Pediatric Cardiology (Pediatr Cardiol )

Publisher: Springer Verlag

Description

The editor of Pediatric Cardiology welcomes original manuscripts concerning all aspects of heart disease in infants, children, and adolescents, including embryology and anatomy, physiology and pharmacology, biochemistry, pathology, genetics, radiology, clinical aspects, investigative cardiology, electrophysiology and echocardiography, and cardiac surgery. Articles which may include original articles, case reports, letters to the editor etc., must be written in English and must be submitted solely to Pediatric Cardiology.

  • Impact factor
    1.20
  • 5-year impact
    1.26
  • Cited half-life
    6.40
  • Immediacy index
    0.30
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.44
  • Website
    Pediatric Cardiology website
  • Other titles
    Pediatric cardiology (Online)
  • ISSN
    1432-1971
  • OCLC
    41903795
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors own final version only can be archived
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On author's website or institutional repository
    • On funders designated website/repository after 12 months at the funders request or as a result of legal obligation
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version (The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ultrasound (US) is the standard of care for vascular access in many clinical scenarios. Limited data exist regarding the benefits of US- versus landmark (LM)-guided femoral vascular access in the pediatric catheterization laboratory. This study aimed to compare US- and LM-guided vascular access in the pediatric catheterization laboratory. A single operator randomized 95 patients (201 vessels) to undergo either LM- or US-guided vascular access. The primary end point was the access success rate. Number of attempts, inadvertent access, time to sheath placement, and complications also were compared between the two groups. No difference was seen in the overall access success rate: 98 % with US versus 93 % with LM (p = 0.17). The success rate for the targeted vessel was higher with US (89 %) than with LM (67 %) (p = 0.012). US facilitated fewer attempts (1.1 ± 0.4 vs 1.4 ± 0.9; p = 0.048) and improved the first-attempt success rate (87 vs 77 %; p = 0.049). The time to access did not differ significantly between the two groups (US 2:55 ± 4:03 vs LM 3:37 ± 2:54; p = 0.28). No differences in complication rates were noted. The benefits of US were accentuated in the subgroup weighing less than 10 kg. In this study, US access in the pediatric catheterization laboratory did not improve overall success. However, US improved accuracy and reduced the number attempts necessary for access without prolonging the access time of the procedure. Small children realized the greatest benefit of US-guided access.
    Pediatric Cardiology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ventricular dyssynchrony is associated with morbidity and mortality after palliation of a single ventricle. The authors hypothesized that resynchronization with optimized temporary multisite pacing postoperatively would be safe, feasible, and effective. Pacing was assessed in the intensive care unit within the first 24 h after surgery. Two unipolar atrial pacing leads and four bipolar ventricular pacing leads were placed at standardized sites intraoperatively. Pacing was optimized to maximize mean arterial pressure. The protocol tested 11 combinations of the 4 different ventricular lead sites, 6 atrioventricular delays (50-150 ms), and 14 intraventricular delays. Optimal pacing settings were thus determined and ultimately compared in four configurations: bipolar, unipolar, single-site atrioventricular pacing, and intrinsic rhythm. Each patient was his or her own control, and all pacing comparisons were implemented in random sequence. Single-ventricle palliation was performed for 17 children ages 0-21 years. Pacing increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) versus intrinsic rhythm, with the following configurations: bipolar multisite pacing increased MAP by 2.2 % (67.7 ± 2.4 to 69.2 ± 2.4 mmHg; p = 0.013) and unipolar multisite pacing increased MAP by 2.8 % (67.7 ± 2.4 to 69.6 ± 2.7 mmHg; p = 0.002). Atrioventricular single-site pacing increased MAP by 2.1 % (67.7 ± 2.4 to 69.1 ± 2.5 mmHg: p = 0.02, insignificant difference under Bonferroni correction). The echocardiographic fractional area change in nine patients increased significantly only with unipolar pacing (32 ± 3.1 to 36 ± 4.2 %; p = 0.02). No study-related adverse events occurred. Multisite pacing optimization is safe and feasible in the early postoperative period after single-ventricle palliation, with improvements in mean arterial pressure and fractional area shortening. Further study to evaluate clinical benefits is required.
