Planta (Planta )

Publisher: Springer Verlag

Description

Planta publishes original articles and invited reviews in all aspects of plant biology particularly in molecular and cell biology ultrastructure biochemistry metabolism growth development and morphogenesis ecological and environmental physiology biotechnology plant-microorganism interactions. Preference is given to experimental articles and articles serving as the basis for experimental work.

  • Impact factor
    3.38
  • 5-year impact
    3.65
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.47
  • Eigenfactor
    0.02
  • Article influence
    1.00
  • Website
    Planta website
  • Other titles
    Planta (Online)
  • ISSN
    1432-2048
  • OCLC
    39973170
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's pre-print on pre-print servers such as arXiv.org
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on any open access repository after 12 months after publication
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version (see policy)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Calorespirometric measurements proved to be useful for phenotyping temperature response in terms of optimum temperatures for growth and low temperature limits for growth respiration in diverse carrot genotypes. High and low-temperature tolerance is an important trait in many breeding programs, but to date, improvement strategies have had limited success. Developing new, cost efficient and reliable screening tools to identify and select the most tolerant crop plant genotypes is necessary to assist plant breeding on cold and heat tolerance, and calorespirometry is proposed for this. Calorespirometry is a technique to simultaneously measure metabolic heat rates and CO2 emission rates of respiring tissues and can be used as a rapid method to determine how changes in the environment (e.g., temperature) influence plant growth. The main aim of this work was, therefore, to test the usefulness of calorespirometry as a phenotyping tool for carrot taproot growth in response to temperature. Calorespirometric measurements in the carrot taproot meristems of plants from eight carrot inbred lines allowed identification of optimum and minimum temperatures for growth of plants and to distinguish between phenotypes based on those characteristics. The technique proved to be useful for predicting yield-determining temperature responses in diverse carrot genotypes. Preliminary screening of new crop plant genotypes with calorespirometry based on their temperature adaptation and acclimation capability could make the screening process much less laborious by allowing selection of genotypes presenting the best growth performance under particular biotic or abiotic conditions before field tests.
    Planta 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Phi thickenings, bands of secondary wall thickenings that reinforce the primary wall of root cortical cells in a wide range of species, are described for the first time in the epiphytic orchid Miltoniopsis. As with phi thickenings found in other plants, the phi thickenings in Miltoniopsis contain highly aligned cellulose running along the lengths of the thickenings, and are lignified but not suberized. Using a combination of histological and immunocytochemical techniques, thickening development can be categorized into three different stages. Microtubules align lengthwise along the thickening during early and intermediate stages of development, and callose is deposited within the thickening in a pattern similar to the microtubules. These developing thickenings also label with the fluorescently tagged lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). These associations with microtubules and callose, and the WGA labeling, all disappear when the phi thickenings are mature. This pattern of callose and WGA deposition show changes in the thickened cell wall composition and may shed light on the function of phi thickenings in plant roots, a role for which has yet to be established.
    Planta 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure of Arabidopsis callus to microgravity has a significant impact on the expression of proteins involved in stress responses, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis, intracellular trafficking, signaling, and cell wall biosynthesis. Microgravity is among the main environmental stress factors that affect plant growth and development in space. Understanding how plants acclimate to space microgravity is important to develop bioregenerative life-support systems for long-term space missions. To evaluate the spaceflight-associated stress and identify molecular events important for acquired microgravity tolerance, we compared proteomic profiles of Arabidopsis thaliana callus grown under microgravity on board the Chinese spacecraft SZ-8 with callus grown under 1g centrifugation (1g control) in space. Alterations in the proteome induced by microgravity were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling. Forty-five proteins showed significant (p < 0.05) and reproducible quantitative differences in expression between the microgravity and 1g control conditions. Of these proteins, the expression level of 24 proteins was significantly up-regulated and that of 21 proteins was significantly down-regulated. The functions of these proteins were involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including general stress responses, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis/degradation, intracellular trafficking/transportation, signaling, and cell wall biosynthesis. Several proteins not previously known to be involved in the response to microgravity or gravitational stimuli, such as pathogenesis-related thaumatin-like protein, leucine-rich repeat extension-like protein, and temperature-induce lipocalin, were significantly up- or down-regulated by microgravity. The results imply that either the normal gravity-response signaling is affected by microgravity exposure or that microgravity might inappropriately induce altered responses to other environmental stresses.
