RI population demonstrated that the resistance is inherited as a single gene in a semi-dominant fashion. The simple genetic inheritance and the availability of KASP marker generated in this study would speed up development of chickpea varieties with resistance to IMI herbicides.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We identified a G-nucleotide insertion in a maize FatB responsible for reducing saturated fatty acids through QTL mapping and map-based cloning and developed an allele-specific DNA marker for molecular breeding. Vegetable oils with reduced saturated fatty acids have signficant health benefits. SRS72NE, a Dow AgroSciences proprietory maize inbred line, was found to contain signficantly reduced levels of palmitic acid and total saturated fatty acids in seed oil when compared to other common inbreds. Using F2 and F3 populations derived from a cross between SRS72NE and a normal inbred SLN74, we have demonstrated that the reduced saturated fatty acid phenotype in SRS72NE is controlled by a single QTL on chromosome 9 that explains 79.1 % of palmitic acid and 79.6 % total saturated fatty acid variations. The QTL was mapped to an interval of 105 kb that contains one single gene, a type B fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase (ZmFatB; GRMZM5G829544). ZmFatB alleles from SRS72NE and common inbreds were cloned and sequenced. SRS72NE fatb allele contains a single nucleotide (G) insertion in the 6th exon, which creates a premature stop codon 22 base pairs down stream. As a result, ZmFatB protein from SRS72NE is predicted to contain eight altered and 90 deleted amino acids at its C-terminus. Because the affected region is part of the conserved acyl-ACP thioesterase catalytic domain, the truncated ZmFatB in SRS72NE is likely non-functional. We also show that fatb RNA level in SRS72NE is reduced by 4.4-fold when compared to the normal allele SNL74. A high throughput DNA assay capable of differentiating the normal and reduced saturate fatty acid alleles has been developed and can be used for accelerated molecular breeding.
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 05/2014;