    Pediatric Cardiology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In other cardiomyopathies, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR)-derived myocardial delayed enhancement (MDE), a marker of myocardial fibrosis, is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death (SCD). In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the prognostic value of MDE for ventricular arrhythmias and death is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate associations between MDE and electrocardiographic (ECG) changes, ventricular remodeling, risk of arrhythmias, and death in DMD. This retrospective study included all subjects with DMD who had undergone a CMR between January 2006 and December 2011 and had available ECG and 24-h Holter records from the same period. Left ventricular (LV) MDE was semiquantitatively graded from 0 to 4. Comparisons of demographic and clinical characteristics between MDE and no-MDE groups were made. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess factors associated with death. This study investigated 32 boys with a median age of 13.8 years (range, 7.2-17.4 years) and found MDE present in 25 (78 %) of the boys. Compared with the no-MDE subjects, the MDE subjects were older (15.7 ± 3.3 vs 12.1 ± 4.8 years) and had a wider QT dispersion (QTd: 74 ± 30 vs 55 ± 33 ms), a higher incidence of ventricular tachycardia (40 vs 0 %), a lower LV ejection fraction (46 ± 12 vs 56 ± 9 %), a larger LV end-diastolic volume (124 ± 58 vs 68 ± 14 ml/m(2)), and a larger end-systolic volume (57 ± 29 vs 28 ± 10 ml/m(2)) (p < 0.05 for all). During the study period, six of the subjects (19 %) died. The factors associated with mortality were increased age, advanced grade of MDE, higher LV end-systolic volume, lower LV ejection fraction, use of beta-blockers, and ventricular tachycardia. Myocardial fibrosis detected by CMR is an independent predictor of adverse cardiac remodeling, ventricular arrhythmias, and death in DMD. Cardiac MRI using MDE can be applied as a screening tool to detect patients at risk for ventricular arrhythmias, more advanced disease, adverse LV remodeling, and death.
    Pediatric Cardiology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Screening with portable echocardiography has uncovered a large burden of latent rheumatic heart disease (RHD) among asymptomatic children in endemic regions, the significance of which remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the 2-year outcomes for children with latent RHD diagnosed by echocardiographic screening. Children identified with latent RHD enrolled in a biannual follow-up program. Risk factors for disease persistence and progression were examined. Of 62 children, 51 (82 %) with latent RHD had a median follow-up period of 25 months. Of these 51 children, 17 (33.3 %) reported an interval sore throat or symptoms consistent with acute rheumatic fever (ARF). Of 43 children initially classified as having borderline RHD, 21 (49 %) remained stable, 18 (42 %) improved (to no RHD) and 4 (10 %) worsened to definite RHD. Of the 8 children initially classified as having definite RHD, 6 (75 %) remained stable, and 2 (25 %) improved to borderline RHD. Two children had confirmed episodes of recurrent ARF, one of which represented the sole case of clinical worsening. The risk factors for disease persistence or progression included younger age (p = 0.05), higher antistreptolysin O titers at diagnosis (p = 0.05), and more morphologic valve abnormalities (p = 0.01). After 2 years, most of the children had a benign course, with 91 % remaining stable or showing improvement. Education may improve recognition of streptococcal sore throat. Longer-term follow-up evaluation, however, is warranted to confirm disease progression and risk factor profile. This could help tailor screening protocols for those at highest risk.
    Pediatric Cardiology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to clarify the relationship between onset of protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) and Fontan circulation, with special reference to the development of contractility-afterload mismatch. The PLE group comprised 9 patients who experienced PLE after undergoing the Fontan operation, and the control group consisted of 32 patients had did not experienced PLE more than 10 years after the Fontan operation. The study compared the pre- and postoperative values of arterial elastance (Ea), end-systolic elastance (Ees), and contractility-afterload mismatch (Ea/Ees). Furthermore, the variations in the values were examined during the preoperative, postoperative, and midterm postoperative periods in seven PLE patients who underwent cardiac catheterization at the onset of PLE and during the pre- and postintervention periods in three PLE patients who underwent surgical intervention to improve the Fontan circulation after the onset of PLE. Comparison of the values obtained before and after Fontan operations showed that the Ea values increased significantly in the PLE group. However, the pre- and postoperative Ees values did not differ in the two groups. During the postoperative period, Ea/Ees increased significantly, and the Ea and Ea/Ees values increased continuously until the onset of PLE in the PLE group. In the patients who underwent surgical intervention to improve the Fontan circulation after the onset of PLE, the Ea/Ees decreased significantly, and the serum albumin levels improved after the intervention. Contractility-afterload mismatch, mainly caused by the increase in the afterload of the systemic ventricle, may have an important role in the development of PLE after the Fontan operation.