    Planta 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Field-evolved resistance to the herbicide glyphosate is due to amplification of one of two EPSPS alleles, increasing transcription and protein with no splice variants or effects on other pathway genes. The widely used herbicide glyphosate inhibits the shikimate pathway enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Globally, the intensive use of glyphosate for weed control has selected for glyphosate resistance in 31 weed species. Populations of suspected glyphosate-resistant Kochia scoparia were collected from fields located in the US central Great Plains. Glyphosate dose response verified glyphosate resistance in nine populations. The mechanism of resistance to glyphosate was investigated using targeted sequencing, quantitative PCR, immunoblotting, and whole transcriptome de novo sequencing to characterize the sequence and expression of EPSPS. Sequence analysis showed no mutation of the EPSPS Pro106 codon in glyphosate-resistant K. scoparia, whereas EPSPS genomic copy number and transcript abundance were elevated three- to ten-fold in resistant individuals relative to susceptible individuals. Glyphosate-resistant individuals with increased relative EPSPS copy numbers had consistently lower shikimate accumulation in leaf disks treated with 100 μM glyphosate and EPSPS protein levels were higher in glyphosate-resistant individuals with increased gene copy number compared to glyphosate-susceptible individuals. RNA sequence analysis revealed seven nucleotide positions with two different expressed alleles in glyphosate-susceptible reads. However, one nucleotide at the seven positions was predominant in glyphosate-resistant sequences, suggesting that only one of two EPSPS alleles was amplified in glyphosate-resistant individuals. No alternatively spliced EPSPS transcripts were detected. Expression of five other genes in the chorismate pathway was unaffected in glyphosate-resistant individuals with increased EPSPS expression. These results indicate increased EPSPS expression is a mechanism for glyphosate resistance in these K. scoparia populations.
    Planta 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. They are involved in the control of many developmental processes, including fruit development. The increasing amount of information on miRNAs, on their expression, abundance, and conservation between various species, provides a new opportunity to study the role of miRNAs in non-model plant species. In this work, we used a combination of Northern blot and tissue print hybridization analysis to identify conserved miRNAs expressed during prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit development. Comparative profiling detected the expression of 34 miRNAs, which were clustered in three different groups that were associated with the different phases of fruit development. Variation in the level of miRNA expression was observed. Gradual expression increase of several miRNAs was observed during fruit development, including miR164. miR164 was selected for stem-loop RT-PCR and for a detailed spatial–temporal expression analysis. At early floral stages, miR164 was mainly localized in meristematic tissues, boundaries and fusion zones, while it was more homogenously expressed in fruit tissues. Our results provide the first evidence of miRNA expression in the prickly pear cactus and provide the basis for future research on miRNAs in Opuntia. Moreover, our analyses suggest that miR164 plays different roles during prickly pear cactus fruit development.
    Planta 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cadmium (Cd) is gaining more and more concern owing to the fact that it is one of the most ecotoxic heavy metals which could exhibit highly adverse effects on soil biological activity, biodiversity, plant metabolism, and the health of humans and animals. This metal is not required for any known biological functions, but owing to its higher mobility in soils, it could easily be absorbed by grain crops and contaminate groundwaters. Cadmium could accumulate in plants, which is not toxic to them, but it could be quite toxic to animals and humans eating such plants. Cadmium pollution is of concern in many industrialized communities around the globe, particularly where untreated waste water is released from industry and cities, and used to raise agriculture crops. The uptake of Cd even in low concentrations is known to be harmful to most plants since it can cause a reduction in growth, and even result in plant death in extreme cases. It can also interfere with photosynthesis, respiration, water relations, reproduction, and can cause changes in organelles by disruption of membrane structure and functions, oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation and alteration in chlorophyll contents. Plant concentration of Cd varies with plant species, age, tissue type and the forms of Cd in soils. Major factors affecting the mobility and phytoavailability of Cd include soil pH, total amount of Cd in soils, source of Cd, complementary ions, organic matter and soil type. Conversely, some investigations demonstrated that plant types differed considerably for mobilizing metals bound in soils and their subsequent absorption by plants. Chemical immobilization is an in situ remediation strategy where inexpensive and easily available chemicals are used to decrease plant availability of metals in contaminated soils. These chemical amendments include Ca- and P-compounds and some other alkaline-stabilizing solids which are quite effective at immobilizing metals, thereby decreasing their bioavailability to plants. These materials include phosphate (P) compounds like rock phosphate, apatites, diammonium phosphate (DAP) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4), phosphogypsum and dolomitic (CaCO3 + MgCO3) residue. It also includes liming agents like CaCO3 and CaO and S-containing compounds like ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4, gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) and elemental sulphur (S), etc. These materials could help the transformation of metals into such forms which have low solubility owing to precipitation as sparingly soluble compounds, thus decreasing metal absorption by plants. This chapter covers the aspects of how to restrict the entry of cadmium in grain crops by the use of different chemicals.
