Parasitology Research (Parasitol Res )

Publisher: Springer Verlag


Organ der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Parasitologie An international journal on parasitology that includes General Biological Medical and Veterinary Parasitology Protozoology Helminthology Entomology Morphology (incl. Pathomorphology Ultrastructure) Biochemistry Physiology (incl. Pathophysiology) Parasite-Host-Relationships (incl. Immunology Host Specificity) Life History Ecology Epidermiology Diagnosis Chemotherapy and Control of Parasitic Diseases

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    Parasitology research (Online), Parasitol res
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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Though Eimeria is an important parasite of cattle, research is lacking on how the parasite persist in the pasture soils. In this study, feces samples were collected from three pastures in June and October 2010 and soil samples in April 2011. Coordinates of sampling locations were recorded with Global Positioning System together with information about grass cover, shade, and elevation. All soil samples were collected from the same locations as the fecal samples and used in model evaluating the possible factors influencing the concentration of oocysts in the soil. Feces and soil samples were investigated using a quantitative flotation technique. Eimeria oocysts were found in 95.6 % of fecal samples collected in summer and 84.5 % of samples in fall. In contrast, the same locations soil samples were positive for Eimeria oocysts in 37.3 % (summer) and 44.3 % (fall). Despite larger numbers of oocysts in fecal samples shed during summer compared to fall, there was no difference in the concentration of oocysts in soil samples the following spring. The odds of higher numbers of oocysts in soil samples in spring were higher if fecal samples collected in summer were in shade or if containing Eimeria alabamensis during the fall. Factors other than the concentrations of oocysts shed in feces appear to affect whether oocysts persist between grazing seasons.
    Parasitology Research 12/2014; 113(3):993-999.
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    ABSTRACT: Integrated pest management (IPM) in agriculture animals remains undeveloped as compared to IPM in crops. However recurrent outbreaks of blue tongue disease in sheep and cattle, the public threats regarding the prophylactic use of veterinary insecticides and the need to preserve the efficacy of available actives have to lead the reflexion on new control strategies for arthropod pests of livestock. A recent extension of EU regulation on the use of pesticides in crops provides an opportunity to compare IPM strategies and to suggest new lines of reflection for the control of nuisance pests in ruminants under European conditions. In this paper, actions suggested by the Annex III of the Directive 2009/128/CE on Sustainable Use of Pesticides were reviewed from an animal production perspective by a group of veterinary entomologists. Eight lines of action have been identified and thus challenged with respect to current husbandry practices in modern European ruminant operations. Many IPM strategies for crops were identified to be unsuitable for large animals. Suggestions for implementing tools, opportunities and constraint assessment, and needs for support were also discussed. Only control of development sites and monitoring of harmful organisms were considered achievable in the near future, both in conjunction with the use of topical insecticides. Complementary actions such as alternatives to chemical control require further researches and industrial development. Marketing of IGR-based feed additives would be of great interest, but development of new compounds for veterinary medicines is very unlikely with respect to the European regulatory environment and associated cost of development.
    Parasitology Research 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Helminth eggs play a critical role in movement of the parasite from definitive to intermediate host. Eggs of the pleurogenid digenean trematode Prosotocus confusus (Looss, 1894), a parasite of naturally infected frogs Pelophylax lessonae (Amphibia: Ranidae) in Europe, are described here for the first time. Particular emphasis is placed on the ultrastructure on the egg wall and on the detailed description of a unique cocoon-like envelope. Each embryonating egg is composed of an early embryo surrounded by a four-layered egg wall: (1) an outer, anucleate layer external to the eggshell, which forms a thick cocoon; (2) the operculate eggshell; (3) not fully formed, a differentiating outer embryonic envelope containing large nuclei of macromeres; and (4) situated below, an undifferentiated layer of the future inner embryonic envelope containing mesomere nuclei. Layers enveloping the egg apparently play an important role in the protection, metabolism, and storage of nutritive reserves for the developing miracidium. The outer anucleate layer, or cocoon, is situated externally to the eggshell and composed of an electron-lucent substance with numerous electron-dense islands attached to its peripheral membrane. A cocoon envelope such as this has never been seen in previous TEM studies of the eggs of parasitic platyhelminths, with the exception of another pleurogenid Brandesia turgida. The origin, formation, functional ultrastructure, and chemical composition of this peculiar layer remain enigmatic, although its function appears to be protective. The thick, electron-dense eggshell resembles that of other trematodes, exhibiting a characteristic fissure zone around the operculum. Numerous lysosome-like structures observed in some eggs may be involved in the autolysis of both the embryonic envelopes (particularly the early degeneration of macromere nuclei of the outer envelope, characteristic for this species) and in the disintegration of several early micromeres. The inner envelope, which forms later from mesomeres, persists longer during embryogenesis.
    Parasitology Research 10/2014;
  • Parasitology Research 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the present investigation, the effective root compound of plumbagin of Plumbago zeylanica (Plumbaginaceae) was evaluated for chemical constituent and antimalarial effect against the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera). In the chromatographic analyses of root compound with Rf value of 0.788 and NMR analyses also revealed that the effective compound contain naphthoquinone plumbagin were identified as the major chemical constituent. Larval mortality was observed after 3 h of exposure period. The plumbagin compound showed remarkable larvicidal activity against A. stephensi (LC50 32.65 and LC9072.27 ppm). Histopathological effects of compound was observed in the treated larvae. Based on the results, the plumbagin compound of P. zeylanica can be considered as a new source of natural larvicide for the control of malarial vector.