    Pediatric Cardiology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Deficient retro-aortic rim is of concern as a risk factor for aortic erosion after device closure of atrial septal defects (ASD). However, its prevalence and contribution to technical failure and adverse outcomes have not been delineated. A single-center retrospective cohort study of children and adults undergoing cardiac catheterization for device occlusion of ASD from 1 January 1999 to 1 April 2012 was performed. Risk factors for technical failure and early adverse outcome were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. During the study period, 445 consecutive subjects with a median age of 5.9 years (range, 0.8-80 years) underwent catheterization. Of the subjects with reviewable echocardiograms, 60 % had deficient retro-aortic rim. No attempt at device closure was made for 3.6 % of the subjects. Of the remaining 429 subjects, 96 % underwent successful device occlusion. Major early adverse events occurred in 1.2 % (95 % confidence interval 0.4-2.7 %) of the cases, all of them either device embolization or malposition. Deficient retro-aortic rim was not a risk factor for composite outcome of technical failure or early major adverse event. No deaths, late reinterventions, or erosion events occurred during 2,395 total person-years (median, 5.8 years) of follow-up evaluation. Deficient retro-aortic rim was associated with increased risk of device impingement on the aorta, but no association was seen between device impingement or deficient retro-aortic rim and the development of new/progressive aortic insufficiency. Deficient retro-aortic rim is highly prevalent but did not increase the risk of adverse outcomes. Its contribution to the risk of aortic erosion could not be addressed by this study.
    Pediatric Cardiology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Kawasaki disease complicates with myocarditis and vasculitis. Even if myocarditis is asymptomatic, heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization may be increased in the acute phase. We evaluated whether the change in repolarization characteristics can be used as a predictor for myocarditis and coronary lesions. Enrolled 34 children who were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. There were no sequelae in the recovery phase in any subjects, including those who had transient coronary artery lesion. QT and the interval from the Tpeak to Tend (Tp-e) were determined. The Tp-e/QT ratios were compared between the acute and recovery phases and correlations with CRP level and body temperature were evaluated. A retrospective evaluation of Tp-e/QT as predictors of coronary dilation was also performed. Tp-e/QT in the acute phase correlated positively with body temperature and CRP level. In a comparison of patients with and without transient coronary artery lesion, Tp-e/QT was significantly higher in those with dilation. In conclusion, Tp-e/QT was strongly related to transient coronary dilation, in comparison with inflammatory indicators including fever and CRP level.
    Pediatric Cardiology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although the epidemiology of congenital heart disease (CHD) has been described, the authors believe changes in prenatal factors such as termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly and prenatal vitamin supplementation have altered the birth prevalence of severe CHD. This population-based study reviewed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database and identified all cases with a severe CHD diagnosis among all live birth entries from 1999 to 2008. A time trend analysis then was performed for specific severe CHD diagnoses stratified by race, socioeconomic status, and geographic location. Overall, severe CHD prevalence was 147.4 per 100,000 live births, with a temporal decrease in prevalence from 168.9 per 100,000 in 1999 to 129.3 per 100,000 in 2008 (p = 0.03). Among the 12 severe CHD diagnoses included in our cohort, the prevalence of truncus arteriosus (p = 0.02), tetralogy of Fallot (p = 0.001), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (p = 0.001), and pulmonary atresia (p = 0.01) decreased significantly during the study period. The observed prevalence trends varied significantly by race (Caucasians), socioeconomic class (upper income quartiles), and geographic location (Northeast and West regions). The study findings showed a temporal decrease in severe CHD prevalence, which varied by race, socioeconomic status, and geographic location. The authors speculated that the observed trend might be due to increased termination of fetuses with prenatally diagnosed CHD. The impact of sociodemographic variables on the observed prevalence trend might be due to differences in access to specialized perinatal care and fetal heart programs or because of variability in termination of pregnancy.
    Pediatric Cardiology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The authors hypothesized that changes in prenatal factors such as termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies and prenatal vitamin supplementation have altered the epidemiology of patients with multiple congenital anomalies and may have had an impact on their prevalence in the current era. This study reviewed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 1998 to 2008 and compared the prevalence of ECM among live births with a CHD diagnosis (case) and that among live births without a CHD diagnosis (control). For this study, 42 ECM and 10 CHD diagnoses were selected for subanalysis. Longitudinal analysis also was performed to determine temporal variation of ECM prevalence in the CHD population during the 11-year study period. The cohort in this study consisted of 97,154 patients in the case group and 12,078,482 subjects in the control group. The prevalences in the CHD population were 11.4 % for nonsyndromic congenital malformation (NSCM), 2.2 % for genetic syndrome (GS), and 13.6 % for overall extracardiac congenital malformation (ECM). The prevalences in the control group were 6.7 % for NSCM, 0.3 % for GS, and 7.0 % for ECM. The findings showed a strong association of NSCM [odds ratio (OR) 1.88; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.73-1.94], GS (OR 2.52; 95 % CI 2.44-2.61), and overall ECM (OR 2.01; 95 % CI 1.97-2.14) with CHD. The prevalences of GS and multiple organ system CM decreased significantly during the study period. This study was the largest and most comprehensive population-based study to evaluate the association between CHD and ECM in newborns.
