Archives of Gynecology (Arch Gynecol Obstet)

Publisher: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe, Springer Verlag

Journal description

The Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics was founded in 1870 as "Archiv für Gynaekologie" and has a long and outstanding tradition. Since 1922 the journal has been the Organ of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe and publishes the abstracts and proceedings of their bi-annual meetings. The Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics is circulated in over 40 countries world wide and is indexed in Current Contents and Index Medicus. The Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics publishes " invited and submitted reviews " original articles about clinical topics and basic Research " case reports and " preliminary communications from all subspecialities in Gynecology and Obstetrics. All papers are peer-reviewed and published as quickly as possible.

Current impact factor: 1.36

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.364
2013 Impact Factor 1.279
2012 Impact Factor 1.33
2011 Impact Factor 1.277
2010 Impact Factor 1.072
2009 Impact Factor 0.912
2008 Impact Factor 0.727
2007 Impact Factor 0.666
2000 Impact Factor 1
1999 Impact Factor 0.107
1998 Impact Factor 0.182
1997 Impact Factor 0.19
1996 Impact Factor 0.166
1995 Impact Factor 0.066
1994 Impact Factor 0.054
1993 Impact Factor 0.057
1992 Impact Factor 0.063

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.30
Cited half-life 4.10
Immediacy index 0.42
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.38
Website Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics website
Other titles Archives of gynecology and obstetrics (Online)
ISSN 1432-0711
OCLC 42787349
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

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    • Author's post-print on any open access repository after 12 months after publication
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    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version (see policy)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To compare the efficacy and safety of uterine artery embolization (UAE) combined with curettage and methotrexate (MTX) plus curettage in the treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP). Methods: From January 2005 to December 2013, we treated 38 CSP patients with UAE combined with curettage, and another 26 patients with CSP were treated with methotrexate (MTX) plus curettage. The resulting data were analyzed statistically. Results: The median volume of blood loss was 17.5 ml in the UAE combined with curettage (UAE-C) group vs. 335 ml in the MTX plus curettage (MTX-C) group (p < 0.001). The time from the procedure till β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) concentration returned to normal was 25.13 ± 3.74 days in the UAE-C group vs. 56.15 ± 15.99 days in the MTX-C group (p < 0.001). The duration of hospitalization was 7.44 ± 1.92 vs. 19.38 ± 8.75 days, respectively (p < 0.001). The percentage of side effects in the UAE-C group was significantly lower than in the MTX-C group. Conclusions: UAE combined with curettage appears to be superior to MTX plus curettage for treatment of CSP with high serum β-hCG level, though prospective trials are needed.
    Archives of Gynecology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3952-2
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To identify the association between periodontitis and periodontal pathogens with preterm birth despite the strict control of some important confounders, such as infectious processes and criteria for diagnosis of periodontitis during pregnancy. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study were included 70 healthy puerperal women between 20 and 35 years without a history of genitourinary infections during pregnancy. Based on the gestational age they were divided into two groups: 45 with term birth (>37 weeks) and 25 with preterm birth (<37 weeks). Previous informed consent, a gynecologic and dental history that included gynecologic and obstetric background, periodontal status applying different authors' criteria of periodontitis diagnosis, presence of periodontopathogens, dental caries and oral hygiene were recorded. Results: There was no association between periodontitis, periodontopathogens and preterm birth. There were no statistical differences applying different authors' criteria diagnosis of periodontitis. Gingivitis status was similar, but probing depth was greater in preterm birth subjects, perhaps they are young women, and this finding could be an early sign of periodontitis. In like manner, the main periodontal bacterial species are not associated with preterm birth, general hygiene and care habits are poorer than term birth subjects. Conclusion: We could suggest that preterm birth is a multifactorial condition and the role of periodontitis and the periodontopathogens itself is not sufficient to trigger the preterm birth. There are factors such as infectious processes and diagnostic criteria for periodontitis that could be responsible for controversial results.
