Planta (Planta )

Publisher: Springer Verlag

Description

Planta publishes original articles and invited reviews in all aspects of plant biology particularly in molecular and cell biology ultrastructure biochemistry metabolism growth development and morphogenesis ecological and environmental physiology biotechnology plant-microorganism interactions. Preference is given to experimental articles and articles serving as the basis for experimental work.

  • Impact factor
    3.35
  • 5-year impact
    3.65
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.47
  • Eigenfactor
    0.02
  • Article influence
    1.00
  • Website
    Planta website
  • Other titles
    Planta (Online)
  • ISSN
    1432-2048
  • OCLC
    39973170
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors own final version only can be archived
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On author's website or institutional repository
    • On funders designated website/repository after 12 months at the funders request or as a result of legal obligation
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version (The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Yasutaka Seki, Yukiko Kikuchi, Ryo Yoshimoto, Kenichi Aburai, Yoshihiro Kanai, Tatsushi Ruike, Kazuki Iwabata, Ryo Goitsuka, Fumio Sugawara, Masahiko Abe, Kengo Sakaguchi
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    ABSTRACT: Enzymatic activities of Oryza sativa expansins, which were heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli , were analyzed. Results suggested that expansins promote degradation of cellulose by cellulase in a synergistic manner. Sustainable production of future biofuels is dependent on efficient saccharification of lignocelluloses. Expansins have received a lot of attention as proteins promoting biological degradation of cellulose using cellulase. The expansins are a class of plant cell wall proteins that induce cell wall loosening without hydrolysis. In this study, the expansins from Oryza sativa were classified using phylogenetic analysis and five proteins were selected for functional evaluation. At low cellulose loading, the cellulase in expansin mixtures was up to 2.4 times more active than in mixtures containing only cellulase, but at high cellulose loading the activity of cellulase in expansin mixtures and cellulase only mixtures did not differ. Furthermore, expansin activity was greater in cellulase mixtures compared with cellulase-deficient mixtures. Therefore, the expansins showed significant synergistic activity with cellulase. Expansin may play an important role in efficient saccharification of cellulose.
    Planta 09/2014;
  • Mark Seger, Sayed Gebril, Jules Tabilona, Amanda Peel, Champa Sengupta-Gopalan
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    ABSTRACT: The outcome of simultaneously increasing SPS and GS activities in transgenic tobacco, suggests that sucrose is the major determinant of growth and development, and is not affected by changes in N assimilation. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are the major components required for plant growth and the metabolic pathways for C and N assimilation are very closely interlinked. Maintaining an appropriate balance or ratio of sugar to nitrogen metabolites in the cell, is important for the regulation of plant growth and development. To understand how C and N metabolism interact, we manipulated the expression of key genes in C and N metabolism individually and concurrently and checked for the repercussions. Transgenic tobacco plants with a cytosolic soybean glutamine synthetase (GS1) gene and a sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene from maize, both driven by the CaMV 35S promoter were produced. Co-transformants, with both the transgenes were produced by sexual crosses. While GS is the key enzyme in N assimilation, involved in the synthesis of glutamine, SPS plays a key role in C metabolism by catalyzing the synthesis of sucrose. Moreover, to check if nitrate has any role in this interaction, the plants were grown under both low and high nitrogen. The SPS enzyme activity in the SPS and SPS/GS1 co-transformants were the same under both nitrogen regimens. However, the GS activity was lower in the co-transformants compared to the GS1 transformants, specifically under low nitrogen conditions. The GS1/SPS transformants showed a phenotype similar to the SPS transformants, suggesting that sucrose is the major determinant of growth and development in tobacco, and its effect is only marginally affected by increased N assimilation. Sucrose may be functioning in a metabolic capacity or as a signaling molecule.
