Archives of Microbiology (Arch Microbiol )

Publisher: Springer Verlag


Archives of Microbiology publishes papers on all areas of basic research in microbiology. Such studies can be approached using biochemical genetic microbiological molecular biological physiological or physical methods or a combination thereof. The papers published must sufficiently contribute to the understanding and knowledge in the particular field. Each paper must provide novel information about the organism(s) or its interaction with its environment. Purely confirmatory studies taxonomical descriptions of new species that lack a novel metabolism or other novel characteristics and gene sequences alone are usually not published.

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  • Other titles
    Archives of microbiology (Online), Arch microbiol
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    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
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    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aeromonas hydrophila is an aquatic bacterium responsible for several human illnesses. The aim of this work was to investigate the survival ability and virulence expression of two strains from different sources (fish, strain 87 and surface water, strain LS) maintained in a seawater microcosm. The strains were analyzed for the total and viable bacterial counts, adhesion ability to Hep-2 cells and aerA gene expression by qPCR throughout the experiment (35 days). Both strains reached a putative VBNC state and lost adhesive properties but exhibited a different behavior in the expression of aerA. This could be due to the different origin of the two strains; the former adapted to a habitat rich of nutrient and the latter already used to survive in a more hostile environment. Moreover, our results indicate that the quantitative determination of aerA mRNA can be a useful indicator of virulence expression under stress conditions.
    Archives of Microbiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The expression of ten genes of Listeria monocytogenes previously identified as penicillin G-inducible was transcriptionally analyzed in the presence of 0.5 M KCl, pH 5.0 and 42 °C. This study revealed that all the genes are upregulated by osmotic stress, seven by acid stress and four by temperature stress conditions. The contribution of a gene encoding a ferritin-like protein (fri), a two-component phosphate-response regulator (phoP) and an AraC/XylS family transcription regulator (axyR) to temperature, acid and osmotic stress tolerance was further examined by analysis of nonpolar deletion mutants. This revealed that a lack of PhoP or AxyR does not affect the ability to grow under the tested stress conditions. However, the Δ fri strain showed slightly delayed growth under osmotic and clearly impaired growth under acid stress conditions, indicating an important role of the ferritin-like protein in acid stress tolerance.
    Archives of Microbiology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The taxonomic position of a Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacterium isolated from soil sample collected from an industrial site was analyzed by a polyphasic approach. The strain designated as IITR-54(T) matched most of the phenotypic and chemical characteristics of the genus Bacillus and represents a novel species. It was found to biodegrade 4-chlorobiphenyl through dechlorination and was isolated through enrichment procedure from an aged polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil. Both resting cell assay and growth under aerobic liquid conditions using 4-chlorobiphenyl as sole source of carbon along with 0.01 % yeast extract, formation of chloride ions was measured. 16S rRNA (1,489 bases) nucleotide sequence of isolated strain was compared with those of closely related Bacillus type strains and confirmed that the strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. Strain IITR-54(T) differs from all other species of Bacillus by at least 2.1 % at the 16S rRNA level, and the moderately related species are Bacillus oceanisediminis (97.9 %) followed by Bacillus infantis (97.7 %), Bacillus firmus (97.4 %), Bacillus drentensis (97.3 %), Bacillus circulans (97.2 %), Bacillus soli (97.1 %), Bacillus horneckiae (97.1 %), Bacillus pocheonensis (97.1 %) and Bacillus bataviensis (97.1 %), respectively. The cell wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. Major fatty acids are iso-C15:0 (32.4 %) and anteiso-C15:0 (27.4 %). Predominant polar lipids are diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed the genotypic and phenotypic distinctiveness of strain IITR-54(T) with its phylogenetic relatives and suggest that the strain IITR-54(T) should be recognized as a novel species, for which the name Bacillus mesophilum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IITR-54(T) (= MTCC 11060(T) = JCM 19208(T)).
    Archives of Microbiology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Genome level analysis of bacterial strains provides information on genetic composition and resistance mechanisms to clinically relevant antibiotics. To date, whole genome characterization of linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis isolated in the clinic is lacking. In this study, we report the entire genome sequence, genomic characteristics and virulence factors of a pathogenic E. faecalis strain, DENG1. Our results showed considerable differences in genomic characteristics and virulence factors compared with other E. faecalis strains (V583 and OG1RF). The genome of this LZD-resistant E. faecalis strain can be used as a reference to study the mechanism of LZD resistance and the phylogenetic relationship of E. faecalis strains worldwide.