    Archives of Gynecology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3945-1

  • Archives of Gynecology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3960-2
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare fetal growth in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and final birth weights between two groups of women: (a) spontaneous conceptions with reliable menstrual dates and (b) IVF pregnancies on progesterone supplementation during the first trimester. Methods: We included in the study 73 singleton IVF pregnancies and 138 singleton spontaneous pregnancies. Exclusion criteria were: medications or presence of medical conditions affecting fetal growth. Fetal crown-rump length (CRL) at 10 + 1 to 13 + 6 weeks of gestation, and head circumference (HC), biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) at 18-24 weeks, were measured prospectively. The birth weights of the babies born were collected and compared. Independent sample t test was applied for comparing quantitative variables with normal distribution, and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison of quantitative variables without normal distribution. Results: IVF fetuses on progesterone supplementation had larger CRL measurements when compared to their counterparts from spontaneous pregnancies (p value = 0.045). Similarly, in the second trimester, the BPD was significantly larger but HC, AC and FL, although larger, did not reach statistical significance. The birthweights of babies between the two groups showed no statistically significant difference, although some IVF babies were born prematurely. Conclusions: Enhanced fetal growth during the first trimester has been observed with progesterone supplementation in IVF pregnancies. Aspects of enhanced fetal growth were observed in the second trimester but not at birth. The effect of progesterone supplementation on fetal growth needs further investigation.
    Archives of Gynecology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3951-3
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Q fever is an ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. Its tropism for the uterus is a potential source of obstetric complications. Materials and methods: We describe the obstetric consequences of Q fever diagnosed during pregnancy from a series of cases. When an antenatal diagnosis was made, antibiotic therapy with roxithromycin (Rulid(®)) was started until delivery. Results: Between 2007 and 2012, 30 patients were treated for Q fever diagnosed during pregnancy, i.e. 1.9 cases per 1000 people. The most common reasons for performing serology was intrauterine growth retardation, preterm labor and oligoamnios. Q fever was diagnosed as acute and chronic in 26 and 4 cases, respectively. Progression to chronic disease occurred in 8 % of acute forms of the diseases. The prevalence of obstetric complications was 66 %, including 10 % foetal deaths, 31 % preterm delivery and 27 % low birthweight <10th percentile. The obstetric complication rate amongst the 22 patients treated with ante partum macrolides was 60, 30 % of which involved prematurity and 33 % involved low growth. No cases of foetal death were found on treatment and no congenital malformation and placental or neonatal injury was found. No case of disease reactivation was diagnosed in the eight patients who became pregnant again. Conclusion: Q fever during pregnancy is responsible for severe obstetric complications. It must be diagnosed early and its clinical forms known in order to start appropriate antibiotic therapy.
    Archives of Gynecology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3958-9
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the characteristics of patients and IVF cycles with recurrent implantation failure who eventually succeeded to conceive compared to those who failed to do so. Methods: In a retrospective study, we explored our database for patients younger than 35 years old who underwent at least three unsuccessful fresh IVF cycles. The following parameters were analyzed: cause of infertility, FSH level, stimulation cycle characteristics, fertilization rate, the type of luteal support, and cycle outcome. Uterine cavity assessment was also included. The relationship between endometrial scratching and the outcome of the following IVF cycle was assessed for the subsequent pregnancy rate. Results: The study included 184 patients who underwent 854 IVF cycles. There were no statistically significant differences between patients who eventually conceived and those who did not in terms of ovarian reserve and response to gonadotropin treatment. IVF cycles that eventually ended with conception were characterized by shorter stimulation (10.87 ± 2.17 versus 11.34 ± 2.33 days, p < 0.05), higher estrogen level on the day of hCG administration (1661 ± 667 versus 1472 ± 633 pg/ml, p = 0.009), more fertilized oocytes via ICSI (5.04 ± 4.29 versus 3.85 ± 3.45, p = 0.002), and more embryos available for transfer (5.98 ± 3.89 versus 5.12 ± 3.31, p = 0.002). Combined estrogen and progesterone luteal support combined with endometrial scratching prior to the subsequent IVF cycle has been positively related to increased pregnancy rates. Conclusions: Young patients with RIF having a normal ovarian reserve and satisfactory ovarian response to superovulation should be encouraged to pursue IVF, even though the probability to conceive is relatively low compared to the general IVF population.
    Archives of Gynecology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3954-0
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: In order to identify the real contribution of early fertilization check (EFC) for reproductive outcome, we compared the developmental potential of embryos derived from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) after EFS with those from conventional insemination in sibling oocytes. Methods: Between April 2009 and April 2012, a total of 3249 oocytes in 386 patients were recruited following conventional insemination. Oocytes showing a second polar body (2ndPB) after an EFC were considered to be fertilized oocytes (IVF group), but, oocytes not showing a 2ndPB after EFC were placed into the ICSI group. The incidence of morphologically good embryos (MGE) on day 3, the blastocyst formation (BL), and the development of full blastocysts (full-BL) on day 5 were compared between the two groups. The clinical pregnancy rate was compared between the cycles with only conventional insemination or ICSI after EFC of the embryos being transferred. Results: The fertilization rates in both the IVF and the ICSI groups were 48.1 and 73.9 %, respectively. The percentage of MGE in the ICSI group (40.8 %) was significantly lower than that in the IVF group (56.1 %, p < 0.01). The percentages of BL and full-BL in the ICSI group were significantly lower than those in the IVF group. The pregnancy rates were similar in both the groups. Conclusions: Checking fertilization earlier than the usual period contributed to an avoidance of lower fertilization. Moreover, the embryos derived from ICSI after EFC possessed a normal developmental potential.