    Planta 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Enoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-reductases from sunflower. A major factor contributing to the amount of fatty acids in plant oils are the first steps of their synthesis. The intraplastidic fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in plants is catalysed by type II fatty acid synthase (FAS). The last step in each elongation cycle is carried out by the enoyl-[ACP]-reductase, which reduces the dehydrated product of β-hydroxyacyl-[ACP] dehydrase using NADPH or NADH. To determine the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds, two enoyl-[ACP]-reductase genes have been identified and cloned from developing seeds with 75 % identity: HaENR1 (GenBank HM021137) and HaENR2 (HM021138). The two genes belong to the ENRA and ENRB families in dicotyledons, respectively. The genetic duplication most likely originated after the separation of di- and monocotyledons. RT-qPCR revealed distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. Highest expression of HaENR1 was in roots, stems and developing cotyledons whereas that of H a ENR2 was in leaves and early stages of seed development. Genomic DNA gel blot analyses suggest that both are single-copy genes. In vivo activity of the ENR enzymes was tested by complementation experiments with the JP1111 fabI(ts) E. coli strain. Both enzymes were functional demonstrating that they interacted with the bacterial FAS components. That different fatty acid profiles resulted infers that the two Helianthus proteins have different structures, substrate specificities and/or reaction rates. The latter possibility was confirmed by in vitro analysis with affinity-purified heterologous-expressed enzymes that reduced the crotonyl-CoA substrate using NADH with different V max.
    Planta 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: pF128 drives GUS specifically expressed in transgenic seeds of foxtail millet and Zea mays with higher activity than the constitutive CaMV35S promoter and the maize seed-specific 19Z promoter. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), a member of the Poaceae family, is an important food and fodder crop in arid regions. Foxtail millet is an excellent C4 crop model owing to its small genome (~490 Mb), self-pollination and availability of a complete genome sequence. F128 was isolated from a cDNA library of foxtail millet immature seeds. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that F128 mRNA was specifically expressed in immature and mature seeds. The highest F128 mRNA level was observed 5 days after pollination and gradually decreased as the seed matured. Sequence analysis suggested that the protein encoded by F128 is likely a protease inhibitor/seed storage protein/lipid-transfer protein. The 1,053 bp 5' flanking sequence of F128 (pF128) was isolated and fused to the GUS reporter gene. The corresponding vector was then transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana, foxtail millet and Zea mays. GUS analysis revealed that pF128 drove GUS expression efficiently and specifically in the seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis, foxtail millet and Zea mays. GUS activity was also detected in Arabidopsis cotyledons. Activity of pF128 was higher than that observed for the constitutive CaMV35S promoter and the maize seed-specific 19 Zein (19Z) promoter. These results indicate that pF128 is a seed-specific promoter. Its application is expected to be of considerable value in plant genetic engineering.
    Planta 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important regulatory roles in plant development and stress responses. Tomato is an economically important vegetable crop in the world with publicly available genomic information database, but only a limited number of tomato miRNAs have been identified. In this study, two independent small RNA libraries from mock and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected tomatoes were constructed, respectively, and sequenced with a high-throughput Illumina Solexa system. Based on sequence analysis and hairpin structure prediction, a total of 50 plant miRNAs and 273 potentially candidate miRNAs (PC-miRNAs) were firstly identified in tomato, with 12 plant miRNAs and 82 PC-miRNAs supported by both the 3p and 5p strands. Comparative analysis revealed that 79 miRNAs (including 15 new tomato miRNAs) and 40 PC-miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two libraries, and the expression patterns of some new tomato miRNAs and PC-miRNAs were further validated by qRT-PCR. Moreover, potential targets for some of the known and new tomato miRNAs were identified by the recently developed degradome sequencing approach, and target annotation indicated that they were involved in multiple biological processes, including transcriptional regulation and virus resistance. Gene ontology analysis of these target transcripts demonstrated that defense response- and photosynthesis-related genes were most affected in CMV-Fny-infected tomatoes. Because tomato is not only an important crop but also is a genetic model for basic biology research, our study contributes to the understanding of miRNAs in response to virus infection.
    Planta 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Whole-genome re-sequencing of weedy rice from southern China reveals that weedy rice can originate from hybridization of domesticated indica and japonica rice. Weedy rice (Oryza sativa f. spontanea Rosh.), which harbors phenotypes of both wild and domesticated rice, has become one of the most notorious weeds in rice fields worldwide. While its formation is poorly understood, massive amounts of rice genomic data may provide new insights into this issue. In this study, we determined genomes of three weedy rice samples from the lower Yangtze region, China, and investigated their phylogenetics, population structure and chromosomal admixture patterns. The phylogenetic tree and principle component analysis based on 46,005 SNPs with 126 other Oryza accessions suggested that the three weedy rice accessions were intermediate between japonica and indica rice. An ancestry inference study further demonstrated that weedy rice had two dominant genomic components (temperate japonica and indica). This strongly suggests that weedy rice originated from indica-japonica hybridization. Furthermore, 22,443 novel fixed single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in the weedy genomes and could have been generated after indica-japonica hybridization for environmental adaptation.
