Archives of Microbiology (Arch Microbiol )

Publisher: Springer Verlag

Description

Archives of Microbiology publishes papers on all areas of basic research in microbiology. Such studies can be approached using biochemical genetic microbiological molecular biological physiological or physical methods or a combination thereof. The papers published must sufficiently contribute to the understanding and knowledge in the particular field. Each paper must provide novel information about the organism(s) or its interaction with its environment. Purely confirmatory studies taxonomical descriptions of new species that lack a novel metabolism or other novel characteristics and gene sequences alone are usually not published.

  • Impact factor
    1.91
  • 5-year impact
    1.94
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.28
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.65
  • Website
    Archives of Microbiology website
  • Other titles
    Archives of microbiology (Online), Arch microbiol
  • ISSN
    1432-072X
  • OCLC
    41978776
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Authors own final version only can be archived
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • On author's website or institutional repository
    • On funders designated website/repository after 12 months at the funders request or as a result of legal obligation
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version (The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The taxonomic position of a Gram-positive, endospore-forming bacterium isolated from soil sample collected from an industrial site was analyzed by a polyphasic approach. The strain designated as IITR-54(T) matched most of the phenotypic and chemical characteristics of the genus Bacillus and represents a novel species. It was found to biodegrade 4-chlorobiphenyl through dechlorination and was isolated through enrichment procedure from an aged polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil. Both resting cell assay and growth under aerobic liquid conditions using 4-chlorobiphenyl as sole source of carbon along with 0.01 % yeast extract, formation of chloride ions was measured. 16S rRNA (1,489 bases) nucleotide sequence of isolated strain was compared with those of closely related Bacillus type strains and confirmed that the strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. Strain IITR-54(T) differs from all other species of Bacillus by at least 2.1 % at the 16S rRNA level, and the moderately related species are Bacillus oceanisediminis (97.9 %) followed by Bacillus infantis (97.7 %), Bacillus firmus (97.4 %), Bacillus drentensis (97.3 %), Bacillus circulans (97.2 %), Bacillus soli (97.1 %), Bacillus horneckiae (97.1 %), Bacillus pocheonensis (97.1 %) and Bacillus bataviensis (97.1 %), respectively. The cell wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. Major fatty acids are iso-C15:0 (32.4 %) and anteiso-C15:0 (27.4 %). Predominant polar lipids are diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed the genotypic and phenotypic distinctiveness of strain IITR-54(T) with its phylogenetic relatives and suggest that the strain IITR-54(T) should be recognized as a novel species, for which the name Bacillus mesophilum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IITR-54(T) (= MTCC 11060(T) = JCM 19208(T)).
    Archives of Microbiology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Genome level analysis of bacterial strains provides information on genetic composition and resistance mechanisms to clinically relevant antibiotics. To date, whole genome characterization of linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecalis isolated in the clinic is lacking. In this study, we report the entire genome sequence, genomic characteristics and virulence factors of a pathogenic E. faecalis strain, DENG1. Our results showed considerable differences in genomic characteristics and virulence factors compared with other E. faecalis strains (V583 and OG1RF). The genome of this LZD-resistant E. faecalis strain can be used as a reference to study the mechanism of LZD resistance and the phylogenetic relationship of E. faecalis strains worldwide.
    Archives of Microbiology 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the effect of the organic micropollutant and known inhibitor of nitrification, p-cresol, was investigated on the metabolism of the ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) Nitrosomonas eutropha C91 using MS-based quantitative proteomics. Several studies have demonstrated that AOB are capable of biotransforming a wide variety of aromatic compounds making them suitable candidates for bioremediation, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly described. The effect of two different concentrations of the aromatic micropollutant p-cresol (1 and 10 mg L(-1)) on the metabolism of N. eutropha C91, relative to a p-cresol absent control, was investigated. Though the rate of nitrification in N. eutropha C91 appeared essentially unaffected at both concentrations of p-cresol relative to the control, the expressional pattern of the proteins of N. eutropha C91 changed significantly. The presence of p-cresol resulted in the repressed expression of several key proteins related to N-metabolism, seemingly impairing energy production in N. eutropha C91, contradicting the observed unaltered rates of nitrification. However, the expression of proteins of the TCA cycle and proteins related to xenobiotic degradation, including a p-cresol dehydrogenase, was found to be stimulated by the presence of p-cresol. This indicates that N. eutropha C91 is capable of degrading p-cresol and that it assimilates degradation intermediates into the TCA cycle. The results reveal a pathway for p-cresol degradation and subsequent entry point in the TCA cycle in N. eutropha C91. The obtained data indicate that mixotrophy, rather than cometabolism, is the major mechanism behind p-cresol degradation in N. eutropha C91.