    Pediatric Cardiology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine current practices regarding prophylaxis against infective endocarditis among pediatric cardiologists in the United States 5 years after publication of the most recent American Heart Association (AHA) recommendations. A descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2012 to November 2012 in the format of an anonymous self-administered e-mailed questionnaire among pediatric cardiologists across the United States. The questionnaire inquired about demographic information of cardiologists and their current practices of prescribing preprocedure antibiotic prophylaxis against endocarditis to patients with specific preexisting cardiac conditions. Descriptive analyses were done in percentages. Frequency and exploratory statistical analyses were done by the Chi-square method. Of the 980 cardiologists invited, 221 (23 %) responded to the survey. The findings showed that pediatric cardiologists generally follow the AHA guidelines. The most common cardiac conditions in which antibiotics were administered despite AHA guidelines not requiring prophylaxis were rheumatic heart disease with aortic insufficiency, transposition of the great vessels after the Mustard procedure, bicuspid aortic valve with severe aortic stenosis, cardiac transplantation without valvar disease, and bicuspid aortic valve with severe aortic insufficiency. More experienced pediatric cardiologists were significantly more likely to administer prophylaxis to certain patients than their less experienced peers. Many pediatric cardiologists in the United States continue to administer preprocedure antibiotic prophylaxis against endocarditis even when not recommended to do so per the 2007 AHA guidelines. With certain lesions, highly experienced pediatric cardiologists are more likely to administer prophylaxis than their less experienced counterparts.
    Pediatric Cardiology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Liver pathology complicates Fontan palliation. Previous reports established that both hepatic sinusoidal and portal fibrosis occur in patients after Fontan procedures. Past studies predominantly included symptomatic patient cohorts. Thus, the authors of this study aimed to characterize hepatic pathology via transvenous hepatic biopsies in 21 asymptomatic patients at the time of elective cardiac catheterization. Seven of these patients (33 %) were accompanied by an interventional procedure. Hepatic biopsies showed evidence of either sinusoidal or portal fibrosis or both in all but one patient. The findings showed a statistically significant (p = 0.005) moderately strong positive correlation between fibrosis scores and time since Fontan surgery. Additionally, no significant correlation was found between fibrosis scores and inferior vena cava pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, platelet counts, or serum laboratory testing of hepatic function.
    Pediatric Cardiology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Radiation exposure during pediatric catheterization is significant. We sought to describe radiation exposure and the effectiveness of radiation safety protocols in reducing exposure during catheter ablations with electrophysiology studies in children and patients with congenital heart disease. We additionally sought to identify at-risk patients. We retrospectively reviewed all interventional electrophysiology procedures performed from April 2009 to September 2011 (6 months preceding intervention, 12 months following implementation of initial radiation safety protocol, and 8 months following implementation of modified protocol). The protocols consisted of low pulse rate fluoroscopy settings, operator notification of skin entrance dose every 1,000 mGy, adjusting cameras by >5 at every 1,000 mGy, and appropriate collimation. The cohort consisted of 291 patients (70 pre-intervention, 137 after initial protocol implementation, 84 after modified protocol implementation) at a median age of 14.9 years with congenital heart disease present in 11 %. Diagnoses included atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (25 %), atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (61 %), atrial tachycardias (12 %), and ventricular tachycardia (2 %). There were no differences between groups based on patient, arrhythmia, and procedural characteristics. Following implementation of the protocols, there were significant reductions in all measures of radiation exposure: fluoroscopy time (17.8 %), dose area product (80.2 %), skin entry dose (81.0 %), and effective dose (76.9 %), p = 0.0001. Independent predictors of increased radiation exposure included larger patient weight, longer fluoroscopy time, and lack of radiation safety protocol. Implementation of a radiation safety protocol for pediatric and congenital catheter ablations can drastically reduce radiation exposure to patients without affecting procedural success.