    Archives of Gynecology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3946-0
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify differences between breast cancer patients with and without migrant background in Germany, especially differences concerning patient characteristics, tumor biology, diagnostics, therapy, and oncological outcome. Patients and methods: In 99 breast cancer patients (composed of 50 native, randomly selected Germans and 49 consecutively selected immigrants of Anatolian origin) who were operated due to breast cancer at the Heidelberg University Hospital between the years 2009-2012, relevant information was retrospectively reviewed. Results: Patients with migrant background were significantly younger at the time of receiving the diagnosis of breast cancer than native German patients with an average age difference of nine years (p < 0.001). Moreover, immigrants needed a second operation for re-excision more frequently than native Germans (45 vs. 20 %, p = 0.01). The medication used for hormone therapy was significantly different between the two cohorts (p = 0.049). Although statistically not significant, a tendency towards difference was observed in six characteristics examined: Premenopausal status, estrogen receptor-positive tumors, multifocal or bilateral tumors, BRCA-1 mutations, and an accompanying carcinoma in situ were more common in patients with migrant background. On the other hand, correspondence was found between both patient groups relating to tumor staging, grading and metastasis as well as surgical, drug, and radiologic therapies employed. Oncologic outcome data were not different either. Conclusion: A difference in age between breast cancer patients of diverse ethnic groups has already been described previously. The difference in the frequency of surgical re-excision might be explained by several factors like a young age at first diagnosis, premenopausal status, multifocal tumors and an accompanying carcinoma in situ which were more common in the migrant patients of this study and are known to increase the risk of re-excision. The medication used for hormonal therapy was also different between migrants and native Germans, which might be interpreted by the difference in patients' age and menopausal status. Of note, however, in the present study, the overall breast cancer outcome did not show any substantial disparity between the different ethnic patient groups investigated.
    Archives of Gynecology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3938-0
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To determine correlations between macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) levels in maternal blood during first trimester screening with respect to normal and pathological pregnancies. Methods: This was a prospective single centre study. First trimester screening was performed according to FMF London certificates. Nuchal translucency, PAPP-A and free β-HCG were obtained as well as M-CSF serum levels in maternal blood. Fetal karyotyping was achieved by chorionic villi sampling. Results: 125 patients were enrolled in this study. 21 pregnancies had confirmed aberrant karyotypes. Trisomy 21 cases showed significantly elevated M-CSF levels of 270 ± 91 pg/ml (p = 0.032), whereas cases of trisomy 13 (183 ± 68 pg/ml) and trisomy 18 (143 ± 40 pg/ml) had low M-CSF levels. Furthermore M-CSF levels tended to be low in preterm deliveries, placental insufficiency and nicotine consumption. In cases with gestational diabetes M-CSF tended to be elevated. Furthermore we found a positive correlation between high free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hcg) and MCSF values. There was no correlation between pregnancy associated plasma protein (PAPP-A) and M-CSF. Conclusions: M-CSF is a cytokine promoting placental growth and differentiation. M-CSF is known to be involved in the process of implantation in pregnancy. The role of M-CSF with respect to disturbed pregnancy outcomes such as placental insufficiency in normal or aberrant karyotypes, for example, is yet subject to further research.
    Archives of Gynecology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3931-7
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Numerous studies have investigated the associations between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and risk of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL); however, the results remain controversial. The aim of this study is to drive a more precise estimation of association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and risk of RPL. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, Web of Science and China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database for papers on MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and RPL risk. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association in the homozygous model, heterozygous model, dominant model, recessive model and an additive model. The software STATA (Version 13.0) was used for statistical analysis. Results: Overall, 57 articles were included in the final meta-analysis. In maternal group the MTHFR C677T polymorphism showed pooled odds ratios for the homozygous comparison [OR = 2.285, 95 % CI (1.702, 3.067)] and the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism showed pooled odds ratios for recessive model [OR = 1.594, 95 % CI (1.136, 2.238)]. In fetal group the MTHFR C677T polymorphism showed pooled odds ratios for dominant model [OR = 1.037, 95 % CI (0.567, 1.894)] and the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism showed pooled odds ratios for dominant model [OR = 1.495, 95 % CI (1.102, 2.026)]. Conclusions: In summary, the results of our meta-analysis indicate that maternal and paternal MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms are associated with RPL. We also observed a significant association between fetal MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and RPL but not C677T.