    Soil Remediation and Plants, Edited by Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Muhammad Sabir, Munir Ozturk, Ahmet Ruhi Mermut, 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Six BnaProDH1 and two BnaProDH2 genes were identified in Brassica napus genome. The BnaProDH1 genes are mainly expressed in pollen and roots' organs while BnaProDH2 gene expression is associated with leaf vascular tissues at senescence. Proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) catalyzes the first step in the catabolism of proline. The ProDH gene family in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) was characterized and compared to other Brassicaceae ProDH sequences to establish the phylogenetic relationships between genes. Six BnaProDH1 genes and two BnaProDH2 genes were identified in the B. napus genome. Expression of the three paralogous pairs of BnaProDH1 genes and the two homoeologous BnaProDH2 genes was measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in plants at vegetative and reproductive stages. The BnaProDH2 genes are specifically expressed in vasculature in an age-dependent manner, while BnaProDH1 genes are strongly expressed in pollen grains and roots. Compared to the abundant expression of BnaProDH1, the overall expression of BnaProDH2 is low except in roots and senescent leaves. The BnaProDH1 paralogs showed different levels of expression with BnaA&C.ProDH1.a the most strongly expressed and BnaA&C.ProDH1.c the least. The promoters of two BnaProDH1 and two BnaProDH2 genes were fused with uidA reporter gene (GUS) to characterize organ and tissue expression profiles in transformed B. napus plants. The transformants with promoters from different genes showed contrasting patterns of GUS activity, which corresponded to the spatial expression of their respective transcripts. ProDHs probably have non-redundant functions in different organs and at different phenological stages. In terms of molecular evolution, all BnaProDH sequences appear to have undergone strong purifying selection and some copies are becoming subfunctionalized. This detailed description of oilseed rape ProDH genes provides new elements to investigate the function of proline metabolism in plant development.
    Planta 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This work suggested that in Physalis PFGLO1-PFDEF primarily determined corolla and androecium identity, and acquired a novel role in gynoecia functionality, while PFGLO2-PFTM6 functioned in pollen maturation only. The B-class MADS-box genes play a crucial role in determining the organ identity of the corolla and androecium. Two GLOBOSA-like (GLO-like) PFGLO1 and PFGLO2 and two DEFICIENS-like (DEF-like) PFDEF and PFTM6 genes were present in Physalis floridana. However, the double-layered-lantern1 (doll1) mutant is the result of a single recessive mutation in PFGLO1, hinting a distinct divergent pattern of B-class genes. In this work, we utilized the tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated gene silencing approach to further verify this assumption in P. floridana. Silencing of PFGLO1 or/and PFDEF demonstrated their primary role in determining corolla and androecium identity. However, specific PFGLO2 or/and PFTM6 silencing did not affect any organ identity but showed a reduction in mature pollen. These results suggested that both PFGLO2 and PFTM6 had lost their role in organ identity determination but functioned in pollen maturation. Evaluation of fruit setting in reciprocal crosses suggested that both PFGLO1 and PFDEF might have acquired an essential and novel role in the functionality of gynoecia. Such a divergence of the duplicated GLO-DEF heterodimer genes in floral development is different from the existing observations within Solanaceae. Therefore, our research sheds new light on the functional evolution of the duplicated B-class MADS-box genes in angiosperms.