    Planta 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A model for GABA synthesis in stems of pine seedlings is proposed. The localization of GABA in differentiating tracheids suggests a link between GABA production and vascular development. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. GABA plays a fundamental role as a signal molecule in the central nervous system in animals. In plants, GABA has been correlated with cellular elongation, plant development, gene expression regulation, synthesis of ethylene and other hormones, and signaling. Considering the physiological importance of GABA in plants, the lack of works about GABA localization in this kingdom seems surprising. In this work, the immunolocalization of GABA in root and hypocotyl during seedling development and in bent stem showing compression xylem has been studied. In the seedling root, the GABA signal was very high and restricted to the stele supporting previous evidences indicating a potential role for this amino acid in root growth and nutrient transport. In hypocotyl, GABA was localized in vascular tissues, including differentiating xylem, ray parenchyma and epithelial resin duct cells, drawing also a role for GABA in vascular development, communication and defense. During the production of compression wood, a special lignified wood produced when the stem loss its vertical position, a clear GABA signal was found in the new differentiating xylem cells showing a gradient-like pattern with higher signal in less differentiated elements. The results are in accordance with a previous work indicating that glutamate decarboxylase and GABA production are associated to vascular differentiation in pine Molina-Rueda et al. (Planta 232: 1471-1483, 2010). A model for GABA synthesis in vascular differentiation, communication, and defense is proposed in the stem of pine seedlings.
    Planta 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Comparative proteomic analyses were performed to detail the evolutionary consequences of strong directional selection for enhanced fiber traits in modern upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Using two complementary proteomic approaches, 2-DE and iTRAQ LC-MS/MS, fiber proteomes were examined for four representative stages of fiber development. Approximately 1,000 protein features were characterized using each strategy, collectively resulting in the identification and functional categorization of 1,223 proteins. Unequal contributions of homoeologous proteins were detected for over a third of the fiber proteome, but overall expression was balanced with respect to the genome-of-origin in the allopolyploid G. hirsutum. About 30 % of the proteins were differentially expressed during fiber development within wild and domesticated cotton. Notably, domestication was accompanied by a doubling of protein developmental dynamics for the period between 10 and 20 days following pollination. Expression levels of 240 iTRAQ proteins and 293 2-DE spots were altered by domestication, collectively representing multiple cellular and metabolic processes, including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis and destination, defense and stress response. Analyses of homoeolog-specific expression indicate that duplicated gene products in cotton fibers can be differently regulated in response to selection. These results demonstrate the power of proteomics for the analysis of crop domestication and phenotypic evolution.
    Planta 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research suggested that the polar and temperate populations of the kelp Saccharina latissima represent different ecotypes. The ecotypic differentiation might also be reflected in their biochemical composition (BC) under changing temperatures and pCO2. Accordingly, it was tested if the BC of Arctic (Spitsbergen) and temperate S. latissima (Helgoland) is different and if they are differently affected by changes in temperature and pCO2. Thalli from Helgoland grown at 17 °C and 10 °C and from Spitsbergen at 10 °C and 4 °C were all tested at either 380, 800, or 1,500 µatm pCO2, and total C-, total N-, protein, soluble carbohydrate, and lipid content, as well as C/N-ratio were measured. At 10 °C, the Arctic population had a higher content of total C, soluble carbohydrates, and lipids, whereas the N- and protein content was lower. At the lower tested temperature, the Arctic ecotype had particularly higher contents of lipids, while content of soluble carbohydrates increased in the Helgoland population only. In Helgoland-thalli, elevated pCO2 caused a higher content of soluble carbohydrates at 17 °C but lowered the content of N and lipids and increased the C/N-ratio at 10 °C. Elevated pCO2 alone did not affect the BC of the Spitsbergen population. Conclusively, the Arctic ecotype was more resilient to increased pCO2 than the temperate one, and both ecotypes differed in their response pattern to temperature. This differential pattern is discussed in the context of the adaptation of the Arctic ecotype to low temperature and the polar night.