    Archives of Microbiology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the effect of the organic micropollutant and known inhibitor of nitrification, p-cresol, was investigated on the metabolism of the ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) Nitrosomonas eutropha C91 using MS-based quantitative proteomics. Several studies have demonstrated that AOB are capable of biotransforming a wide variety of aromatic compounds making them suitable candidates for bioremediation, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly described. The effect of two different concentrations of the aromatic micropollutant p-cresol (1 and 10 mg L(-1)) on the metabolism of N. eutropha C91, relative to a p-cresol absent control, was investigated. Though the rate of nitrification in N. eutropha C91 appeared essentially unaffected at both concentrations of p-cresol relative to the control, the expressional pattern of the proteins of N. eutropha C91 changed significantly. The presence of p-cresol resulted in the repressed expression of several key proteins related to N-metabolism, seemingly impairing energy production in N. eutropha C91, contradicting the observed unaltered rates of nitrification. However, the expression of proteins of the TCA cycle and proteins related to xenobiotic degradation, including a p-cresol dehydrogenase, was found to be stimulated by the presence of p-cresol. This indicates that N. eutropha C91 is capable of degrading p-cresol and that it assimilates degradation intermediates into the TCA cycle. The results reveal a pathway for p-cresol degradation and subsequent entry point in the TCA cycle in N. eutropha C91. The obtained data indicate that mixotrophy, rather than cometabolism, is the major mechanism behind p-cresol degradation in N. eutropha C91.
    Archives of Microbiology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies of oral microbiota by culture-dependent or targeted DNA approaches demonstrated that hyposalivation, a reduction in salivary secretions, might increase the amount of certain oral pathogens. However, the relationship between hyposalivation and the balance of oral microbiota, especially uncultivable bacteria, remains still unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between hyposalivation and oral microbiota by analyzing terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of 16S rDNA. The 61 subjects were divided into two groups, hyposalivation group and normo-salivation group. The microbiota of tongue-coating samples was analyzed by T-RFLP. The amount of saliva, the number of Candida albicans, and also the dental status including plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) were assessed. Regarding the dental status, none of the evaluated factors were significantly different between the groups except the number of DMFT. According to the T-RFLP profiles, the patterns of microbiota in the tongue coating were classified into two groups, Clusters I and II. Cluster I is made up 76 % of subjects with hyposalivation, while Cluster II is made up 61 % of subjects with normo-salivation (p < 0.001). Compared with the microbiota found in Cluster II, that in Cluster I had higher proportions of T-RFs corresponding to genera Veillonella, Dialister, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Streptococcus. T-RFLP analysis showed a significant role of salivary volume in determining the composition of the microbial community, regardless of the cultivability of the bacteria.
    Archives of Microbiology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We have performed a transcriptomic in vivo study with Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF in the intestine of living mice to identify novel latent and adaptive fitness determinants within E. faecalis. From 2,658 genes that are present in E. faecalis strain OG1RF, 124 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed within the intestinal tract of living mice as compared to exponential growth in BHI broth. The groups of significantly up- or down-regulated genes consisted of 94 and 30 genes, respectively, for which 46 and 18 a clear annotation to a functionally described protein was found. These included genes involved in energy metabolism (e.g., dhaK and glpK pathway), transport and binding mechanisms (e.g., phosphoenolpyruvate carbohydrate PTS) as well as fatty acid metabolism (fab genes). The novel putative fitness determinants found in this work may be helpful for future studies of E. faecalis adaptation to the intestinal tract, which is also a prerequisite for infection in a compromised or inflamed host.
    Archives of Microbiology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteriophages rapidly diversify their genes through co-evolution with their hosts. We hypothesize that gene diversification of phages leads to locality in phages genome. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the genetic diversity and composition of Microcystis cyanophages using 104 sequences of Ma-LMM01-type cyanophages from two geographically distant sampling sites. The intergenetic region between the ribonucleotide reductase genes nrdA and nrdB was used as the genetic marker. This region contains the host-derived auxiliary metabolic genes nblA, an unknown function gene g04, and RNA ligase gene g03. The sequences obtained were conserved in the Ma-LMM01 gene order and contents. Although the genetic diversity of the sequences was high, it varied by gene. The genetic diversity of nblA was the lowest, suggesting that nblA is a highly significant gene that does not allow mutation. In contrast, g03 sequences had many point mutations. RNA ligase is involved in the counter-host's phage defense mechanism, suggesting that phage defense also plays an important role for rapid gene diversification. The maximum parsimony network and phylogenic analysis showed the sequences from the two sampling sites were distinct. These findings suggest Ma-LMM01-type phages rapidly diversify their genomes through co-evolution with hosts in each location and eventually provided locality of their genomes.
    Archives of Microbiology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of nitrogen-fixing filamentous Cyanobacteria to adapt to multiple environments comes in part from assessing and responding to external stimuli, an event that is initiated in the extracellular milieu. While it is known that these organisms produce numerous extracellular substances, little work has been done to characterize both the metabolites and proteins present under standard laboratory growth conditions. We have assessed the extracellular milieu of Nostoc punctiforme when grown in liquid culture in the presence and absence of a nitrogen source (nitrate). The extracellular proteins identified were enriched in integrin β-propellor domains and calcium-binding sites with sequences unique to N. punctiforme, supporting a role for extracellular proteins in modulating species-specific recognition and behavior processes. Extracellular proteases are present and active under both conditions, with the cells grown with nitrate having a higher activity when normalized to chlorophyll levels. The released metabolites are enriched in peptidoglycan-derived tetrasaccharides, with higher levels in nitrate-free media.