    Archives of Microbiology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies of oral microbiota by culture-dependent or targeted DNA approaches demonstrated that hyposalivation, a reduction in salivary secretions, might increase the amount of certain oral pathogens. However, the relationship between hyposalivation and the balance of oral microbiota, especially uncultivable bacteria, remains still unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between hyposalivation and oral microbiota by analyzing terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of 16S rDNA. The 61 subjects were divided into two groups, hyposalivation group and normo-salivation group. The microbiota of tongue-coating samples was analyzed by T-RFLP. The amount of saliva, the number of Candida albicans, and also the dental status including plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) were assessed. Regarding the dental status, none of the evaluated factors were significantly different between the groups except the number of DMFT. According to the T-RFLP profiles, the patterns of microbiota in the tongue coating were classified into two groups, Clusters I and II. Cluster I is made up 76 % of subjects with hyposalivation, while Cluster II is made up 61 % of subjects with normo-salivation (p < 0.001). Compared with the microbiota found in Cluster II, that in Cluster I had higher proportions of T-RFs corresponding to genera Veillonella, Dialister, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Streptococcus. T-RFLP analysis showed a significant role of salivary volume in determining the composition of the microbial community, regardless of the cultivability of the bacteria.
    Archives of Microbiology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces in food and medical sectors constitutes a great public health concerns. In fact, biofilms present a persistent source for pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, which lead to severe infections such as foodborne and nosocomial infections. Such biofilms are also a source of material deterioration and failure. The environmental conditions, commonly met in food and medical area, seem also to enhance the biofilm formation and their resistance to disinfectant agents. In this regard, this review highlights the effect of environmental conditions on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces in the context of food and medical environment. It also describes the current and emergent strategies used to study the biofilm formation and its eradication. The mechanisms of biofilm resistance to commercialized disinfectants are also discussed, since this phenomenon remains unclear to date.
    Archives of Microbiology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to characterize new Bacillus thuringiensis strains that have a potent insecticidal activity against Ephestia kuehniella larvae. Strains harboring cry1A genes were tested for their toxicity, and the Lip strain showed a higher insecticidal activity compared to that of the reference strain HD1 (LC50 of Lip and HD1 were 33.27 and 128.61 μg toxin/g semolina, respectively). B. thuringiensis Lip harbors and expresses cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1Ad and cry2A. DNA sequencing revealed several polymorphisms in Lip Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac compared to the corresponding proteins of HD1. The activation process using Ephestia kuehniella midgut juice showed that Lip Cry1A proteins were more stable in the presence of larval proteases. Moreover, LipCry1A proteins exhibited higher insecticidal activity against these larvae. These results indicate that Lip is an interesting strain that could be used as an alternative to the worldwide used strain HD1.
    Archives of Microbiology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We have performed a transcriptomic in vivo study with Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF in the intestine of living mice to identify novel latent and adaptive fitness determinants within E. faecalis. From 2,658 genes that are present in E. faecalis strain OG1RF, 124 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed within the intestinal tract of living mice as compared to exponential growth in BHI broth. The groups of significantly up- or down-regulated genes consisted of 94 and 30 genes, respectively, for which 46 and 18 a clear annotation to a functionally described protein was found. These included genes involved in energy metabolism (e.g., dhaK and glpK pathway), transport and binding mechanisms (e.g., phosphoenolpyruvate carbohydrate PTS) as well as fatty acid metabolism (fab genes). The novel putative fitness determinants found in this work may be helpful for future studies of E. faecalis adaptation to the intestinal tract, which is also a prerequisite for infection in a compromised or inflamed host.
    Archives of Microbiology 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteriophages rapidly diversify their genes through co-evolution with their hosts. We hypothesize that gene diversification of phages leads to locality in phages genome. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the genetic diversity and composition of Microcystis cyanophages using 104 sequences of Ma-LMM01-type cyanophages from two geographically distant sampling sites. The intergenetic region between the ribonucleotide reductase genes nrdA and nrdB was used as the genetic marker. This region contains the host-derived auxiliary metabolic genes nblA, an unknown function gene g04, and RNA ligase gene g03. The sequences obtained were conserved in the Ma-LMM01 gene order and contents. Although the genetic diversity of the sequences was high, it varied by gene. The genetic diversity of nblA was the lowest, suggesting that nblA is a highly significant gene that does not allow mutation. In contrast, g03 sequences had many point mutations. RNA ligase is involved in the counter-host's phage defense mechanism, suggesting that phage defense also plays an important role for rapid gene diversification. The maximum parsimony network and phylogenic analysis showed the sequences from the two sampling sites were distinct. These findings suggest Ma-LMM01-type phages rapidly diversify their genomes through co-evolution with hosts in each location and eventually provided locality of their genomes.