    Planta 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Physical properties of wheat coleoptile segments decreased after treatment with hemicellulose-degrading enzymes, indicating that hemicellulosic polysaccharides function to control the strength of primary cell walls. Changes in the physical properties of plant cell walls, a viscoelastic structure, are thought to be one of the growth-limiting factors for plants and one of the infection-affecting factors for fungi. To study the significance of hemicellulosic polysaccharides that form cross-bridges between cellulose microfibrils in controlling cell wall strength in monocot plants, the effects of hemicellulose degradation by recombinant Magnaporthe oryzae xylanase and 1,3-1,4-β-glucanase, and recombinant Aspergillus oryzae xyloglucanase on the physical properties and polysaccharide solubilization were investigated using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) coleoptiles. Treatments with xylanase or 1,3-1,4-β-glucanase significantly decreased the viscosity and elasticity of wheat coleoptile segments. In addition, xyloglucanase treatment slightly decreased the viscoelasticity. Furthermore, 1,3-1,4-β-glucan polymer was solubilized during hydrolysis with xylanase and xyloglucanase, even though neither enzyme had hydrolytic activity towards 1,3-1,4-β-glucan. These results suggest that xylan and xyloglucan interact with 1,3-1,4-β-glucan and that the composites and hemicellulosic polysaccharides form inter-molecular bridges. Degradation of these bridges causes decreases in the physical properties, resulting in increased extensibility of the cell walls. These findings provide a testable model in which wheat coleoptile cell walls are loosened by the degradation of hemicellulosic polysaccharides and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes play a significant role in loosening the walls during fungal infection.
    Planta 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Plants have lysophosphatidylcholine transacylase (LPCT) and acyl-CoA:glycerophosphocholine acyltransferase (GPCAT) activities. The combined action of LPCT and GPCAT provides a novel route of PC re-synthesis after its deacylation. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major lipid in eukaryotic membranes and has a central role in overall plant lipid metabolism. It is also the site of production of polyunsaturated fatty acids in plants. The recently discovered acyl-CoA:glycerophosphocholine acyltransferase (GPCAT) activity in yeast provides a novel route of re-synthesising PC via lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) after its deacylation. This route does not require the degradation of the glycerophosphocholine (GPC) into free choline, the activation of choline to CDP-choline, nor the utilization of CDP-choline by the CDP-choline:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase. We show here that GPCAT activities also are present in membrane preparations from developing oil seeds of safflower and other species as well as in membrane preparations of roots and leaves of Arabidopsis, indicating that GPCAT activity plays a ubiquitous role in plant lipid metabolism. The last step in formation of GPC, the substrate for GPCAT, is the deacylation of LPC. Microsomal membranes of developing safflower seeds utilized LPC in LPC:LPC transacylation reactions (LPCT activities) creating PC and GPC. The results demonstrate that safflower membranes have LPCT and GPCAT activities that represent novel reactions for PC acyl editing. The physiological relevance of these reactions probably has to await identification of the enzymes catalysing these reactions.
    Planta 10/2014;
  • Planta 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Differential palisade and spongy parenchyma structural changes in oilseed rape leaf were demonstrated. These dismantling processes were linked to early senescence events and associated to remobilization processes. During leaf senescence, an ordered cell dismantling process allows efficient nutrient remobilization. However, in Brassica napus plants, an important amount of nitrogen (N) in fallen leaves is associated with low N remobilization efficiency (NRE). The leaf is a complex organ mainly constituted of palisade and spongy parenchyma characterized by different structures and functions concerning water relations and carbon fixation. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate a specific structural evolution of these parenchyma throughout natural senescence in B. napus, probably linked to differential nutrient remobilization processes. The study was performed on 340 leaves from 32 plants during an 8-week development period under controlled growing conditions. Water distribution and status at the cellular level were investigated by low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), while light and electron microscopy were used to observe cell and plast structure. Physiological parameters were determined on all leaves studied and used as indicators of leaf development and remobilization progress. The results revealed a process of hydration and cell enlargement of leaf tissues associated with senescence. Wide variations were observed in the palisade parenchyma while spongy cells changed only very slightly. The major new functional information revealed was the link between the early senescence events and specific tissue dismantling processes.