    Archives of Microbiology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The halophilic archaeal strain GX71(T) was isolated from the Gangxi marine solar saltern near the Weihai city of Shandong Province, China. Cells of the strain were pleomorphic and lysed in distilled water, stained Gram-negative and formed red-pigmented colonies. Strain GX71(T) was able to grow at 25-45 °C (optimum 30 °C), in the presence of 1.7-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 2.6 M NaCl), with 0.005-0.7 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.05 M MgCl2) and at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5). Cells lysed in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was 10 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, one major glycolipid chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-DGD-3) and an unidentified lipid was also detected. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain GX71(T) showed 94.0-97.0 % similarity to members of the genus Halorubrum of the family Halobacteriaceae. The rpoB' gene sequence of strain GX71(T) was 87.3-93.4 % similarity to current members of the genus Halorubrum. The DNA G+C content of GX71(T) was 67.1 mol%. Strain GX71(T) showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with Halorubrum lipolyticum CGMCC 1.5332(T), Halorubrum saccharovorum CGMCC 1.2147(T), Halorubrum kocurii CGMCC 1.7018(T) and Halorubrum arcis CGMCC 1.5343(T), the most closely related members of the genus Halorubrum. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that strain GX71(T) represents a novel species of the genus Halorubrum, for which the name Halorubrum salinum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GX71(T) (= CGMCC 1.10458(T) = JCM 17093(T)).
    Archives of Microbiology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The nitrate assimilation pathway and its regulation in the high-protein neutraceutical cyanobacterium, Arthrospira (Spirulina), were studied. A complete characterization of the genes of the nitrate uptake and assimilatory pathway in Arthrospira platensis strain PCC 7345 was done including cloning, sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and expression studies. Genomic localization studies revealed that their clustering is different from the operons known in other cyanobacteria; only nrtP and narB are organized together, while nirA, glnA and gltS exist in separate genomic locations. The presence of both types of nitrate transporters (nrtP/ABC types) in A. platensis is rare, as their occurrence is usually specific to marine and freshwater microorganisms, respectively. The positive effect of nitrate on transcript accumulation of narB, nirA and nrtP genes in N-depleted and N-restored cultures confirmed nitrate induction, which is abolished by the addition of ammonium ions into the medium. Gene expression studies in response to nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and glutamine provided the first evidence of differential regulation of multiple genes of nitrate assimilatory pathway in Arthrospira.
    Archives of Microbiology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic diversity of 70 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris originated from various states of India representing eight races causing wilt in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) was analyzed using translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α), β-tubulin, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene regions. TEF-1α, β-tubulin, and ITS gene-specific markers produced ~720-, ~500-, and ~550-bp amplicons, respectively, in all the isolates of the pathogen. A phylogenetic tree constructed from the sequences generated in the present study along with the sequences of foreign isolates of Fusarium species available in NCBI database sharing more than 90 % nucleotide sequence similarity grouped the isolates into two major clusters. Most of the isolates of the present study showed more or less similar grouping pattern in case of the three gene sequences. Each group had the isolates representing different races as well as place of origin indicating low level of diversity among the isolates in respect of these gene sequences. Except TEF-1α, the groups generated by β-tubulin and ITS gene sequences did not correspond to the state of origin and races of the pathogen. However, the groups of TEF-1α partially corresponded to the place of origin as well as races of the pathogen. The isolates did not show any race-specific grouping patterns; however, most of the isolates representing race 1 clustered separately.
    Archives of Microbiology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Activation and silencing of antibiotic production was achieved in Streptomyces albus J1074 and Streptomyces lividans TK21 after introduction of genes within the thienamycin cluster from S. cattleya. Dramatic phenotypic and metabolic changes, involving activation of multiple silent secondary metabolites and silencing of others normally produced, were found in recombinant strains harbouring the thienamycin cluster in comparison to the parental strains. In S. albus, ultra-performance liquid chromatography purification and NMR structural elucidation revealed the identity of four structurally related activated compounds: the antibiotics paulomycins A, B and the paulomenols A and B. Four volatile compounds whose biosynthesis was switched off were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses and databases comparison as pyrazines; including tetramethylpyrazine, a compound with important clinical applications to our knowledge never reported to be produced by Streptomyces. In addition, this work revealed the potential of S. albus to produce many others secondary metabolites normally obtained from plants, including compounds of medical relevance as dihydro-β-agarofuran and of interest in perfume industry as β-patchoulene, suggesting that it might be an alternative model for their industrial production. In S. lividans, actinorhodins production was strongly activated in the recombinant strains whereas undecylprodigiosins were significantly reduced. Activation of cryptic metabolites in Streptomyces species might represent an alternative approach for pharmaceutical drug discovery.
    Archives of Microbiology 03/2014;