    Archives of Gynecology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3944-2
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the ovarian reserve after laparoscopic cystectomy with suturing in patients with endometriomas. Methods: A total of 80 women with unilateral or bilateral endometriomas underwent laparoscopic cystectomy using sutures for hemostasis after the excision of ovarian cysts. Serum levels of antimullerian hormone (AMH) and FSH were measured at the day 3 of menstrual cycles preoperatively, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Results: In the bilateral endometrioma group, serum AMH level decreased significantly from the baseline (4.68 ± 2.87 ng/ml) to 6 months (3.05 ± 1.99 ng/ml) and 12 months (2.26 ± 1.88 ng/ml) postoperatively, whereas the FSH level increased significantly from baseline to 12 months postoperatively (P < 0.05). Those patients with unilateral endometriomas also had lower levels of AMH in 6 and 12 months after operation. When compared between unilateral and bilateral endometrioma group, the rate of AMH decline 6 and 12 months and the rate of FSH increase 12 months postoperatively reached statistical significance (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The changes of the AMH and FSH values suggest that the ovarian reserve is obviously reduced in spite of suturing technology used as a method of hemostasis after stripping ovarian endometriomas, especially in those with bilateral cysts. The protective effect of the ovarian suturing for ovarian reserve may be marginal.
    Archives of Gynecology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3926-4
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of uterine artery chemoembolization (UAE) combined with intra-arterial MTX infusion for the treatment of cervical pregnancy. Methods: Retrospective chart review for 26 cervical pregnancy patients treated at Renji hospital between January 2000 and December 2012. 14 patients received UAE combined with intra-arterial MTX infusion (UAE group) and 12 patients received single intramuscular MTX injection combined with subsequent uterine curettage (non-UAE group). Results: All 14 patients in the UAE group were treated successfully and 1 patient in the non-UAE group had 1200 ml vaginal bleeding during uterine curettage and was then treated with emergency UAE. The mean estimated blood loss during uterine curettage in the UAE group was much less than in non-UAE Group. A quicker regression of serum β-hCG level and normal menses resumed and a shorter hospital stay were observed in the UAE group than in the non-UAE group. Conclusions: Uterine artery chemoembolization combined with intra-arterial MTX infusion is an efficient conservative treatment for cervical pregnancy.
    Archives of Gynecology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3929-1
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Currently, no reliable data are available concerning the prevalence of uterine myomas in Germany. In this prospective study, we examined the prevalence of myomas in women older than 30 years by means of vaginal ultrasound. Methods: 2296 women, who consented to the procedure, were examined by means of vaginal ultrasound for the presence of myomas in seven gynaecological outpatient departments in Germany. Results: Prevalence: myomas were detected in 41.6 % of all women. Age dependence: With increasing age, the prevalence of uterine myomas rose from 21.3 % (30-35 years) to 62.8 % (46-50 years). Later, the number of myomas decreased again from 56.1 % (51-55 years) to 29.4 % in women older than 55 years. Menarche/BMI: no correlation could be found between the age at first menstrual period or the body mass index and the occurrence of myomas. Parity: since the group of nulliparous women and the group of women with more than four deliveries stand out by increased occurrence of myomas, a non-linear correlation seems to exist, necessitating more in-depth discussion with regard to age dependency. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that more than 40 % of women over 30 years of age suffered from myomas and more than 50 % of all women in Germany may develop uterine myomas at some time in their life.