    Pediatric Cardiology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To the Editor,We read with great interest the report by Cramer et al. [3] on the spectrum of congenital heart disease (CHD) and outcomes after surgical repair in children with Turner syndrome (TS). In their retrospective single-center review, the authors showed that although patients with TS undergoing aortic arch repair have a longer operative and postoperative course, their outcomes appear similar to those of non-TS subjects.Recent papers [1, 8] have identified a vasculopathy in TS patients involving intimal and medial thickening of large arteries that can lead to progressive aortic dilation, dissection, and even rupture. These arterial characteristics can explain the friability of the aortic wall, with higher risk of hemorrhages at surgery [2, 9] and after stent implantation [4] as described in the literature. It is noteworthy that although these findings constitute a potential increased risk of surgical complications, no patients reported by Cramer et al. [3] died due to the interv
    Pediatric Cardiology 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Assessment of ventricular dysfunction and asynchrony is very important in predicting the outcome for children with a single right ventricle. However, the assessment is inaccurate and subjective because of the unusual ventricular shape. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and clinical value of velocity vector imaging for assessing longitudinal systolic ventricular dysfunction and intraventricular asynchrony in children with a single right ventricle. The study enrolled 36 children with a single right ventricle and 36 age-matched children with a normal heart. Peak systolic velocity, peak displacement, strain, strain rate, time to peak systolic velocity, and time to peak systolic strain were measured via velocity vector imaging using the Siemens Sequoia C512 echocardiography instrument. The maximum positive rate of ventricular pressure change (Max [dp/dt]) was obtained by cardiac catheterization for all the children with a single right ventricle. In the children with a single right ventricle, the maximal temporal differences and the standard deviations of the times to peak systolic velocity and peak systolic strain were higher (P < 0.01) than in the children with a normal heart. Moreover, the strain and strain rate values were significantly lower in all six segments (P < 0.05). The strain rate of the basal segment adjacent to the rudimentary chamber correlated best with Max (dp/dt) (r = 0.86; P < 0.01). Longitudinal systolic dysfunction and intraventricular asynchrony could be assessed accurately using velocity vector imaging in children with a single right ventricle.
    Pediatric Cardiology 04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MiR-143 plays an important role in the heart development of zebra fish. The rs41291957 variant located in the pri-miR-143 sequence is associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. Therefore, the authors hypothesized that rs41291957 in pri-miR-143 might be involved in the risk of sporadic congenital heart disease (CHD). The authors conducted a case-control study of CHD in a Chinese population to test their hypothesis by genotyping pri-miR-143 rs41291957 in 1,109 CHD cases and 915 non-CHD control subjects. Logistic regression analyses showed no significant association of genotype or allele frequencies of pri-miR-143 rs41291957 A/G polymorphism with the CHD cases in overall or various subtypes compared with the control group. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the relationship between miR-143 and CHD cases. The results demonstrated that rs41291957 in pri-miR-143 has no major role in genetic susceptibility to sporadic CHD, at least in the current study population.
    Pediatric Cardiology 04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is used in atrial flutter or fibrillation (AFF) before electric cardioversion to detect intracardiac thrombi. Previous studies have described the use of TEE to diagnose intracardiac thrombi in the left atrium and left atrial appendage, which has an incidence of 8 % among patients without congenital heart disease (CHD). In their practice the authors have noted a significant incidence of intracardiac thrombi in other structures of patients with CHD and AFF. This study aimed to determine the incidence and location of intracardiac thrombi using TEE in patients with CHD requiring electric cardioversion of AFF and to compare the use of TEE and transthoracic echo (TTE) to detect intracardiac thrombus in this population. A retrospective chart review of TEE and TTE findings for all patients with CHD who had electric cardioversion of AFF at our institution from 2005 to 2013 was conducted. The diagnosis, presence, and location of intracardiac thrombus were determined. The TEE and TTE results were compared. The study identified 27 patients with CHD who met the study entry criteria at our institution between 2005 and 2013. Seven of these patients had a single ventricle with Fontan palliation. All the patients presented with AFF and had TEE before electric cardioversion. No patients were excluded from the study. The patients ranged in age from 2 to 72 years (median, 21 years) and weighed 17-100 kg (median, 65 kg). The duration of AFF before TEE and attempted cardioversion ranged from 1 day to 3 weeks (median, 3.5 days). Intracardiac thrombus was present in 18 % (5/27) of the patients and in 57 % (4/7) of the Fontan patients with AFF. No embolic events were reported acutely or during a 6-month follow-up period. Among patients with CHD who present with AFF, a particularly high incidence of intracardiac thrombi is present in the Fontan patients that may be difficult to detect by TTE. Thorough TEE examination of the Fontan and related structures is indicated before electric cardioversion of AFF. The incidence of intracardiac thrombus in CHD patients is more than double that reported in non-CHD patients.