    Planta 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In contrast to current knowledge, the B -ring hydroxylation pattern of anthocyanins can be determined by the hydroxylation of leucoanthocyanidins in the 3' position by flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase. The cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) are key flavonoid enzymes that introduce B-ring hydroxyl groups in positions 3' or 3' and 5', respectively. The degree of B-ring hydroxylation is the major determinant of the hue of anthocyanin pigments. Numerous studies have shown that F3'H and F3'5'H may act on more than one type of anthocyanin precursor in addition to other flavonoids, but it has been unclear whether the anthocyanin precursor of the leucoanthocyanidin type can be hydroxylated as well. We have investigated this in vivo using feeding experiments and in vitro by studies with recombinant F3'H. Feeding leucoanthocyanidins to petal tissue with active hydroxylases resulted in anthocyanidins with increased B-ring hydroxylation relative to the fed leucoanthocyanidin, indicating the presence of 3'-hydroxylating activity (in Petunia and Eustoma grandiflorum Grise.) and 3',5'-hydroxylating activity (in E. grandiflorum Grise.). Tetcyclacis, a specific inhibitor of cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes, abolished this activity, excluding involvement of unspecific hydroxylases. While some hydroxylation could be a consequence of reverse catalysis by dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) providing an alternative substrate, hydroxylating activity was still present in fed petals of a DFR deficient petunia line. In vitro conversion rates and kinetic data for dLPG (a stable leucoanthocyanidin substrate) were comparable to those for other flavonoids for nine of ten recombinant flavonoid hydroxylases from various taxa. dLPG was a poor substrate for only the recombinant Fragaria F3'Hs. Thus, the B-ring hydroxylation pattern of anthocyanins can be determined at all precursor levels in the pathway.
    Planta 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In Ajuga reptans, raffinose oligosaccharides accumulated during winter. Stachyose, verbascose, and higher RFO oligomers were exclusively found in the vacuole whereas one-fourth of raffinose was localized in the stroma. The evergreen labiate Ajuga reptans L. can grow at low temperature. The carbohydrate metabolism changes during the cold phase, e.g., raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) accumulate. Additionally, A. reptans translocates RFOs in the phloem. In the present study, subcellular concentrations of metabolites were studied in summer and winter leaves of A. reptans to gain further insight into regulatory instances involved in the cold acclimation process and into the function of RFOs. Subcellular metabolite concentrations were determined by non-aqueous fractionation. Volumes of the subcellular compartments of summer and winter leaves were analyzed by morphometric measurements. The metabolite content varied strongly between summer and winter leaves. Soluble metabolites increased up to tenfold during winter whereas the starch content was decreased. In winter leaves, the subcellular distribution showed a shift of carbohydrates from cytoplasm to vacuole and chloroplast. Despite this, the metabolite concentration was higher in all compartments in winter leaves compared to summer leaves because of the much higher total metabolite content in winter leaves. The different oligosaccharides did show different compartmentations. Stachyose, verbascose, and higher RFO oligomers were almost exclusively found in the vacuole whereas one-fourth of raffinose was localized in the stroma. Apparently, the subcellular distribution of the RFOs differs because they fulfill different functions in plant metabolism during winter. Raffinose might function in protecting chloroplast membranes during freezing, whereas higher RFO oligomers may exert protective effects on vacuolar membranes. In addition, the high content of RFOs in winter leaves may also result from reduced consumption of assimilates.
    Planta 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Immunolabeling by using monoclonal antibodies showed that xylan deposition precedes the formation of 8-5'-linked structure of lignin in normal and compression woods of Chamaecyparis obtusa. Xylan deposition and formation of 8-5'-linked lignin structure in differentiating xylems from normal and compression woods in Chamaecyparis obtusa were examined by immunoelectron microscopy using monoclonal antibodies (LM10 or LM11) to detect xylan localization. The 8-5'-linked lignin structure was immunolocalized using KM1 antibody. Xylan and 8-5'-linked lignin double immunolabeling was performed using secondary antibodies labeled with colloidal gold particles of different diameters. In normal wood, KM1 labeling occurred in the compound middle lamella (CML) and S1 layer during S1 layer formation and increased as S2 and S3 layers formed, with labeling occurring at the outer part of the previous layer. In compression wood, mild KM1 labeling occurred in the CML and outer part of the S1 layer at the later S1 layer formation stage, with increased labeling as the S2 layer formed. Minor labeling occurred in the outer part of the S2 layer during helical cavity formation. Comparison between KM1 labeling and KMnO4 staining suggested that lignin other than 8-5'-linked structure was formed during early lignification, and the proportion of 8-5'-linked lignin structure increased at later stages of lignification in both normal and compression woods. LM10 and LM11 labeling occurred slightly earlier than KM1 labeling, suggesting that xylan deposition preceded the formation of 8-5'-linked lignin in normal and compression woods. Less labeling by KM1, LM10, and LM11 occurred in the outer part of the S2 layer in compression wood, which has abundant lignin. Thus, lignin in these parts is composed of lignin substructures other than the 8-5' linkage.
    Planta 10/2014;