    Planta 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Plant pathogens deploy an array of virulence factors to suppress host defense and promote pathogenicity. Numerous strains of Pseudomonas syringae produce the phytotoxin coronatine (COR). A major aspect of COR function is its ability to mimic a bioactive jasmonic acid (JA) conjugate and thus target the JA-receptor COR-insensitive 1 (COI1). Biological activities of COR include stimulation of JA-signaling and consequent suppression of SA-dependent defense through antagonistic crosstalk, antagonism of stomatal closure to allow bacterial entry into the interior of plant leaves, contribution to chlorotic symptoms in infected plants, and suppression of plant cell wall defense through perturbation of secondary metabolism. Here, we review the virulence function of COR, including updates on these established activities as well as more recent findings revealing COI1-independent activity of COR and shedding light on cooperative or redundant defense suppression between COR and type III effector proteins.
    Planta 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In plants, the composition and organization of the cell wall determine cell shape, enable cell expansion, and affect the properties of woody tissues. Cellulose synthase (CesA) genes encode the enzymes involved in the synthesis of cellulose which is the major component of plant primary and secondary cell walls. Here, we isolated a full-length PtoCesA3 cDNA from the stem cambium tissue of Populus tomentosa. Tissue-specific expression profiling showed that PtoCesA3 is highly expressed during primary cell wall formation. Estimation of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) revealed that PtoCesA3 harbors high SNP diversity (π T = 0.00995 and θ w = 0.0102) and low LD (r (2) ≥ 0.1, within 1,280 bp). Association analysis in a P. tomentosa association population (460 individuals) showed that seven SNPs (false discovery rate Q < 0.10) and five haplotypes (Q < 0.10) were significantly associated with growth and wood properties, explaining 4.09-7.02 % of the phenotypic variance. All significant marker-trait associations were validated in at least one of the three smaller subsets (climatic regions) while five associations were repeated in the linkage population. Variation in RNA transcript abundance among genotypic classes of significant loci was also confirmed in the association or linkage populations. Identification of PtoCesA3 and examining its allelic polymorphisms using association studies open an avenue to understand the mechanism of cellulose synthesis in the primary cell wall and its effects on the properties of woody tissues.
    Planta 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Mineral nutrients are distributed in a non-uniform manner in the soil. Plasticity in root responses to the availability of mineral nutrients is believed to be important for optimizing nutrient acquisition. The response of root architecture to heterogeneous nutrient availability has been documented in various plant species, and the molecular mechanisms coordinating these responses have been investigated particularly in Arabidopsis, a model dicotyledonous plant. Recently, progress has been made in describing the phenotypic plasticity of root architecture in maize, a monocotyledonous crop. This article reviews aspects of phenotypic plasticity of maize root system architecture, with special emphasis on describing (1) the development of its complex root system; (2) phenotypic responses in root system architecture to heterogeneous N availability; (3) the importance of phenotypic plasticity for N acquisition; (4) different regulation of root growth and nutrients uptake by shoot; and (5) root traits in maize breeding. This knowledge will inform breeding strategies for root traits enabling more efficient acquisition of soil resources and synchronizing crop growth demand, root resource acquisition and fertilizer application during crop growing season, thereby maximizing crop yields and nutrient-use efficiency and minimizing environmental pollution.
    Planta 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The morphological outer side of the apple fruit cuticle is markedly more strained than the inner side. This strain is released upon wax extraction. This paper investigates the effect of ablating outer and inner surfaces of isolated cuticular membranes (CM) of mature apple (Malus × domestica) fruit using cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) on the release of strain after extraction of waxes. Strain release was quantified as the decrease in area of CM discs following CAPP treatment and subsequent solvent extraction of wax. Increasing duration of CAPP treatment proportionally decreased CM mass per unit area. There was no difference in mass loss rate between CAPP treatments of outer or inner surfaces. Also, there was no difference in surface area of CMs before and after CAPP treatment. However, upon subsequent wax extraction, surface area of CMs decreased indicating the release of strain. Increasing the duration of CAPP treatment resulted in increasing strain release up to 47.7 ± 8.0 % at 20 min when CAPP was applied to the inner surface. In contrast, strain release was independent of CAPP duration averaging about 12.1 ± 0.6 % when applied to the outer surface of the CM. Our results provide evidence for a marked gradient of strain between the outer side (strained) and the inner side of the CM (not strained) of mature apple fruit.