    Pediatric Cardiology 04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes dysfunction of different organ systems. Myocardial diastolic dysfunction has been reported previously in an adult HIV population. Our aim was to study myocardial strain in children and young adults infected by HIV who have apparently normal ejection fraction. Forty HIV-infected patients (mean age 20.6 ± 1.5 years) with normal ejection fraction and 55 matched normal controls (mean age 17 ± 1.5 years) were studied by two-dimensional echocardiogram. The images were stored then exported to velocity vector imaging software for analysis. Measures considered were left-ventricular peak global systolic strain (LV S) and strain rate (LV SR) as well as right-ventricular peak global systolic strain (RV S) and strain rate (RV SR). Circumferential measures of the left ventricle included the following: LV circumferential peak global systolic strain (LV circ S), strain rate (LV circ SR), radial velocity (LV rad vel), and rotational velocity (LV rot vel) at the level of the mitral valve. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The means of all longitudinal deformation parameters were significantly lower in HIV patients compared with normal controls: LV S (-14.15 vs. -19.31), LV SR (-0.88 vs. -1.30), RV S (-19.58 vs. -25.09), and RV SR (-1.34 vs. -2.13), respectively (p < 0.05). LV rot vel was lower in patients compared with controls (43.23 vs. 51.71, p = 0.025). LV circ S, LV circ SR, and LV rad vel showed no significant difference between the two groups (p ≥ 0.05). HIV infection affects longitudinal systolic cardiac strain and strain rate in children and young adults. Normal ejection fraction might be attributed to preserved circumferential myocardial deformation. Strain and strain rate may help identify HIV patients at high risk for cardiac dysfunction and allow early detection of silent myocardial depression.
    Pediatric Cardiology 04/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Balloon angioplasty (BAP) used to manage native coarctation of the aorta (CoAo) in infants remains controversial. This study aimed to compare short- and midterm results of BAP between native CoAo (NaCo) and postsurgical recoarctations (ReCo) in infants younger than 1 year. This retrospective study compared the clinical, echocardiographic, hemodynamic, and angiographic data for infants who underwent BAP between July 2003 and September 2012. The 12 NaCo and 13 ReCo patients in this study underwent BAP at 4.61 ± 3.69 and 4.88 ± 3.07 months (p = 0.84) and weighed 5.49 ± 2.57 and 6.10 ± 2.11 kg (p = 0.52), respectively. Their respective heights were 60.58 ± 10.58 and 61.15 ± 6.74 cm (p = 0.87). All the ReCo patients had their initial surgery before the age of 3 months. The minimal CoAo diameter was 2.81 ± 0.96 mm in the NaCo group and 2.86 ± 1.0 mm in the ReCo group (p = 0.90). The relative gradient reduction was 62.79 ± 32.43 % in the NaCo group and 73.37 ± 20.78 % in the ReCo group (p = 0.33). The in situ complication rate (pseudoaneurysm) was 8.33 % in the NaCo group and 7.69 % in the ReCo group (p = 0.74). During the early follow-up evaluation, five NaCo patients (41.66 %) presented with recoarctation requiring BAP reintervention within 1.75 ± 1.41 months (all had their initial BAP before 3 months of age) compared with 1 ReCo patient (7.69 %) (p = 0.165). The mean follow-up period was 3.09 ± 2.69 years for the NaCo patients and 3.6 ± 3.18 years for the ReCo patients (p = 0.69), during which the blood pressure gradient was 12.33 ± 9.67 for the NaCo patients and 7.80 ± 8.78 for the ReCo patients (p = 0.17), with corresponding Doppler peak instantaneous gradients of 21.29 ± 11.19 and 16.20 ± 10.23 (p = 0.24). The resultant diameter ratio between the minimal isthmus diameter and the aortic diameter at the diaphragmatic level was 0.81 ± 0.15 in the NaCo group and 0.85 ± 0.12 in the ReCo group (p = 0.53). The immediate and midterm results of BAP for the NaCo and ReCo infants were comparable. Accordingly, BAP seems to be an acceptable alternative to surgery for infants older than 3 months.
    Pediatric Cardiology 04/2014;

Related Journals