    Archives of Microbiology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of nitrogen-fixing filamentous Cyanobacteria to adapt to multiple environments comes in part from assessing and responding to external stimuli, an event that is initiated in the extracellular milieu. While it is known that these organisms produce numerous extracellular substances, little work has been done to characterize both the metabolites and proteins present under standard laboratory growth conditions. We have assessed the extracellular milieu of Nostoc punctiforme when grown in liquid culture in the presence and absence of a nitrogen source (nitrate). The extracellular proteins identified were enriched in integrin β-propellor domains and calcium-binding sites with sequences unique to N. punctiforme, supporting a role for extracellular proteins in modulating species-specific recognition and behavior processes. Extracellular proteases are present and active under both conditions, with the cells grown with nitrate having a higher activity when normalized to chlorophyll levels. The released metabolites are enriched in peptidoglycan-derived tetrasaccharides, with higher levels in nitrate-free media.
    Archives of Microbiology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The nitrate assimilation pathway and its regulation in the high-protein neutraceutical cyanobacterium, Arthrospira (Spirulina), were studied. A complete characterization of the genes of the nitrate uptake and assimilatory pathway in Arthrospira platensis strain PCC 7345 was done including cloning, sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and expression studies. Genomic localization studies revealed that their clustering is different from the operons known in other cyanobacteria; only nrtP and narB are organized together, while nirA, glnA and gltS exist in separate genomic locations. The presence of both types of nitrate transporters (nrtP/ABC types) in A. platensis is rare, as their occurrence is usually specific to marine and freshwater microorganisms, respectively. The positive effect of nitrate on transcript accumulation of narB, nirA and nrtP genes in N-depleted and N-restored cultures confirmed nitrate induction, which is abolished by the addition of ammonium ions into the medium. Gene expression studies in response to nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and glutamine provided the first evidence of differential regulation of multiple genes of nitrate assimilatory pathway in Arthrospira.
    Archives of Microbiology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The halophilic archaeal strain GX71(T) was isolated from the Gangxi marine solar saltern near the Weihai city of Shandong Province, China. Cells of the strain were pleomorphic and lysed in distilled water, stained Gram-negative and formed red-pigmented colonies. Strain GX71(T) was able to grow at 25-45 °C (optimum 30 °C), in the presence of 1.7-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 2.6 M NaCl), with 0.005-0.7 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.05 M MgCl2) and at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5). Cells lysed in distilled water and the minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was 10 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate, one major glycolipid chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-DGD-3) and an unidentified lipid was also detected. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain GX71(T) showed 94.0-97.0 % similarity to members of the genus Halorubrum of the family Halobacteriaceae. The rpoB' gene sequence of strain GX71(T) was 87.3-93.4 % similarity to current members of the genus Halorubrum. The DNA G+C content of GX71(T) was 67.1 mol%. Strain GX71(T) showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with Halorubrum lipolyticum CGMCC 1.5332(T), Halorubrum saccharovorum CGMCC 1.2147(T), Halorubrum kocurii CGMCC 1.7018(T) and Halorubrum arcis CGMCC 1.5343(T), the most closely related members of the genus Halorubrum. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that strain GX71(T) represents a novel species of the genus Halorubrum, for which the name Halorubrum salinum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GX71(T) (= CGMCC 1.10458(T) = JCM 17093(T)).
    Archives of Microbiology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic diversity of 70 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris originated from various states of India representing eight races causing wilt in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) was analyzed using translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α), β-tubulin, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene regions. TEF-1α, β-tubulin, and ITS gene-specific markers produced ~720-, ~500-, and ~550-bp amplicons, respectively, in all the isolates of the pathogen. A phylogenetic tree constructed from the sequences generated in the present study along with the sequences of foreign isolates of Fusarium species available in NCBI database sharing more than 90 % nucleotide sequence similarity grouped the isolates into two major clusters. Most of the isolates of the present study showed more or less similar grouping pattern in case of the three gene sequences. Each group had the isolates representing different races as well as place of origin indicating low level of diversity among the isolates in respect of these gene sequences. Except TEF-1α, the groups generated by β-tubulin and ITS gene sequences did not correspond to the state of origin and races of the pathogen. However, the groups of TEF-1α partially corresponded to the place of origin as well as races of the pathogen. The isolates did not show any race-specific grouping patterns; however, most of the isolates representing race 1 clustered separately.
    Archives of Microbiology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Activation and silencing of antibiotic production was achieved in Streptomyces albus J1074 and Streptomyces lividans TK21 after introduction of genes within the thienamycin cluster from S. cattleya. Dramatic phenotypic and metabolic changes, involving activation of multiple silent secondary metabolites and silencing of others normally produced, were found in recombinant strains harbouring the thienamycin cluster in comparison to the parental strains. In S. albus, ultra-performance liquid chromatography purification and NMR structural elucidation revealed the identity of four structurally related activated compounds: the antibiotics paulomycins A, B and the paulomenols A and B. Four volatile compounds whose biosynthesis was switched off were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses and databases comparison as pyrazines; including tetramethylpyrazine, a compound with important clinical applications to our knowledge never reported to be produced by Streptomyces. In addition, this work revealed the potential of S. albus to produce many others secondary metabolites normally obtained from plants, including compounds of medical relevance as dihydro-β-agarofuran and of interest in perfume industry as β-patchoulene, suggesting that it might be an alternative model for their industrial production. In S. lividans, actinorhodins production was strongly activated in the recombinant strains whereas undecylprodigiosins were significantly reduced. Activation of cryptic metabolites in Streptomyces species might represent an alternative approach for pharmaceutical drug discovery.
