Archives of Gynecology (Arch Gynecol Obstet)

Publisher: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe, Springer Verlag

Journal description

The Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics was founded in 1870 as "Archiv für Gynaekologie" and has a long and outstanding tradition. Since 1922 the journal has been the Organ of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe and publishes the abstracts and proceedings of their bi-annual meetings. The Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics is circulated in over 40 countries world wide and is indexed in Current Contents and Index Medicus. The Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics publishes " invited and submitted reviews " original articles about clinical topics and basic Research " case reports and " preliminary communications from all subspecialities in Gynecology and Obstetrics. All papers are peer-reviewed and published as quickly as possible.

Current impact factor: 1.36

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.364
2013 Impact Factor 1.279
2012 Impact Factor 1.33
2011 Impact Factor 1.277
2010 Impact Factor 1.072
2009 Impact Factor 0.912
2008 Impact Factor 0.727
2007 Impact Factor 0.666
2000 Impact Factor 1
1999 Impact Factor 0.107
1998 Impact Factor 0.182
1997 Impact Factor 0.19
1996 Impact Factor 0.166
1995 Impact Factor 0.066
1994 Impact Factor 0.054
1993 Impact Factor 0.057
1992 Impact Factor 0.063

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.30
Cited half-life 4.10
Immediacy index 0.42
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.38
Website Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics website
Other titles Archives of gynecology and obstetrics (Online)
ISSN 1432-0711
OCLC 42787349
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

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    • Author's post-print on any open access repository after 12 months after publication
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    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version (see policy)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: During the evaluation of patients with endometriosis, recognizing the location and characteristics of lesions is fundamental to define the type and evaluate the response of treatment, as well as for the preoperative surgical planning. However, the non-invasive diagnostic tests have specific limitations making the diagnostic laparoscopy been recommended as a tool necessary for the diagnosis of endometriosis lesions despite the high cost and the risks involved in this procedure. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of mapping endometriosis lesions using clinical signs and image evaluation, comparing the pre- and postoperative findings of patients submitted to surgical treatment. Method: A retrospective and prospective study included all patients who underwent surgical treatment for deep endometriosis between March 2011 and November 2014, at two centers of endometriosis in Rio de Janeiro. The positive finds registered during the clinical and image evaluation were compared with the surgical and histopathological results using a new instrument: the Lasmar's MAP of endometriosis RESULTS: 46 patients were included, age ranging from 23 to 47 years. For each site of endometriosis lesions, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, the positive and negative likelihood ratios and accuracy were calculated. Discussion: The results show a high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the preoperative clinical evaluation to identify the main sites of endometriosis lesions without the use of diagnostic laparoscopy.
    Archives of Gynecology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3892-x
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To analyze the maternal and obstetric outcomes of patients with Alport syndrome. Methods: We describe the pregnancy course of 8 pregnancies of three family members with the autosomal dominant (the rarest) form of Alport syndrome. We also analyzed 10 previously reported pregnancies with other Alport mutations in order to explore risk factors for unfavorable obstetric outcomes and maternal renal deterioration. Results: In 13 pregnancies (72 %), renal function did not deteriorate permanently. All of these women had pre-pregnancy mild chronic kidney disease (CKD stage G1). In all of them, only a transient increase in proteinuria was recorded and in one case there was a transient decrease in the estimated glomerular filtration rate. In four other pregnancies (22 %), renal function deteriorated following pregnancy. All of them were complicated with pre-eclampsia. One woman had pre-pregnancy CKD-G2A3 and chronic hypertension. Two women had CKD-G1A3 of whom one had pre-pregnancy proteinuria near the nephrotic range. In the fourth case, renal function deterioration was reported without information on the exact pre-pregnancy renal function. In the last case, CKD-G2 was reported after pregnancy without information on CKD stage prior to pregnancy. Severe proteinuria did not imply a permanent renal function deterioration if it developed during pregnancy. Ten pregnancies ended with preterm birth (56 %). Two stillbirths were reported (11 %); however, only one was attributed to maternal health deterioration. Conclusion: Data regarding pregnancy outcomes in Alport syndrome is limited. The outcome seems favorable when pre-pregnancy kidney function is normal or near normal and when chronic hypertension/pre-eclampsia is absent.