    Planta 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Storage promotes carotenoid accumulation and converts amylochromoplasts into chromoplasts in winter squash. Such carotenoid enhancement is likely due to continuous biosynthesis along with reduced turnover and/or enhanced sequestration. Postharvest storage of fruits and vegetables is often required and frequently results in nutritional quality change. In this study, we investigated carotenoid storage plastids, carotenoid content, and its regulation during 3-month storage of winter squash butternut fruits. We showed that storage improved visual appearance of fruit flesh color from light to dark orange, and promoted continuous accumulation of carotenoids during the first 2-month storage. Such an increased carotenoid accumulation was found to be concomitant with starch breakdown, resulting in the conversion of amylochromoplasts into chromoplasts. The butternut fruits contained predominantly β-carotene, lutein, and violaxanthin. Increased ratios of β-carotene and violaxanthin to total carotenoids were noticed during the storage. Analysis of carotenoid metabolic gene expression and PSY protein level revealed a decreased expression of carotenogenic genes and PSY protein following the storage, indicating that the increased carotenoid level might not be due to increased biosynthesis. Instead, the increase likely resulted from a continuous biosynthesis with a possibly reduced turnover and/or enhanced sequestration, suggesting a complex regulation of carotenoid accumulation during fruit storage. This study provides important information to our understanding of carotenogenesis and its regulation during postharvest storage of fruits.
    Planta 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Stump overgrowth may serve as a unique model for studying cellular reorganization and mechanisms responsible for cell polarity changes during the process of vascular tissue differentiation from initially unorganized parenchymatous cells. Cellular ordering and tissue reorganization during the overgrowth process of the transverse surfaces of Douglas fir stumps in forest stand was studied. At the beginning of stump overgrowth, the produced parenchymatous cells form an unorganized tissue. Particular parenchyma cells start arranging into more ordered structures which resemble rays. Application of digital image analysis software based on structure tensor was used. The analysis showed that at this stage of tissue development, cellular elements display a wide range of angular orientation values and attain very low coherency coefficients. The progress of the tissue differentiation process is associated with the formation of local regions with tracheids oriented circularly around the rays. This coincides with an increase in the range of angular orientations and greater values of coherency coefficients. At the most advanced stage of tissue development, with tracheids arranged parallelly in longitudinal strands, the degree of cell ordering is the highest what is manifested by the greatest values attained by coherency coefficients, and the narrow range of angular orientations. It is suggested that the ray-like structures could act as organizing centers in the morphogenetic field responsible for differentiation of the overgrowth tissue. The circular pattern of tracheids around rays in the initial phase of tissue development can be interpreted in terms of local rotation of the morphogenetic field which afterward is transformed into irrotational field. This transformation is noted by the presence of tracheids arranged parallelly in longitudinal strands. The possible involvement of a mechanism controlling cell polarity with respect to auxin transport is discussed.
    Planta 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A green algal phenol oxidase was firstly purified, confirmed to be a laccase, and a hetero-oligomeric quaternary structure is suggested. The operation of a laccase-mediator system is firstly described in algae. Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) catalyze the oxidation of a multitude of aromatic substrates. They are well known in higher plants and fungi, while their presence in green algae appears uncertain. Extracellular laccase-like enzyme activity has previously been described in culture supernatants of the green soil alga Tetracystis aeria [Otto et al. in Arch Microbiol 192:759-768, (2010)]. As reported herein, the T. aeria enzyme was purified 120-fold by employing a combination of anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography. The purified enzyme was confirmed to be a laccase according to its substrate specificity. It oxidizes 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), syringaldazine, and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (pH optima of pH ≤2.5, 7.0, and 6.5; K m values of 28.8, 40.5, and 1,830 µM; respectively), but not L-tyrosine or Fe(2+). ABTS is by far the most efficient substrate. Two polypeptides, A (~110 kDa) and B (71 kDa), were co-purified by the applied procedure, both being highly N-glycosylated (≥~53 and ≥27 %, respectively). As suggested by various gel electrophoretic analyses, the native enzyme (apparent molecular mass of ~220 kDa) most probably is a hetero-oligomer with the composition AB 2 , wherein A is the catalytic subunit and B forms a disulfide-linked homo-dimer B 2 . The decolorization of anthraquinone (Acid Blue 62 and Remazol Brilliant Blue R) and diazo dyes (Reactive Black 5) was studied in the presence of redox-mediating compounds (ABTS and syringaldehyde), demonstrating the operation of the laccase-mediator system in algae for the first time. Thus, laccases from green algae may participate in the biotransformation of a wide spectrum of natural and xenobiotic compounds.
    Planta 08/2014;

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