    Archives of Gynecology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3930-8
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To correlate preoperative ultrasound examination with intraoperative and anatomo-pathological findings, including estimation of number, localization and size of uterine myomas, uterine diameters and volume. Methods: A prospective study on 126 women undergoing surgery for uterine myomatosis at Campus Bio-medico between May 2013 and April 2014. The patients were divided into two groups: one submitted to hysterectomy and the other submitted to open myomectomy. Ultrasound scans were performed 1 day before surgery by the same expert sonographer. The number of myomas at ultrasound was compared to intraoperative visualization and anatomo-pathological findings. Wilcoxon Test was applied to compare data registered with each technique. Results: There was no significant difference between the number of myomas recorded at visualization and at ultrasound, while there was a significant difference between visualization and anatomo-pathology (p = 0.0006). The analysis showed a non-significant difference between myoma number at ultrasound and at anatomo-pathology in the two groups, if the number of myomas was less than or equal to six. Contrarily, we observed a significant difference if the number of myomas was more than six (p = 0.003). Conclusions: Our data show that ultrasound has limits in identifying the exact number of uterine myomas. This mapping is particularly needed in a minority of patients with usually desiring fertility who need a debulking procedure due to the large size and/or number of myomas or myoma location causing symptomatology. In patients with more than six myomas, voluminous uterus, a second-level examination such as Magnetic Resonance may be helpful.
    Archives of Gynecology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3937-1
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To identify predictive ultrasound signs for unfavorable outcome in fetal gastroschisis (GS). Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study among pregnant women with the prenatal diagnosis of GS between 1998 and 2011 at the University of Wuerzburg, Germany. Analysis included prenatal ultrasound scans, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) records, and pediatric records. The collected variables included maternal and fetal demographics, as well as an analysis of predictors for unfavorable fetal outcome. Unfavorable outcome was defined by more than 2 postnatal surgical interventions, intestinal resections, and long time to oral feeding (≥4 weeks). Results: 35 cases of fetal GS were diagnosed, whereby 23 cases met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated by prenatal ultrasound and postnatal outcome. Based on the postnatal situation, 15 patients were classified in a good prognosis group and 8 patients in a poor prognosis group. Fetuses with poor prognosis were presented later during pregnancy (21.1 ± 6 vs. 26.9 ± 5.3 weeks; p < 0.01) and delivered at earlier gestational age (35.6 ± 0.8 vs. 33.4 ± 1.4 weeks; p < 0.01) with lower birth weight (2074 ± 306.3 vs. 2559 ± 255.4 g; p < 0.01). There were no differences in prenatal findings like growth restriction, amniotic fluid index, or Doppler results between good and poor prognosis group. However, early detected and long-lasting bowel dilatation was associated with poor prognosis. Conclusion: Late presentation and early gestational age at delivery are associated with poor prognosis in neonates with GS. Furthermore, early onset as well as long duration of bowel dilatation is associated with poor fetal outcome, while other ultrasound characteristics are not able to predict poor prognosis of GS.
    Archives of Gynecology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3936-2
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate the outcomes of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) implementation in a gynaecological oncology centre. Method: Non-randomised control trial, evaluating morbidity outcomes, before and after implementation of ERAS programme. All consecutive major gynaecological oncology operations performed during two specified periods were included. Data were collected prospectively for a study group in the initial 7.5 months of ERAS implementation and compared with a consecutive historic control group from the exact same period, the year before. Patients' characteristics and perioperative outcomes were compared. Further analysis stratified abdominal and laparoscopic surgery. Results: In total, 265 cases identified; 99 patients followed ERAS and 99 historic controls, managed with a traditional peri-operative approach, the exact same period the year before (vulval surgery excluded, 67 cases). Groups were comparable in demographics and co-morbidities (age, BMI, ASA, WHO), level of surgery and 30 days post-operative complication (grading Clavien-Dindo classification) and readmission rates (p > 0.05). Overall, the post-operative length of hospital stay (LOS) was significantly reduced for patients who followed ERAS (4.29 ± 2.78 days versus 7.23 ± 5.68 days, p < 0.001). Stratification to subgroups was based on the type of surgery, abdominal versus laparoscopic. Those who underwent abdominal surgery and followed ERAS benefited the maximum (LOS: 5.09 ± 2.74 days versus 8.70 ± 5.75, p < 0.001) CONCLUSIONS: ERAS programme is feasible and safe in Gynae-oncology. In this study, there was a reduction of 3.61 (SE: 0.78, CI 95 %) days in the total LOS, in major abdominal Gynae-oncology surgery (level 3 and 4) without affecting complication or readmission rates.
    Archives of Gynecology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3934-4
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    ABSTRACT: With the adoption of the Cancer Screening and Registration Law (KFRG, 2013) based on the National Cancer Plan, the so far opportunistic cervical cancer screening in Germany is to be converted to an organized screening program. This decision in Germany is consistent with the new EU Guidelines and, in anticipation of the upcoming German S3 guideline for cervical cancer screening.
    Archives of Gynecology 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00404-015-3940-6