    Archives of Gynecology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3893-9
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of our study was to investigate 2D and 3D ultrasound assessment of pelvic floor muscle contractility as an objective non-invasive diagnostic tool in urogynecologic patients. Methods: Patients from our urogynecological outpatient clinic were examined clinically by a single investigator including digital palpation as well as 2D and 3D perineal ultrasound. Muscle contractility was graded according to the modified Oxford Score and ultrasound images were saved for later analysis. Stored images were evaluated offline by another investigator blinded to all clinical data at a later stage. Bladder neck distance from pubic symphysis and symphysis-levator distance were measured in 2D at rest and during maximal pelvic floor muscle contraction. Hiatal area at the level of minimal hiatal dimensions as a 3D ultrasound parameter was measured at rest and during maximal pelvic floor muscle contraction, too. Spearman's rho was used to calculate statistical correlation between ultrasound parameters and digital assessment. Results: A total of 114 patients were examined in our study. We found a significant correlation between modified Oxford Score and 2D ultrasound parameters of elongation of bladder neck length (Spearman's rho 0.292, p = 0.002) and reduction of symphysis-levator distance (Spearman's rho 0.0.301, p = 0.001), respectively. In addition, we detected a statistical significant correlation of modified Oxford Score and reduction of hiatal area in 3D ultrasound (Spearman's rho 0.458, p < 0.001), too. Conclusions: In this study, we found a significant correlation of subjective digital assessment of pelvic floor muscle strength with 2D and 3D ultrasound parameters as an objective diagnostic tool.
    Archives of Gynecology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3897-5
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: A number of physical and psychological changes that occur during pregnancy can stimulate the development of psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression. The study evaluated psychological aspects related to maternal depression and anxiety in pregnant women with diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia, contrasting the results with those of non-diabetic pregnant women. Method: In a prospective and longitudinal approach, two questionnaires were applied and validated for use in Brazil, the Beck depression inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The questionnaires were applied to pregnant women at the first prenatal visit or at the time of disease diagnosis (T1) and reapplied at admission for delivery (T2). Regardless of the degree of hyperglycemia, both at first and in the second stage most women had severe anxiety trait. In early pregnancy (T1), however, severe state anxiety was more frequent in women with hyperglycemia than in those from the NG group. Results: Most pregnant women showed moderate state anxiety over their pregnancy, regardless of glycemic status. In early pregnancy, however, severe state anxiety was more prevalent in hyperglycemic women than in those with normal glycemic status. Most women showed moderate trait anxiety and mild depression in both early and late pregnancy, irrespective of glycemic status. Conclusion: The incidence of severe state anxiety in early pregnancy is more frequent in women with diabetes or hyperglycemia, but their levels of trait anxiety and depression are not affected by glycemic status.
    Archives of Gynecology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3838-3
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Current epidemiological evidence suggests an association between parity and risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC), but studies have yielded inconsistent conclusions. Objective: The purpose of this meta-analysis is to systematically analyze the effect of the number of parity on GBC risk. Methods: We searched Web of Science, EMBASE, PubMed, China Biological Medicine Database from inception to the end of April 2015. Studies investigating parity and risk of GBC were included. A systematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis were performed to investigate the association between parity and GBC risk using odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Results: Thirteen case-control studies were eligible for inclusion in this meta-analysis, including a total of 2,164 cases and 11,340 controls. A significant association was identified for the ever parity vs. nulliparous at 1.39 (95 % CI 1.15-1.68; Power = 0.73; I (2) = 0.0 %; P = 0.90). Similarly, the summary estimate for high vs. low parity number was 1.86 (95 % CI 1.51-2.30; Power = 0.26; I (2) = 66.0 %; P < 0.01). For the dose-response relationship, a non-linear association between the parity number and GBC risk was not observed (P non-linearity = 0.578), but a clear linear relationship was detected. The combined odds ratio of GBC for an increase in parity of one live birth was 1.12 (95 % CI 1.09-1.21; Power = 0.99; I (2) = 39.9 %; P = 0.139). Subgroup and sensitivity analyses showed similar associations. No publication bias was found in all results. Significant heterogeneity between subgroups was detected by meta-regression analyses. Conclusions: In females, higher parity may be associated with an increased risk of gallbladder cancer. In the future, high-quality cohort studies with larger sample sizes and randomized controlled trials are needed to fully scrutinize this association.