    Archives of Microbiology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to isolate new bacteriocinogenic strains with putative probiotic potential from various Tunisian fermented milks. A total of 44 Gram-positive catalase-negative isolates were colony-purified and screened for antimicrobial activity. Of inhibitory isolates, four were identified as Enterococcus durans and one as Enterococcus faecalis using 16S rRNA gene sequence. The five strains were sensitive to penicillin G, all aminoglycosides tested, to the vancomycin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol, and E. durans 42G and E. faecalis 61B were resistant to erythromycin. The antimicrobial substances were sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and had good biochemical stability. E. durans 61A showed a good resistance to gastric and small intestinal secretions, but were more sensitive to the duodenal conditions. Considering the safety and the stability under simulated gastrointestinal tract, it appears that the bacteriocinogenic strain E. durans 61A is a good candidate for its application as novel probiotic strain in the food industry.
    Archives of Microbiology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The cyclic-nucleotide 3',5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP) is an ancient and widespread regulatory molecule. Previous studies have shown that fimbria production and secondary metabolite production are inhibited by cAMP in the prokaryote Serratia marcescens. This study used genetic manipulations to test the strain specificity of cAMP-cyclic-AMP receptor protein regulation of fimbria production and of the red pigment, prodigiosin. A surprising amount of variation was observed, as multicopy expression of the cAMP-phosphodiesterase gene, cpdS, conferred either an increase or decrease in fimbriae-dependent yeast agglutination and prodigiosin production depending upon the strain background. Mutation of crp, the gene coding for the cAMP-receptor protein, similarly conferred strain-dependent phenotypes. This study shows that three distinct biological properties, modulated by a conserved genetic regulatory molecule, can vary significantly among strains. Such variation can complicate the functional analysis of bacterial phenotypic properties which are dependent upon global genetic regulators such as cAMP.
    Archives of Microbiology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Severe hypoxia leads to excess production of hydrogen sulfide in marine environments. In this study, we examined the effect of sulfide on growth of four facultative anaerobic marine bacteria in minimal media under anaerobic conditions. The Gram-negative chemolithoautotrophic Marinobacter sp. tolerated sulfide concentrations up to 0.60 mM, with doubling and lag times increasing as a function of increasing sulfide concentration but with no change in maximum culture yields; growth did not occur at 1.2 mM sulfide. Similar results were obtained for the metabolically diverse Gram-negative denitrifying Pseudomonas stutzeri, except that growth occurred at 1.2 mM and culture yields at 0.60 and 1.2 mM sulfide were approximately 10-fold lower than at sulfide concentrations between 0 and 0.30 mM. Increases in doubling and lag times accompanied by an overall 10-fold decrease in maximum culture yields were found for the Gram-negative chemoheterotrophic Vibrio sp. at all sulfide concentrations tested. In contrast, growth of a Gram-positive chemoheterotrophic Bacillus sp. was resistant to all sulfide concentrations tested (0.15-1.2 mM). Our results highlight the variable responses of marine bacteria to sulfide and provide some insight into shifts that may occur in microbial community structure and diversity as a consequence of changes in sulfide levels that are the result of hypoxia.
    Archives of Microbiology 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod bacterium, is the leading causative agent of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Consumption and handling of raw or undercooked poultry are regarded as a major source for human infection. Because bacterial chemotaxis guides microorganisms to colonization and invasion in the host cells, proteins involved in chemotactic processes can be novel targets for vaccine development. In this communication, we report amplification, cloning and expression of the C. jejuni chemotactic proteins in an Escherichia coli expression system. A total of 15 chemotactic protein genes were successfully expressed. These recombinant proteins were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing, SDS-PAGE analysis and immunoblot analysis of six-His and hemagglutinin tags. Twelve recombinant chemotactic proteins were further tested whether they were antigenic using sera from broiler chickens older than 4 weeks. The immunoblot results show that each chicken serum reacted to a variety of the recombinant proteins, but all sera reacted to the Cjj0473 gene product (annotated as a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein), suggesting that anti-Campylobacter antibodies may be prevalent in the poultry population. These antibody screening results provide a rationale for further evaluation of the Cjj0473 protein as a potential vaccine for broilers to improve human food safety.
    Archives of Microbiology 03/2014;

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