    Parasitology Research 07/2014; 113(8):3105-3109.
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    ABSTRACT: The mosquitocidal activity of different fractions and isolated compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of Ecbolium viride root was assessed on larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The larvae and pupae were exposed to concentrations of 6.125, 12.5, 25 and 50 ppm for fractions and 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 ppm for compound. Among the 12 fractions screened, fraction 6 from the ethyl acetate extract of E. viride was recorded to have the highest larvicidal and pupicidal activities against C. quinquefasciatus. The lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) values of fraction 6 were 4.26 and 9.0 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus larvae and 6.55 and 12.19 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus pupae, respectively, in 24 h. Fraction 7 was recorded to have moderate activity with LC50 and LC90 values of 11.25 and 25.02 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus larvae and 13.33 and 31.15 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus pupae, respectively, in 24 h. Ecbolin A and ecbolin B were identified from fractions 7 and 6, respectively. The structure of the isolated compounds was identified on the basis of spectral data ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) and compared with literature spectral data. Further, the isolated compound, ecbolin B, from fraction 6 was recorded to have strong larvicidal and pupicidal activities than ecbolin A. The LC50 and LC90 values of ecbolin B on C. quinquefasciatus larvae were 1.36 and 2.76 ppm, and on pupae, these were 1.54 and 3.51 ppm, respectively. The present results suggest that ecbolin B could be used as a mosquitocidal agent against C. quinquefasciatus.
    Parasitology Research 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies showed that the huge diversity branching at or near the phylogenetic root of the fungal kingdom, mostly constituted by uncultured environmental clones, is actually characterized by intracellular predators/ parasites of various eukaryotes. These form three related lineages: the Aphelidea, endoparasites of algae; the Rozellomycota, with Rozella species mainly endoparasites of water moulds, and Paramicrosporidium species endonuclear parasites of amoebae; and the Microsporidia, mainly endoparasites of animals. Increasing evidence suggests the emergence of Microsporidia from within Rozellomycota; however, their fungal or protistan nature is still unclear. Here, we report the molecular phylogeny based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) gene, of an additional endoparasite of amoebae, corresponding to the old enigmatic chytrid Nucleophaga amoebae described in the nineteenth century. Our results show that Nucleophaga, possessing a morphotype intermediate between Rozella and Paramicrosporidium, emerges as a unique lineage within the Rozellomycota. The recovery and characterization of new members of Rozellomycota are of high value for the understanding of the early evolutionary history of the Fungi and related lineages.
    Parasitology Research 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) and Calodium splenaecum (syn. Capillaria splenaecum) are nematodes that infect the liver and spleen, respectively, of mammals. While the host range, distribution, pathology and zoonotic potential of C. hepaticum are well known, very little is known about C. splenaecum. The observed prevalence of these two parasites, the factors associated with prevalence, and the lesions resulting in the different host species were studied in 408 micromammals captured in two periurban areas of Barcelona (NE Spain) from 2011 to 2013. C. hepaticum was found in 4 % of 322 wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) (with local prevalence up to 16 %) and 1 of 2 Norwegian rats (Rattus norvegicus). C. splenaecum was found in 10 % of 38 greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) (local prevalence up to 30 %). Neither parasite was detected in 29 Algerian mice (Mus spretus) and 17 black rats (Rattus rattus). Prevalence of C. hepaticum was significantly higher in wood mice captured in natural areas (6.4 %) than those from residential areas (0 %), and infected mice were in better body condition. No differences in prevalence were found among age and sex groups, years and seasons. Lesions of hepatic capillariasis in wood mice consisted mainly of mild to moderate multifocal granulomas around degenerating adult parasites and/or eggs, while lesions seen in a rat consisted of multifocal granulomatous hepatitis and bridging fibrosis extending from the necrotic areas caused by the parasites. Splenic lesions found in shrews due to C. splenaecum, representing the first histological description of this parasite, were single nodules that corresponded to finely encapsulated clusters of eggs with adult parasites.
    Parasitology Research 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, the results of a long effort to derive valuable phylogenetic data about an extraordinary spore-like infectious particle (endocytobiont) within host amoebae (Acanthamoeba sp.) recently isolated from the contact lens and the inflamed eye of a patient with keratitis are presented. The development of these endocytobionts has already been demonstrated with electron microscopic photo sequences, leading to a relevant model of its development presented here. The molecular biological investigation following the discovery of two other Pandoravirus species within aquatic sediments in 2013 led to the taxonomic affiliation of our endocytobiont with the genus Pandoravirus. A range of endocytobionts (intracellular biofilms) have been found in recent years, among which are several viruses which obligatorily proliferate within free-living amoebae. In human medicine, foreign objects which are placed in or on humans cause problems with microorganisms in biofilms. Contact lenses are especially important, because they are known as a source of a rapid formation of biofilm. These were the first Pandoraviruses described, and because this is additionally the first documented association with humans, we have clearly demonstrated how easily such (viral) endocytobionts can be transferred to humans. This case counts as an example of parasites acting as vectors of phylogenetically different microorganisms especially when living sympatric within their biocoenosis of biofilms. As the third part of the "Pandoravirus trilogy", it finally reveals the phylogenetic nature of these "extraordinary endocytobionts" within Acanthamoebae.
    Parasitology Research 07/2014;