    Archives of Gynecology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3896-6
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Research of psychological factors associated with imminent preterm labor (PTL) is sparse, compared with considerable research of preterm birth. We explored state and trait psychological variables associated with PTL, both pre- and postpartum. Methods: During 2012-2014, 56 women hospitalized due to PTL, and 33 pregnant women without PTL, responded during gestational week 20-33, to a demographic questionnaire, the Big-Five Inventory (BFI), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Fear of Childbirth Questionnaire, and the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Inventory (MFAS). At 4-6 weeks postpartum, 35 and 23 of the women in the respective groups responded online to the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Mother to Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS). Results: Compared to women without PTL, women with PTL scored higher on neuroticism, openness to experience, and MFAS (p < 0.01 each), scored lower on consciousness and agreeableness (p < 0.01 each), and showed greater fear of childbirth (p < 0.05). Significant differences were not found in the postpartum variables of EPDS and MIBS. In the PTL group, MFAS (β = 0.36, p < 0.01), but not fear of childbirth (β = 0.08, p = NS), remained higher, after controlling for demographic variables and neuroticism. Conclusions: PTL was associated with personality variables, but not with psychological consequences, other than elevated prepartum attachment to the fetus.
    Archives of Gynecology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3898-4
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Pelvic congestion syndrome is an uncommon poorly understood and frequently misdiagnosed disorder of the pelvic venous circulation, which causes chronic pelvic pain in women in premenopausal age. This condition has typical features, such as pelvic varicosities, pelvic pain worsened by prolonged standing, coitus, menstruation, and pregnancy. Methods: The precise etiology of this syndrome remains uncertain, and it is probably multifactorial. Valvular insufficiency, venous obstruction, and hormones all may play a role in the development of congestion of the pelvic veins. Results: Pelvic pain and venous varices are often both present in premenopausal women, but not necessarily causally related. Furthermore, incompetent and dilated pelvic veins are a common finding in asymptomatic women. As such, it is challenging but important to determine which patients have chronic pelvic pain specifically related to pelvic congestion syndrome in order to treat them properly. Conclusions: Once the syndrome has been accurately diagnosed, medical, surgical, or minimally invasive endovascular treatments can improve symptoms in a high percentage of cases. This updated nonsystematic review of the literature explores the pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnostic investigations, and treatment option of this complex condition that affects young women with considerable implications for their daily social and psychological condition.
    Archives of Gynecology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3895-7
  • Archives of Gynecology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3890-z
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Some evidence suggests that low maternal vitamin D status adversely affects perinatal health but few studies have examined cord blood vitamin D status. This project aimed to determine the association between the cord blood concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and neonatal outcomes. Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted in Quebec City, Canada from 2005 to 2010. Included were 83 cases of low birthweight (LBW; <2500 g), 301 cases of small for gestational age (SGA; <10th percentile), 223 cases of preterm birth (PTB; <37 weeks' gestation), and 1027 controls. Levels of 25(OH)D were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with logistic regression. Results: Cord blood [25(OH)D] <50 nmol/L was associated with a lower risk of LBW compared to [25(OH)D] ≥75 nmol/L (OR 0.47 95 % CI 0.23-0.97). For 25(OH)D levels 50-75 nmol/L, a significant association was not demonstrated (OR 0.58, 95 % CI 0.34-1.01). No significant associations were observed between [25(OH)D] and either SGA or PTB after adjustment. Conclusions: Although our findings suggest that [25(OH)D] <50 nmol/L is associated with reduced risk of having a LBW infant, prenatal vitamin D recommendations require an examination of the literature that considers the full spectrum of maternal and neonatal outcomes.
    Archives of Gynecology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3899-3
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Chylocolporrhea or chylous vaginal discharge is an extremely rare manifestation of chylous reflux syndrome. Continuous loss of chyle adversely affects quality of life and results in increased morbidity due to the chronic loss of nutrients. Diagnosis and management of this condition is very challenging. Case history: A 35-year-old multiparous lady presented with the chief complaints of excessive milky vaginal discharge for 10 years. Microscopic and biochemical analysis of vaginal discharge along with hysteroscopy confirmed diagnosis of chylocolporrhea. Lymphoscintigraphy along with magnetic resonance imaging revealed site of leakage from the right external iliac lymphatics. She was started on medium-chain triglycerides-rich diet and meticulous ligation of all visible megalymphatics with tension-free lymphovenous anastomosis was done to right external iliac vein. Conclusion: Chylocolporrhea can be managed successfully using operative and nonoperative modalities.
    Archives of Gynecology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3882-z
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: We retrospectively studied the different strategies of para-aortic (PA) staging of patients with PA involvement in locally advanced cervical cancer as conducted in eight centers in France and their impact upon survival and management. Methods: All patients enrolled in this multicenter study presented with cervical cancer with PA involvement. The diagnosis of PA spread was based on imaging assessment of the PA area and/or pathological examination of harvested PA lymph nodes when staging lymphadenectomy was performed. Imaging modalities comprised positron emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography. Survival outcomes were evaluated retrospectively. Results: One hundred and fifteen women were retrospectively studied. Radiological staging was conducted in 101 (87.8 %) patients. PET was performed in 66 patients (57.4 %). Its FN rate was 22.7 % (15/66) and its sensitivity 77.3 %. Para-aortic lymphadenectomy was conducted in a large proportion of patients (67.8 %). Its indications were not restricted to negative radiological workup. The lymphadenectomy rate was significantly higher in patients with earlier stages (p = 0.02) and lower tumor volume (p = 0.01). Treatment consisted of chemoradiation therapy with extended-field radiotherapy in all patients, followed by intracavitary brachytherapy in 94 cases (81.7 %) and completion surgery in 69 cases (60 %). Patients without para-aortic metastasis on radiological examination were more likely to receive all treatment modalities (p = 0.04). Conclusion: Despite established recommendations, our results point out the tremendous heterogeneity regarding para-aortic assessment. These differences in management are perhaps related to a recommended therapeutic strategy that does not appear to improve the poor prognosis associated with PA involvement.
    Archives of Gynecology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3885-9
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To estimate the association of fetal head position prior to vacuum extraction (VE) and pregnancy outcome. Study design: A retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies who underwent VE. Pregnancy outcome of occipito-anterior (OA) position of the fetal head was compared to those with occipito-posterior (OP) position. Results: Amongst overall 12,063 women undergoing trial of labor, there were 1118 (9.2 %) VE deliveries. Of them, 871 (77.9 %) had OA and 247 (22.1 %) had OP position of the fetal head. Except for a higher rate of nulliparity in the OA group, no significant differences between the groups regarding pregnancy complications and birthweight were noted. In the OP group, there were higher rates of prolonged 2nd-stage of labor as an indication for VE (49.8 vs. 36.5 %, p < 0.001) and single detachment of vacuum cup (11.3 vs. 6.7 %, p = 0.02) without any increased risk of failed extraction. Higher risks for sub-galeal hematoma (aOR = 4.36, p = 0.03) and low 5-min Apgar score (aOR = 4.63, p = 0.02) were observed in the OP group with otherwise similar rates of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Conclusion: Among women undergoing VE, OP position is associated with higher rate of vacuum cup detachment, low 5-min Apgar score and increased risk for sub-galeal hematoma with otherwise similar rates of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes.
    Archives of Gynecology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3884-x
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Pudendal nerve injection is used as a diagnostic procedure in the vulvar region and for therapeutic purposes, such as in vulvodynia. Here, we provide a new, easy-to-perform perineal injection technique. Patients and methods: We analyzed 105 perineal injections into the pudendal nerve with a local anesthetic (LA), procaine in 20 patients. A 0.4 × 40 mm needle was handled using a stop-and-go technique while monitoring the patient's discomfort. The needle was placed 1-2 cm laterally to the dorsal introitus. After aspiration, a small amount of LA was applied. After subcutaneous anesthesia, the needle was further advanced step-by-step. Thus, 5 ml could be applied with little discomfort to the patient. Anesthesia in the pudendal target region was the primary endpoint of our analysis. Results: In 93 of 105 injections (88.6 %), complete perineal anesthesia was achieved with a single injection. 12 injections were repeated. These injections were excluded from the analysis. Severity of injection pain, on visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 to 100, was 26.8 (95 % CI 7.2-46.4). Age (β = 0.33, p < 0.01) and the number of previous injections (β = 0.35, p < 0.01) inversely correlated with injection pain. Injection pain and anesthesia were not affected by BMI, the number and the side of previous injections, or order of injection. A reversible vasovagal reaction was common, but no serious adverse effects occurred. Conclusion: Perineal pudendal injection is an effective and safe technique for anesthesia in diagnostic (vulva biopsy) and therapeutic indications (pudendal neuralgia), and regional anesthesia in perinatal settings.
    Archives of Gynecology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3812-0
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study aimed to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of endometrial carcinosarcomas (ECS) and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC) by bioinformatics analysis. Methods: Gene expression profile GSE33723 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus. A total of 15 ECS and 23 EEC samples were used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by significance analysis of microarrays. After construction of protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, Gene Ontology (GO) functional and pathway enrichment analyses of DEGs were performed, followed by network module analysis. Results: A total of 49 DEGs were identified between EEC and ECS samples. In the PPI network, TP53 (tumor protein p53) was selected as the highest degree, hub centrality and betweenness. The top 10 enriched GO terms including regulation of cell death and top 10 significant pathways including cell cycle were selected. After network module analysis, PIK3R1 (phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1) and AKT2 (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 2) were selected as the co-expressed genes in the states of ECS while STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and JAZF (JAZF zinc finger 1) were selected as the co-expressed genes in the states of EEC. Conclusions: The DEGs, such as TP53, PIK3R1 and AKT2 may be used for targeted diagnosis and treatment of ECS while STAT3 and JAZF1 may be served as a target for EEC.
    Archives of Gynecology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3880-1
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in endometriosis and further analyze molecular mechanisms implicated in disease pathogenesis. Materials and methods: Gene expression data (ID: GSE7846) of human endometrial endothelial cells (HEECs) collected from eutopic endometria tissue of patients with and without endometriosis were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. DEGs were screened using Limma package, followed by enrichment analysis using clusterProfiler package in R. Thereafter, protein-protein interactions (PPIs) were analyzed using STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes) database and visualized by Cytoscape software. Meanwhile, transcription factors were screened from the DEGs based on TRANSFA database, followed by construction of regulatory network using Cytoscape. Results: A total of 2255 up- and 408 down-regulated genes were identified in endometriosis patients as compared with control patients. Those DEGs were predominantly enriched in focal adhesion (e.g., FN1, EGF, FYN, EGFR, RAC1, CCND1 and JUN), regulation of actin cytoskeleton (e.g., FN1, EGF, EGFR, RAC1 and JUN) and MAPK signaling pathway (e.g., EGF, EGFR, RAC1, JUN, TGFB1 and MYC). Importantly, EGF, EGFR, JUN, FN1, RAC1, TGFB1, CCND1 and FYN were hub nodes in the PPI network. Additionally, TGFB1, SMAD1 and SMAD4 showed up-regulation in TGFB signaling pathway. Transcription factor MYC had a regulatory effect on the most DEGs, including TGFB1, RAC1 and CCND1. Conclusions: Focal adhesion, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, MAPK and TGFB/SMAD signaling pathway may be important molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of endometriosis.
    Archives of Gynecology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3875-y
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This experimental study was designed to evaluate the effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in ovarian ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Study design: Forty-eight female adult Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into six groups as Group 1: sham, Group 2: torsion, Group 3: detorsion, Group 4: sham + G-CSF, Group 5: torsion + G-CSF, and Group 6: detorsion + G-CSF. Except for Groups 1 and 4, all groups underwent a dnexal torsion bilaterally for 3 h. Adnexal detorsion was applied to Groups 3 and 6 for 3 h after a 3-h torsion period. The intraperitoneal injection of G-CSF (100 IU/kg) was administered 30 min previously in Group 4, 5 and 6. At the end of the study process the animals were euthanized and their ovaries were removed for histopathological and biochemical analysis. Total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidative status and oxidative stress index (OSI) concentrations were determined and compared. Histopathological examination of ovaries was performed for the presence of interstitial edema, congestion, hemorrhage and loss of cohesion to determine tissue damage. Results: In Group 3, 4, 5 and 6, TOS, OSI and total histopathological scores of ovarian tissue were higher than in the sham group (p < 0.05). G-CSF administration decreased mean TOS and OSI levels significantly when compared with the controls (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). There was a strong correlation between the total histopathological scores of I/R injury and OSI (r = 0.862, p < 0.001). The total histopathological scores for the rats conservatively treated with G-CSF were lower than those of the control groups. Conclusion: G-CSF is effective for the prevention of ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage in rat ovary.
    Archives of Gynecology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3878-8
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    ABSTRACT: Endometrium carcinoma (EC) is the fourth common cancer among women worldwide and the incidence is increasing. It is important to define the EC earlier for survival of the patients. Women who had endometrial hyperplasia (EH) and EC in postmenopausal and premenopausal period were included to participate in this study. MN assay has been performed to participants for detection of the genetic damages and DNA instability. MN ratio was significantly higher in EC group compared to other two groups (EH and control groups) (p < 0.001). On the other hand, there was no significant difference among these groups with regard to number of gravidity and presence of a family history of cancer (p > 0.05). MN frequency and NDI were significantly correlated with the age in endometrial hyperplasia without atypia, endometrial cancer and control groups (r 0.546, p < 0.001; r 0.320, p 0.024; r 0.396, p 0.003, respectively). Similarly, MN frequency and NDI were significantly correlated with BMI in three groups (r 0.287, p 0.044; r 0.467, p 0.001; r 0.473, p 0.001, respectively). MN scoring in pre-neoplastic conditions of the endometrium can be used as adjunct in endometrium cancer screening. By using MN assay, discrimination may be possible among endometrial cancer, endometrial precancerous lesions and pathologically normal patients. This is an easy, simple, reliable, reproducible objective test and can be used in routine patient examination.
    Archives of Gynecology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3867-y
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    ABSTRACT: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous group of tumors comprising various breast cancers simply defined by the absence of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical characteristics and prognostic variables of TNBC, and present the summary of recommended treatment strategies and all other available treatment options. We performed a systematic literature search using Medline and selected those articles which seemed relevant for this review. In addition, the was also scanned for ongoing trials. TNBC accounts for 10-20 % of all invasive breast cancers and has been found to be associated with African-American race, younger age, higher grade and mitotic index, and more advanced stage at diagnosis. Locoregional treatment is similar to other invasive breast cancer subtypes and involves surgery-mastectomy with or without adjuvant radiotherapy or breast conservation followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. Due to lack of drug-targetable receptors, chemotherapy is the only recommended systemic treatment to improve disease outcome. TNBC is sensitive to chemotherapy as demonstrated by high pathological complete response rates achieved after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and this approach also allows for breast-conserving surgery. The peak risk of relapse is at 3 years after surgery, thereafter recurrence risk rapidly decreases. Survival after metastatic relapse is shorter as compared to other breast cancer subtypes, treatment options are few and response rates are poor and lack durability. Important molecular characteristics have now been identified that can subdivide this group of breast cancers further and can provide alternative systemic therapies. To improve therapeutic outcome of TNBC, reliable predictive biomarkers and newer drugs against the known molecular pathways are required.
    Archives of Gynecology 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3859-y